Waimiri Atroari

Family
Cariban
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
atr
Location
-0.62°, -60.43°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Data Sources
Bruno, Ana Carla dos Santos. 2003. Waimiri-Atroari grammar: some phonological, morphological, and syntactic aspects. Ph.D. diss., U. of Arizona.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location tyhnaka tɨnaka See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
and y e grammar many manɨ See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment ikry ikrɨ See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
at en, a em, a location See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
back espalda costas body kadyhyry kadɨhɨrɨ See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
bad mal mal quality kwada kwada See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
belly barriga barriga body webyry webɨrɨ See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
below abajo, debajo abaixo location iky 'under' ikɨ 'under' See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
big grande grande quality tah tah See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
black negro preto colour tapyryma tapɨrɨma See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
blood sangre sangue body myny mɨnɨ See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
bone hueso osso body See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
breast pecho, seno peito body See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
child niño, niña criança human baxinja; var. bahinja baʃiɲa; bahiɲa See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
cloud nube nuvem environment See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
cold frío frio quality tykomia tɨkomja See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality djapyma djapɨma See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
day día dia time See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
dirty sucio sujo quality tykoxinja tɨkoʃiŋa See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
dry seco seco quality temyna temɨna See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
dust polvo poeira environment See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
ear oreja orelha body pana pana See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
earth/soil tierra terra environment See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
egg huevo ovo fauna ba ba See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
eye ojo olho body eba eba See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
far lejos longe quality mie mie See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
fat/grease grasa gordura body See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
father padre, papá pai kinship papa papa See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
feather pluma pena fauna See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
fire fuego fogo environment waty watɨ See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
flower flor flor environment epyryry epɨrɨrɨ See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
fruit fruta fruta flora See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
good bueno bom quality kareme kareme See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body syhy (body hair) sɨhɨ (body hair) See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
hand mano mão body kymyy kɨmɨː See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar anaphoric (he, she, they, it) mykyky, mykyka'a, ka, iry proximal (h)anji, kanji, anjinji, byby, by medial myry distal mo'o,mymo',myky anaphoric (he, she, they, it) mɨkɨkɨ, mɨkɨka'a, ka, irɨ proximal (h)anji, kanji, anjinji, bɨbɨ, bɨ medial mɨrɨ distal mo'o,mɨmo',mɨkɨ See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
head cabeza cabeça body See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
heavy pesado pesado quality woxypia woʃɨpia See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
how? como como grammar ire' ireʔ See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
1sg yo eu grammar awy, aa, kara~kra awi, aː, kara~kra See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
if si se grammar imka imka See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location apo'o apoʔo See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
intestines intestinos intestinos body See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
lake lago lago environment See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
leaf hoja folha environment ia ja See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
leg/foot pierna perna body kyse kɨse See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment tarara (thunder/lightning) tarara (thunder/lightning) See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
liver hígado figado body See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
long largo comprido, longo quality mixopy miʃopɨ See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna wymy wɨmɨ See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
man/male hombre homem human wykyry (man), tahkome (elder man) wɨkɨrɨ (man), tahkome (elder man) See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
meat/flesh carne carne fauna wyty wɨtɨ See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
moon luna lua environment nenuwe nenuwe See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship mama mama See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
mouth boca boca body pyta pɨta See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
name nombre nome human ety etɨ See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
near/close cerca de perto quality kypy kɨpɨ See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
neck cuello pescoço body See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
new nuevo novo quality ase ase See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
night noche noite time kyky kɨkɨ See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
no/not no não grammar ie See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
nose nariz nariz body See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
old viejo velho quality txamyry tʃamɨrɨ See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
one uno um number awynihe awɨnihe See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
other otro outro grammar ampa ampa See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body etypa etɨpa See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
person/human being persona pessoa human kinja (people) (ACB 2003) See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
rain lluvia chuva environment njawa ɲawa See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
red rojo vermelho colour xiwia ʃiwia See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
right/right hand derecha direita location/body See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
road/path camino caminho manufacture See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
root raíz raiz flora See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
rotten podrido podre quality See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
sand arena areia environment kixinja kiʃiɲa See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality txika tʃika See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
short corto curto quality sehsa sehsa See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
shoulder hombro ombro body See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental txipikia tʃipikia See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
skin piel pele body bixi biʃi See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
sky cielo céu environment kaapy ka:pɨ See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
small pequeño pequeno quality baxinja (child, small) baʃinja (child, small) See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
smoke humo fumaça environment See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
star estrella estrela environment See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora wiwe wiwi See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
stone piedra pedra environment topy topɨ See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
tail cola, rabo rabo body See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
that ese/esa esse grammar mo'o, mymo' (inanimate); myky (animate) moʔo, mɨmoʔ (inanimate); mɨkɨ (animate) See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality maiwu, maiy maiwu, maiɨ See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
thin delgado fino quality anykyxi anɨkɨʃi See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
this este/esta este grammar (h)anji, kanji, anjinji (h)aɲi, kaɲi, aɲiɲi See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
2sg xx xx grammar amyry~amyra amɨrɨ~amɨra See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
throat garganta garganta body See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
three tres tres number takynyny takɨnɨnɨ See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
thunder truenos trovão environment tarara tarara See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
bite morder morder body -iika- -iika- See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
blow soplar soprar body See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
breathe respirar respirar body See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
burn quemar queimar environment kyrysa kɨrɨsa See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
climb subir subir motion oosa, wook oosa, wook See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
come venir vir motion bia, aryme, tyty bia, arɨme, tɨtɨ See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
cook cocinar cozinhar impact bykw bɨkw See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
count contar contar mental See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
cry llorar chorar mental -tam- -tam- See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
cut/hack cortar cortar impact -erekyty- -erekɨtɨ- See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
die/be dead morir morrer state damem, rymy damem, rɨmɨ See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
dig cavar cavar impact See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
dream soñar sonhar mental -inin- -inin- See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
drink beber, tomar beber body ee ee See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
eat comer comer body iny inɨ See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
fall caer cair motion -ym- -ɨm- See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
fear miedo medo mental teneriki 'afraid' teneriki 'afraid' See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
flow fluir fluir motion See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
fly volar voar motion See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
grow crecer crescer state puwa puwa See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
hear oír ouvir mental tee tee See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
hide esconder esconder motion See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
hit golpear, pegar bater impact See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other wak wak See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
kill matar matar impact wuse wuse See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental py See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
laugh reír rir mental yeepitxah, ahpa ɨeepitʃah, ahpa See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body nyry 'alive' nɨrɨ 'alive' See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
open/uncover abrir abrir other See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
say decir dizer mental kak kak See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
scratch rascar rasgar impact -kaka- -kaka- See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
see ver ver mental See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact to shoot arrows: pykwase to shoot arrows: pɨkwase See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
sit sentar(se) sentar state See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
sleep dormir dormir body no'sa noʔsa See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
spit escupir cuspir body See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact daxkia daʃkia See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
steal robar roubar other See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
suck chupar chupar body See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
swell hincharse inchar body abemyh abemɨh See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
swim nadar nadar motion See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
think pensar pensar mental pyty pɨtɨ See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact -mah- -mah- See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
vomit vomitar vomitar body -wenta- -wenta- See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
walk caminar, andar andar motion See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
work trabajar trabalhar other See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
yawn bostezar bocejar body See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
tongue lengua lingua body kynyry kɨnɨrɨ See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
tooth diente dente body iee jee See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
two dos dois number typytyna tɨpɨtɨna See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
water agua agua environment syna sɨna See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar kyky kɨkɨ See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar a'a aʔa See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
wet mojado molhado quality See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
what? que, qué que grammar apia apja See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
when? cuando quando grammar apia iaky apia iakɨ See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
where? donde onde grammar epe epe See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
white blanco branco colour sakra sakra See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
who? quien, quién quem grammar bypa bɨpa See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
wife esposa esposa kinship pyty pɨtɨ See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
wind viento vento environment kipety kipetɨ See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
wing ala asa body See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
woman/female mujer mulher human weri weri See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
yellow amarillo amarelo colour xiwia ʃiwia See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
2pl ustedes vocês grammar See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
foot pie body se se See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar arakypahky arakɨpahkɨ See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
all todo todos other xeme ʃeme See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
ankle tobillo tornozelo body See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
armpit axila, sobaco axila body See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body wety wetɨ See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
lung pulmón pulmão body See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
sweat sudar suor, suar body See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
bark corteza casca environment See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
fingernail uña unha body See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
heart corazón coração body See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
sun sol sol time wyie; var. woi (ACB 2003) wɨie; var. woi (ACB 2003) See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment kyky kɨkɨ See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
green verde verde quality See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
hot caliente quente quality etypa etɨpa See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. inaxixi inaʃiʃi See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna tyryny (any small bird) tɨrɨnɨ (any small bird) See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. wuky wukɨ See Language page Amazonia Melody Ann Ross, PLE
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Melody Ann Ross, PLE
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões Melody Ann Ross, PLE
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. mare'e mareʔe See Language page Different types have different localized ranges Melody Ann Ross, PLE
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Melody Ann Ross, PLE
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae See Language page Widespread Melody Ann Ross, PLE
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Melody Ann Ross, PLE
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes See Language page Widespread Melody Ann Ross, PLE
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. maba maba See Language page Widespread Amazonia Melody Ann Ross, PLE
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica kyrywaky kɨrɨwakɨ See Language page Widespread Melody Ann Ross, PLE
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae See Language page Widespread South America Melody Ann Ross, PLE
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba See Language page Widespread South America Melody Ann Ross, PLE
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Melody Ann Ross, PLE
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris naminja namiɲa See Language page Not native; widespread Melody Ann Ross, PLE
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis See Language page Widespread Amazonia Melody Ann Ross, PLE
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands Melody Ann Ross, PLE
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri akenbehe (priodents Maxims) kabaha (Dasypus sp.) akenbehe (priodents Maxims) kabaha (Dasypus sp.) See Language page Widespread in Amazonia Melody Ann Ross, PLE
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Melody Ann Ross, PLE
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. iake jakɛ See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Melody Ann Ross, PLE
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna xiba ʃiba See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae maryma marɨma See Language page Widespread Amazonia Melody Ann Ross, PLE
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Melody Ann Ross, PLE
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Melody Ann Ross, PLE
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Melody Ann Ross, PLE
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura pyryry (frog) pɨrɨrɨ (frog) See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Melody Ann Ross, PLE
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura sady sadɨ See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes See Language page Widespread Amazonia Melody Ann Ross, PLE
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna kyrywy kɨrɨwɨ See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox See Language page Widespread South America Melody Ann Ross, PLE
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria waiama (tortoise), warara (turtle) waiama (tortoise), warara (turtle) See Language page Widespread Melody Ann Ross, PLE
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis amana amana See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls Melody Ann Ross, PLE
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Melody Ann Ross, PLE
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba kymy 'bacaba berry' kɨmɨ 'bacaba berry' See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Melody Ann Ross, PLE
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia Melody Ann Ross, PLE
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa mixi 'buriti fruit' miʃi 'buriti fruit' See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch Melody Ann Ross, PLE
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm Melody Ann Ross, PLE
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm Melody Ann Ross, PLE
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes merepy merepɨ See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua patuwa patuwa See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Melody Ann Ross, PLE
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant Melody Ann Ross, PLE
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Melody Ann Ross, PLE
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree Melody Ann Ross, PLE
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens warasy (M1992) See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant Melody Ann Ross, PLE
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea See Language page plant Melody Ann Ross, PLE
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus nana nana See Language page plant Melody Ann Ross, PLE
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum mapyry (M1992) See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant Melody Ann Ross, PLE
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. woky wokɨ See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Melody Ann Ross, PLE
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. See Language page plant Melody Ann Ross, PLE
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Melody Ann Ross, PLE
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum See Language page plant Melody Ann Ross, PLE
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna wiwe wiwe See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana kiswe (M1992) kiswe (M1992) See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub Melody Ann Ross, PLE
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. akai (M1992) akai (M1992) See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) Melody Ann Ross, PLE
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree Melody Ann Ross, PLE
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree Melody Ann Ross, PLE
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] tetyky tetɨkɨ See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree Melody Ann Ross, PLE
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum hiri (M1992) hiri (M1992) See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Melody Ann Ross, PLE
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub Melody Ann Ross, PLE
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree Melody Ann Ross, PLE
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree Melody Ann Ross, PLE
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Melody Ann Ross, PLE
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape Melody Ann Ross, PLE
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta minja miɲa See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Melody Ann Ross, PLE
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Melody Ann Ross, PLE
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato Melody Ann Ross, PLE
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas mepe (M1992) See Language page plant Melody Ann Ross, PLE
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant Melody Ann Ross, PLE
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) bixuwa biʃuwa See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree Melody Ann Ross, PLE
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. xiriba (M1992) See Language page plant Melody Ann Ross, PLE
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine Melody Ann Ross, PLE
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree Melody Ann Ross, PLE
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine Melody Ann Ross, PLE
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis panana; var. manana panana; var. manana See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera peepe peːpe See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera poopo poːpo See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora kadjiwi (generic worm) kadʒiwi (generic worm) See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea danja daɲa See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. makrykry makrɨkrɨ See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera sana sana See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca temere; var. tymeri temere; var. tɨmeri See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] arawata arawata See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus kwata kwata See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu pakia pakia See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari petxi petʃi See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. axiwi aʃiwi See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris tabe'e tabɛʔɛ See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) waryna warɨna See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris mepry meprɨ See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus seweri suweri See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material matyty, txidji matɨtɨ, tʃidʒi See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
bed cama cama culture-material See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material samka (Wapishana loan?) samka See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
canoe canoa canoa transport kanuwa kanuwa See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
broom escoba vassoura culture-material See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
fence, palisade cerco cerca other may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
firewood leña lenha other wiwe wiwi See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology makonaiama (god) makonaiama (god) In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology xinja ʃiɲa multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology maryba (song/festivity) marɨba (song/festivity) See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
knife cuchillo faca culture-material maja maja See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
machete machete facão culture-material See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool wury wurɨ especially for clearing fields See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool pyruwa pɨruwa hunting, warfare See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
spear lanza lança subsistence tool See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
bow arco arco subsistence tool warypa warɨpa arco See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
paddle/oar remo remo transport epikiri epikiri See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
plate plato prato culture-material See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool tyruwa tɨruwa See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material paxa paʃa See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool axinjaty aʃiɲatɨ agriculture? See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
wax cera cera other See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
honey miel mel food only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture wa' waʔ See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology beri beri See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
school escuela escola acculturation See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
bottle botella garrafa acculturation See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
paper papel papel acculturation peepe peepe See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology ineh, inin (vb.) ineh, inin (vb.) See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
chicken gallina galinha acculturation karyka karɨka See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation awaxi 'sugar cane' awaʃi 'sugar cane' See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
shoes zapatos sapatos dress See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
soldier soldado soldado acculturation See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
cat gato gato acculturation See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
hat sombero chapéu dress See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology taha 'big, leader' taha 'big, leader' See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
salt sal sal food bakyma 'sour, salt' bakɨma 'sour, salt' See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology maryba 'song, party' marɨba 'song, party' See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool hunting and warfare See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool wure wure esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food xiba ʃiba See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
hunt cazar caçar food wyty ipo- (meat look for) wɨtɨ ipo- (meat look for) See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food nykwa nɨkwa Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool bixuwa biʃuwa See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool aka aka See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool aka aka See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food sanja saɲa agriculture See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food meie meie usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food agriculture See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool marehe, tapinja marehe, tapinja agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
bottom grinding stone manufacture if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
house other mydy mɨdɨ See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE