tobacco

Semantic Field
flora-fauna
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
tabaco
Meaning Portuguese
tabaco

Languages

Language Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
Bankalachi Toloim Nicotiana spp. so-kunt' Indian tobacco (Nicotiana spp) loan Yokutsan (arealism) Tubatulabal has same loan, which is from ultimately Yok-Utian form, so should be counted as loan one level up at least WW %sokon same underived C. H. Merriam 72-79, 60-473 1 1 1 1 0 yes
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone Nicotiana spp. nymy-pahmon wild tobacco inheritance Yokutsan Loan into Proto-Central Numic WW %pa7mo same phrase Indian tobacco Crapo 1976:145 1 1 1 1 0 yes
Cahuilla Nicotiana spp. pívat ˈpivat tobacco, smoking inheritance *pipaC (*pipat?) Uto-Aztecan S2290 (Stubbs 2009:310) same other complex piva-t -m-exan-7a "inanimate" -m-exan-7a (inanimate classifier) Seiler&Hioki 1979:156 no info 1 innumerable ritual uses 1 1 water solution as vomiturge, leaves as poultices, steam inhaled for colds, etc. Gathered (wild but closely managed) All smoked in pipe, chewed with lime, drunk as decoction depending on use 1 associated with “ecstatic experience”, shamanic journeys 0 All Americas Diverse habitats yes
Central Sierra Miwok Nicotiana spp. hú:Tija- tobacco unique other complex -ja Freeland & Broadbent 1960 1 1 1 1 0 yes
Chemehuevi Nicotiana spp. ko-ahp”B koɂwápI JPH Wild tobacco (Nicotiana) inheritance *ko'aC Southern Numic only Stubbs 2293 (2008:310); isn't there a similar Hopi word? same other complex has -pɨ ABS Merriam 59:547 1 1 1 1 0 yes
Chumash Barbareno Nicotiana spp. show tobacco loan into protolanguage Central Chumash only Yokuts WW %sokon underived Timbrook 2007:149 1 1 1 1 0 yes
Chumash Ineseno Nicotiana spp. šoo tobacco loan into protolanguage Central Chumash only Yokuts loan from Yokutsan into Central Chumash WW %sokon underived Heizer Pinart I:52 1 1 1 1 0 yes
Chumash Obispeno Nicotiana spp. stu'yi' Indian tobacco loan Costanoan I think this is from t-su7yi and cognate with the %sokon loans, perhaps reflecting Costanoan vocalismin the suk-m words, so an earlier loan? WW %sokon underived Timbrook 2007:126 1 1 1 1 0 yes
Chumash Ventureno Nicotiana spp. show Nicotiana quadrivalvis, Indian tobacco loan into protolanguage Central Chumash only Yokuts loan from Yokutsan into Central Chumash WW %sokon underived Timbrook 2007:126 1 1 1 1 0 yes
Cocopa Nicotiana spp. ɂu·p tobacco, cigarette loan into protolanguage Proto-Yuman unknown Mojave 'a'uuv, etc. This must be a very old loan from "Hokan"-level antiquity, or perhaps substratal, cf. Karuk 7uhípih, Chimariko h-óphat ‘smoking’, Proto-Palaihnihan *o:xpi (a Campbell "Pan-Americanism" but in fact only in California, I think) WW %7u:p broader (includes cigarette) underived Crawford 1989 1 1 1 1 0 yes
Comanche Nicotiana spp. pahmu tobacco loan Yokuts loan is into Proto-central Numic, of course WW %pa7mo same underived Robinson & Armagost 1990:166 1 1 1 1 0 yes
Cupeño Nicotiana spp. pivat ˈpivat tobacco inheritance *pipaC- Uto-Aztecan S2290 (Stubbs 2009:310) narrower (includes only the wild Nicotianas, not commercial tobacco) other complex ˈpiva-t tobacco-npn Hill & Nolasquez 1973:168 no info 1 “ceremonial smoking accompanied all serious ceremonies...(Strong 1929:267) 1 most parts of plants poisonous 1 at least in shamanic curing, other uses as well, but no info gathered (wild but closely managed) all crushed with lime for chaw, smoked, brewed into decoction 1 0 Americas diverse habitats yes
Esselen Nicotiana spp. ka'a tobacco unique Esselen Shaul notes Miw *kajaw, and “PL”, “CS” forms (abbreviations not defined!) but I don't think there's enough there to be sure underived Shaul 1988:694 1 1 1 1 0 yes
Gabrielino Nicotiana spp. pi:vat ˈpi:vat tobacco inheritance *pipaC- Uto-Aztecan S2290 (Stubbs 2009:310) narrower (plant only, does not include the prepared leaf which is $okin or pespivat other complex ˈpi:va-t tobacco-npn -hi:n classifier for worthwhile possessions Harrington 095, 182 no info 1 used in ritual and shamanism as intoxicant 1 plant parts often poisonous 1 vomiturge, for urinary infections, stomach pains, wounds (McC p. 102) gathered (wild, but closely managed) men ground with lime and water as chaw (pespi:vat), smoked,decoction with other herbs 1 0 Americas Diverse habitats no
Iipay 'Aa Nicotiana spp. ɂup tobacco loan into protolanguage Proto-Yuman unknown Mojave 'a'uuv, etc.; Karuk 7uhípih, Chimariko h-óphat ‘smoking’, Proto-Palaihnihan *o:xpi WW %7u:p same underived Couro & Hutcheson 1973 1 1 1 1 0 yes
Kawaiisu Nicotiana spp. soɁo(n)dɨ Nicotiana bigelovii loan Yokutsan by way of? broader (includes plant, tobacco) underived 1981 Zigmond 1 1 1 1 0 yes
Kiliwa Nicotiana spp. ?+hip tobacco, cigarettes loan into protolanguage Proto-Yuman unknown something like *hip originally???,i > u in whole family except Kiliwa??; cf. Karuk 7uhípih, Chimariko h-óphat ‘smoking’, Proto-Palaihnihan *o:xpi WW %7u:p broader (includes plant and cigarettes other complex ?-dummy nominal element + hip Mixco 1985 1 1 1 1 0 yes
Kitanemuk Nicotiana spp. civut ˈʦivut wild tobacco semantic shift *ciʔpuC “bitter” Uto-Aztecan S222 (Stubbs 2009:69) broader (plant and tobacco products like the chaw, etc) other complex ˈʦivu-t tobacco-npn (note ˈʦivuʔ “bitter”) -niw possessive classifier for things Anderton 1988:286 no info 1 given to boy at end of vision quest ritual 1 mixed with pine nuts in cakes 1 planted (intensive maintenance) all diverse preparations 1 0 Americas Diverse habitats yes
Lake Miwok Nicotiana spp. kájaw tobacco inheritance Pmiw only Callaghan speculates MIGHT be Pmi (eastern forms have ka:sy-), it is Pmiw underived Callaghan 1965 1 1 1 1 0 yes
Luiseño Nicotiana spp. píivat ʹpi:vat tobacco, cigarette inheritance *pipaC (*pipat?) Uto-Aztecan S2290 (Stubbs 2009:310) broader (includes cigarette as well as plant and leaves) other complex ʹpi:va-t tobacco-non.possessed.noun Elliott 1999:716 no info 1 couplet: piivat, pavyut “tobacco, ceremonial.beads”; a Chingichngish plant (Harrington 1978:133); soup made of piivat at girl's initiation ceremony. Piivat is a changichngish (powerful spirit) 1 plant parts often poisonous if eaten 1 gathered (wild but closely managed) all smoked in pipe, chewed with lime, drunk as decoction depending on use (no ref for this but these uses universal in area) 1 0 Americas diverse habitats yes
Maidu Nicotiana spp. pàní tobacco loan into protolanguage *pan Maiduan Sierra Miwok Ultan 1964:365 #197 WW %pa7mo other complex -i is stem former Shipley 1963 1 1 1 1 0 yes
Mojave Nicotiana spp. ɂaɂuuv tobacco loan into protolanguage Proto-Yuman unknown IA ɂup; C. ɂu·p, etc. and cf. Karuk 7uhípih, Chimariko h-óphat ‘smoking’, Proto-Palaihnihan *o:xpi WW %7u:p same underived Munro et al.1992 1 1 1 1 0 yes
Mutsun Nicotiana spp. maTTer tobacco inheritance Costanoan Kroeber 1910 has in Scr, Sc, Sj underived Okrand 1977:56 1 1 1 1 0 yes
Nisenan Nicotiana spp. pan Indian tobacco loan into protolanguage *pan Maiduan Sierra Miwok Ultan 1964: 365: #197 WW %pa7mo underived Uldall & Shipley 1966 1 1 1 1 0 yes
Northern Paiute Nicotiana spp. pooebahmoo Indian tobacco, Wild tobacco loan Yokuts has pooe- “green” on pamo form WW %pa7mo same phrase green-tobacco Yerington Dictionary 1 1 1 1 0 yes
Northern Sierra Miwok Nicotiana spp. ka:sy- tobacco inheritance Miwokan Callaghan suggests in Bodega Dic that Pmiw *kajaw and Pmie *ka:sy- do go together somehow but gives no reconstruction underived here /y/ is not nominalizer Callaghan 1987 1 1 1 1 0 yes
Plains Miwok Nicotiana spp. ka:sy- tobacco inheritance Miwokan Callaghan gives Pmiw *kajaw in Bodega dic and suggests probably Pmi underived Callaghan 1984 1 1 1 1 0 yes
Salinan A Nicotiana spp. Ta:lám' tobacco unique Salinan underived might be that /T-/ is articular prefix Mason 1918:130; turner 1980:86 1 1 1 1 0 yes
Salinan M Nicotiana spp. Toelám tobacco unique Salinan underived Mason 1918:130 1 1 1 1 0 yes
Seri (Comcaac) Nicotiana spp. haapis casa desert tobacco, N. obtusifolia unique Is the haapis part the %u:p word? narrower (a species of Nicotiana) finite clause? tobacco stinks Comcaac Dictionary 307 1 1 1 1 0 yes
Serrano Nicotiana spp. pi:v-t tobacco inheritance *pipaC- Uto-Aztecan S2290 (Stubbs 2008:310) other complex -t NPN KCHill ms 2001:44 1 1 1 1 0 yes
Southern Paiute Nicotiana spp. qwo'api Indian tobacco (Nicotiana spp.) unique Colorado River Numic only; Stubbs 2293 (2008:310) same other complex has -pi ABS (so perhaps not the plant??) Sapir 1930:652 1 1 1 1 0 yes
Southern Sierra Miwok Nicotiana spp. ka:hy- wild tobacco inheritance Miwokan Pmiw *kajew, Pmie *ka:sy probably related, but how? underived Broadbent 1964: 1 1 1 1 0 yes
Southern Ute Nicotiana spp. qo?á-pŲ tobacco unique Colorado River Numic only: Stubbs 2293 (2008:310) same other complex has -pɨ ABS Givon 1979 1 1 1 1 0 yes
Tübatulabal Nicotiana spp. shokohnt ʃoˈgohnt tobacco, Nicotiana bigelovii and N. attenuata loan Yokuts a Yok-Utian etymon, broadly distributed in California and in Numic WW %sokon broader (includes plant and several preparations) other complex ʃoˈgohn-t tpbacco-npn Hill 2010:79 no info 1 used to seek spirit familiar 1 1 diverse uses for curing gathered (wild but closely managed) women diverse preparations: mixed with lime as chaw, snuff; smoked crushed leaves. VERY closely managed at the level of semi-cultivation 1 0 prepared tobacco used in exchange Americas Diverse habitats no
Tümpisa Shoshone Nicotiana spp. pahompin, pahompü tobacco, cigarette loan Yokutsan, by way of Monachi?? Loan into Proto-Central Numic broader (includes plant and tobacco and tobacco products) other complex pahom-pin, tobacco-CL pin Dayley 1989:180 1 1 1 1 0 yes
Wappo Nicotiana spp. lúče tobacco unique underived Sawyer 1965 1 1 1 1 0 yes
Washo Nicotiana spp. báŋkuš wild tobacco (dried and smoked) loan Maidu Maiduan *pan other complex what is -kush? Could this be a phrase? A compound? Merriam 55:323; WPD 1 1 1 1 0 yes
Western Mono Nicotiana spp. pamo, pamopI cigarette, native tobacco loan Yokuts This is an old loan but not into proto-Numic WW %pa7mo narrower (does not include tobacco in manufactured cigarettes, pipe tobacco, cigars, etc) derived -pi Bethel et al.:127 no info 1 smoking important in shamanistic practice 1 1 chewed for fatigue, dreams; drunk for vomiting/purging Gathered (wild but closely managed) all no info 1 0 Gayton 2:270 yes
Wintu Nicotiana spp. lol tobacco inheritance *lo(:)l Wintun Shepherd 2005 underived Schlichter 1981 1 1 1 1 0 yes
Yavapai Nicotiana spp. ɂū:βa tobacco loan into protolanguage Proto-Yuman unknown IA ɂup; C. ɂu·p, etc. and cf. Karuk 7uhípih, Chimariko h-óphat ‘smoking’, Proto-Palaihnihan *o:xpi WW %7u:p unknown Shaterian 1983 1 1 1 1 0 yes
Yokuts Palewyami Nicotiana spp. còg'en tobacco inheritance *suk... Yok-Utian Callaghan 1997:41, Yok-Utian, or a very old loan narrower (perhaps just the tobacco itself and not the plant; see “other notes”) other complex the word appears in diverse derivations; Newman 1944:148 notes a deverbal suffix -in, -n in Yokutsan Merriam 58:541, Kroeber 1961 1 1 1 1 0 yes
Yokuts Yawdanchi Nicotiana spp. sho'-kon Indian tobacco inheritance *suk... Yok-Utian Callaghan 1937:41 or a very old loan WW %sokon same underived ultimately a derivation, but I don't think synchronically Merriam 58:379 1 1 1 1 0 yes
Yokuts Yowlumne Nicotiana spp. sògon, so:gon tobacco inheritance *suk... Yok-Utian Callaghan 1937:41 or a very old loan WW %sokon same underived ultimately, a derivation, but I don't think synchronically Kroeber 1961:193 1 1 1 1 0 yes
Yuki Nicotiana spp. woyąl' A, F, woyol' A tobacco inheritance *woy(m)ol' Yukian Schlichter 1985 other complex -ol short for -mol Schlichter diss Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 1 1 1 1 0 yes
Yuma Nicotiana spp. mil'-yah-oov' Tobacco (not Whiteman's tobacco which is ah-ov) loan into protolanguage Proto-Yuman unknown IA ɂup; C. ɂu·p, etc. and cf. Karuk 7uhípih, Chimariko h-óphat ‘smoking’, Proto-Palaihnihan *o:xpi unknown Merriam 61:475 1 1 1 1 0 yes
Akawaio Nicotiana tabacum tamɨ (SM) tamɨ (SM) inheritance Proto-Carib See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 no plant Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
Baniwa Nicotiana tabacum dzéema dzéema inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 no plant Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
Carijona Nicotiana tabacum tamwinto ta’mɯ (H&R) inheritance Proto-Carib Compare Arawak, possibly early loan. Also tamwinto (D&S1973) See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 no plant Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
Cubeo Nicotiana tabacum buchi, buchitʉrava bu'tʃí, butʃitʉlava unique Also butʃitʉlava uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 no plant Amanda Meeks
Dâw Nicotiana tabacum rũút hũ̌t inheritance old semantic shift? from puhũt 'blow' underived See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 no plant Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Desano Nicotiana tabacum muru muru, bũ'rṹ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 no plant Amanda Meeks
Eñepa Nicotiana tabacum kowae; kawae kawaeyo' (planta) (MM) kowae; kawae kawaejoʔ (planta) (MM) doubtful loan into protolanguage Northern Carib? possibly from Arawak 'kuwai' deity? Venezuelan Carib Likely loan into Hodï: Hodï ʰkawoi. Also tamu See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 no plant Melody Ann Ross
Guayabero Nicotiana tabacum xo xo inheritance compare Muisca hoska uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 no plant Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
Hodï Nicotiana tabacum jkawai ʰkawoi loan Carib Eñepa "kowae; kawae kawaejoʔ", Makushi and Makiritare"kawai" and other Carib uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 no plant Amanda Meeks
Waorani Nicotiana tabacum okæ̃-ĩ unique uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 no plant Amanda Meeks
Hup Nicotiana tabacum hũ̌t hũ̌t inheritance underived See Language page 1 smoked in ritual, curing, and everyday contexts 0 smoked 0 cultivated dried and smoked 0 1 attained through exchange with Tukanoans no plant Pattie Epps
Kakua Nicotiana tabacum ~hʉ̌p ~hɨ̌p doubtful loan into protolanguage, direction unknown Puinave hǝp underived See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 no plant Katherine Bolaños
Macaguan Nicotiana tabacum kojá kohá inheritance uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 no plant Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
Makushi Nicotiana tabacum kawáí kawáí doubtful loan into protolanguage Northern Carib? possibly from Arawak 'kuwai' deity? Venezuelan Carib Likely loan into Hodï: Hodï ʰkawoi. Also tamu See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 no plant Melody Ann Ross
Nheengatu Nicotiana tabacum baruri baɾuɾi unknown Proto-Tupi-Guarani Mello gives pitima (inheritance) Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000. Also: baɾuɾi underived See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 no plant John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
Ninam Nicotiana tabacum pinahi, piinahi (EM72) pinahi, piinahi inheritance underived nahe = CLF "tobacco" in Yanomami. Has it been reanalyzed as one word in Ninam (which only has a handful of CLF) See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 no plant Kelsey Neely
Nukak Nicotiana tabacum húup (P07); ɲɨna (H&R) doubtful loan into protolanguage, direction unknown Puinave hǝp uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 no plant
Maihiki Nicotiana tabacum mɨto ja mɨto xã, bɨ̃to inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded xã xã (orth. ja) = inanimate See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 no plant Daniel Valle
Pemon Nicotiana tabacum kavai, tamu (A1981) kavai, tamu (A1981) doubtful loan into protolanguage Northern Carib? possibly from Arawak 'kuwai' deity? Venezuelan Carib Likely loan into Hodï: Hodï ʰkawoi. Also tamu See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 no plant Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Resígaro Nicotiana tabacum niítsí?ó niítsíʔó doubtful loan cf. Yukuna Yucuna-Resigaro only; inheritance or loan? uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 no plant Ana Paula B.
Sanumá Nicotiana tabacum pini (EM72) pini (EM72) inheritance uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 no plant Kelsey Neely
Sikuani Nicotiana tabacum tséːma tséːma loan Arawak uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 no plant Amanda Meeks
Tariana Nicotiana tabacum yeéma (dp91), yéma (aa01) jeéma (dp91), jéma (aa01) inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 no plant Ana Paula B.
Tukano Nicotiana tabacum mɨ'rô mɨ'rô, bɨ̃ʔrṍ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 no plant Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
Kotiria Nicotiana tabacum ~bʉ'do ~bʉʔdo, bɨ̃ʔ'dõ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 no plant Amanda Meeks
Wapishana Nicotiana tabacum suuma suuma inheritance Proto-Arawak See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 no plant Ana Paula B.
Yanomam Nicotiana tabacum peenahe (EM72); bee najeco (WS76) pe:nahe; beenaheko inheritance also beenaheko uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 no plant Kelsey Neely
Yanomami Nicotiana tabacum pẽẽ nahe, pẽek nahe (EM72) pẽ: nahe, pẽek nahe inheritance nahe = CLF "tobacco" underived N+CLF nahe = CLF "tobacco" (Ramirez 94) See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 no plant Kelsey Neely
Yukuna Nicotiana tabacum lichi litʃi doubtful loan cf. Resigaro Yucuna-Resigaro only; inheritance or loan? uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 no plant Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
Yuhup Nicotiana tabacum hũ̂t hũ̂t inheritance underived See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 no plant Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Achagua Nicotiana tabacum tʃé:ma (dp91) tʃé:ma (dp91) inheritance See Language page plant Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Piapoco Nicotiana tabacum tʃéma (dp91) tʃéma (dp91) See Language page plant Ana Paula B., PLE
Kabiyari Nicotiana tabacum tʃéema tʃéema See Language page plant Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Warekena Nicotiana tabacum dema dema See Language page plant Ana Paula B., PLE
Yavitero Nicotiana tabacum jema (dp91) jema (dp91) See Language page plant Ana Paula B., PLE
Mandawaka Nicotiana tabacum dé:ma See Language page plant Ana Paula B.
Paresi Nicotiana tabacum aˈxiyi aˈʃiji unknown See Language page plant Ana Paula B., PLE
Baure Nicotiana tabacum son son unknown See Language page plant Anissa Capuccino
Waurá Nicotiana tabacum hɨ'ka hɨ'ka unknown See Language page plant Joyce McCormick, PLE
Bora Nicotiana tabacum panʸe panʲɛ inheritance See Language page plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Muinane Nicotiana tabacum báñójɨ báñíxɨ See Language page plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Apalai Nicotiana tabacum tamyaryry, matary tamɨarɨrɨ, matarɨ inheritance See Language page plant Rebekah L. Evans
Wayana Nicotiana tabacum tamï tamɨ inheritance See Language page plant PLE
Tiriyó Nicotiana tabacum támue támue inheritance See Language page plant Becky Walker
Makiritare Nicotiana tabacum kawai (IDS) ( Also čāwaiʔčɨ, 3rd person possessed form); ka:wai (KH) kawai (IDS); ka:wai (KH) doubtful loan into protolanguage possibly from Arawak 'kuwai' deity? Venezuelan Carib See Language page plant Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Mapoyo Nicotiana tabacum kawai kawai See Language page plant Melody Ann Ross
Wai Wai Nicotiana tabacum kamahšu kamahšu unknown See Language page plant Melody Ann Ross
Yukpa Nicotiana tabacum tápak tápa(H&R) See Language page Phon only in source plant Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
Kalapalo Nicotiana tabacum teñiñĩ teñiñĩ inheritance See Language page plant Joyce McCormick
Muisca Nicotiana tabacum hosca hoska See Language page plant Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
Northern Emberá Nicotiana tabacum thabháko (Sp: tabaco) thabháko See Language page plant Jonathan Quintanilla, PLE
Cofán Nicotiana tabacum ccumba khɯmba See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS plant Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
Candoshi-Shapra Nicotiana tabacum tsapantsi tsapantsi unique cf. Jivaro, Arawak? See Language page plant Daniel Valle
Taushiro Nicotiana tabacum tayacu (Spanish loan) tajaku See Language page plant Daniel Valle
Páez Nicotiana tabacum wãjy, wẽjy wãxʲ, wẽxʲ(H&R) See Language page plant Daniel Valle
Tikuna Nicotiana tabacum pori poɾi unique See Language page plant Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Urarina Nicotiana tabacum enoata enoata unique See Language page plant Daniel Valle, PLE
Camsa Nicotiana tabacum tbáko(SP loan) tbáko(SP loan) See Language page plant Daniel Valle
Andoke Nicotiana tabacum táu táu unique See Language page plant Kelsey Neely, PLE
Pumé Nicotiana tabacum gãbi See Language page plant Paulina Franco, PLE
Puinave Nicotiana tabacum həp-yõn həp-jõn doubtful loan Kakua-Nukak hu/ʉp See Language page plant Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
Máku Nicotiana tabacum büde See Language page plant PLE
Ashuar Nicotiana tabacum tsaang tsa:ŋ See Language page plant Daniel Valle
Huambisa Nicotiana tabacum tsaag tsa:ŋg See Language page plant Daniel Valle
Aguaruna Nicotiana tabacum tsaág tsa:ng doubtful loan into protolanguage Arawak tsema See Language page plant Daniel Valle
Matses Nicotiana tabacum nënë nɨnɨ unknown See Language page plant Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Chácobo Nicotiana tabacum romɨ romɨ inheritance See Language page plant Joyce McCormick
Yagua Nicotiana tabacum sudivi sundiwi unique See Language page plant Daniel Valle
Napo Lowland Quichua Nicotiana tabacum tahuacu tawaku See Language page plant Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano Nicotiana tabacum sayri (CP94) sajri See Language page plant Daniel Valle, PLE
Piaroa Nicotiana tabacum hæt'e(i)sohæ hæt'e(i)sohæ unique See Language page plant Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
Sáliva Nicotiana tabacum arre are unique See Language page plant Becky Walker
Barasano Nicotiana tabacum bɨ̃dṍ bɨ̃dṍ See Language page plant Amanda Meeks
Carapana Nicotiana tabacum mʉno mɨ̃nõ, bɨ̃dṍ See Language page plant Amanda Meeks
Makuna Nicotiana tabacum mʉno mɨno, bɨ̃dõ inheritance See Language page plant Amanda Meeks
Yuruti Nicotiana tabacum bɨ̃́dõ bɨ̃́dõ See Language page plant Amanda Meeks
Waikhana Nicotiana tabacum bɨ̃ʔ'dõ bɨ̃ʔ'dõ See Language page plant Amanda Meeks
Siriano Nicotiana tabacum muurú muuɾú, bũʔ'rṹ See Language page plant Amanda Meeks
Tanimuca Nicotiana tabacum bĩʔ'rõã bĩʔ'rõã inheritance See Language page plant Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
Tatuyo Nicotiana tabacum bɨ̃'dṍ bɨ̃'dṍ See Language page plant Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
Tuyuka Nicotiana tabacum bɨ̃'dõ bɨ̃ʔdõ, bɨ̃'dṍ See Language page plant D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
Waimaja Nicotiana tabacum mɨ̃́nṍ mɨ̃́nṍ See Language page plant Kelsey Neely
Koreguaje Nicotiana tabacum mʉtokorovʉ mʉtokhorobʉ, mɨtʰo (H&R) inheritance See Language page plant Daniel Valle
Siona Nicotiana tabacum mëto mɨto inheritance See Language page plant Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
Secoya Nicotiana tabacum mëto mũ'to See Language page plant Amanda Meeks
Kokama Nicotiana tabacum petɨma petɨma inheritance See Language page plant Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
Wayampi Nicotiana tabacum pɛtɨ; pɛtɨ-sĩ, makulɛ pɛtɨ; pɛtɨ-sĩ, makulɛ inheritance See Language page plant PLE
Sirionó Nicotiana tabacum ero ero unknown See Language page plant Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Ocaina Nicotiana tabacum tyohooko tʲoʔooko inheritance See Language page plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Nɨpode Witoto Nicotiana tabacum dï.ó-na dɯ.ó-na See Language page plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Minica Witoto Nicotiana tabacum dï.ó-na, ǰéra dɯ.ó-na, dʒέra See Language page plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Murui Witoto Nicotiana tabacum dï.o-na dɯ.o-na inheritance See Language page plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Iquito Nicotiana tabacum tahuáacu (MC: borrowing from Sp. tabaco) tawáaku (MC: borrowing from Sp. tabaco) loan Spanish See Language page plant Cjnthia Hansen
Záparo Nicotiana tabacum awn+ka awnɨka See Language page plant Becky Walker
Wari Nicotiana tabacum kajitʃe (non-planted) (Sousa2009) kajitʃe (non-planted) (Sousa2009) See Language page plant PLE
Ese Ejja/Huarayo Nicotiana tabacum šawano e-ixia-wičača-xi šawano e-ixia-wičača-xi See Language page plant Joyce McCormick
Cavineña Nicotiana tabacum omaha omaha See Language page plant Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Kwazá Nicotiana tabacum uinũ, ui uinũ, ui See Language page plant Joyce McCormick
Movima Nicotiana tabacum yoma-ris joma-ris See Language page plant Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker
Trumai Nicotiana tabacum fi fi See Language page plant Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
Kaingang Nicotiana tabacum Φũmu (Pt loan) (IDS) Φũmu See Language page plant PLE
Djeoromitxi Nicotiana tabacum padji padʒi See Language page plant PLE