Chumash Obispeno

Family
Chumash
Region
North America
ISO 639-3
obi
Location
35.29°, -120.67°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (185)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location ti-L-hisa unknown Jane Hill
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar missing Jane Hill
all todo todos other ku7nicYani7ni “todos”, kynitYani7ni 0113R unknown JPH Jane Hill
and y e grammar wa unknown JPH Jane Hill
ankle tobillo tornozelo body solo7 inheritance Klar 1977:131 Jane Hill
armpit axila, sobaco axila body tiq'ololo inheritance Klar 1977:22 Jane Hill
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment t-qsanu, c-qsanu inheritance Klar 1977:67 Jane Hill
at en, a em, a location ti-, tu-; ni-, nu- (mostlyti-, ni- in RC's speech) inheritance Klar 1977:44 Jane Hill
back espalda costas body myty7 inheritance Klar 1977:67 Jane Hill
bad mal mal quality ts'u7i/sy7 “el mal”, ts'u7isy “mal” unknown JPH Jane Hill
belly barriga barriga body powo7 “stomach” unknown Klar 1977:128 Jane Hill
below abajo, debajo abaixo location ti-L-himu7 unknown JPH Jane Hill
big grande grande quality L-'ashi; ch-'ashino/no “es grande”, ch-'ashi 0114R, 0124L unknown JPH Jane Hill
bite morder morder body qsilhi inheritance JPH Jane Hill
black negro preto colour piso7 unknown JPH Jane Hill
blood sangre sangue body 7inu unknown JPH Jane Hill
blow soplar soprar body qitpu inheritance Klar 1977:70 Jane Hill
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body missing Jane Hill
bone hueso osso body she inheritance Klar 1977:71 Jane Hill
breast pecho, seno peito body tYete7 inheritance Klar 1977:73 Jane Hill
breathe respirar respirar body qstyeLha inheritance Klar 1977:29 Jane Hill
burn quemar queimar environment siqi (trans) , qu (intrans) inheritance Klar 1977:74 Jane Hill
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body hime unknown JPH Jane Hill
child niño, niña criança human -suwa (son, daughter) unknown JPH Jane Hill
climb subir subir motion tynepa, tinapa “ascend” inheritance Klar 1977:66 Jane Hill
cloud nube nuvem environment kustiq7emena7na “the sky is overcast” inheritance JPH Jane Hill
cold frío frio quality qto, kto “feel cold” inheritance Klar 1977:76 Jane Hill
come venir vir motion tutYimiLhi “arrive” inheritance Klar 1977:41 Jane Hill
cook cocinar cozinhar impact kiwisi “cocio” unknown JPH Jane Hill
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality ts'imyji7 “verdadero” unknown JPH Jane Hill
count contar contar mental missing Jane Hill
cry llorar chorar mental 7uwa7; inheritance Klar Jane Hill
cut/hack cortar cortar impact 7ywy inheritance Klar 1977:17 Jane Hill
day día dia time qshi7 inheritance Klar 1977:80 Jane Hill
die/be dead morir morrer state qsa, ksa inheritance Klar 1977:81 Jane Hill
dig cavar cavar impact stepa “escarbar” (la tierra) unknown JPH 3(1) 0140 Jane Hill
dingo/wolf fauna tolopopo unknown JPH Jane Hill
dirty sucio sujo quality shishnuju “to get dirty” inheritance Klar 1977:82 Jane Hill
dream soñar sonhar mental missing Jane Hill
drink beber, tomar beber body qimi inheritance Klar 1977:82 Jane Hill
dry seco seco quality she unknown JPH Jane Hill
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality missing Jane Hill
dust polvo poeira environment papisu7u “be dusty unknown JPH Jane Hill
ear oreja orelha body tu7 loan direction unknown Klar 1977:23 Jane Hill
earth/soil tierra terra environment pu “earth, land” inheritance Klar 1977 Jane Hill
eat comer comer body 7u7, 7uw, 7iya inheritance Klar 1977:40 Jane Hill
egg huevo ovo fauna (t)qepe unknown JPH Jane Hill
eye ojo olho body tytYy inheritance Klar 1977:84 Jane Hill
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body kshe7 “cagar”, “excrement” (with t-) unknown JPH Jane Hill
fall caer cair motion su/t'u unknown JPH Jane Hill
far lejos longe quality mytYy, mykshy inheritance Klar 1977:85 Jane Hill
fat/grease grasa gordura body kiLhi, qiLhi (N & Adj in JPH) inheritance Klar 1977:85 Jane Hill
father padre, papá pai kinship sapi unknown Klar 1977:49 Jane Hill
fear miedo medo mental tuk/qLnaki “espantar”, miko/ “tengo miedo” 0106R unknown JPH Jane Hill
feather pluma pena fauna chnuka “la pluma”, tsnuka 3(1)0170 unknown JPH Jane Hill
fire fuego fogo environment ti-ny inheritance Klar 1977:86 Jane Hill
fish xx xx fauna chka7 unknown JPH Jane Hill
flow fluir fluir motion missing Jane Hill
flower flor flor environment (ch)pe(7 in JPH) inheritance Klar 1977:25 Jane Hill
fly volar voar motion maLnatYi “llevar volando (soar like buzzard)” unknown JPH Jane Hill
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment chpiwi “la neblina” unknown JPH Jane Hill
foot pie body teme7 inheritance Klar 1977:89 Jane Hill
fruit fruta fruta flora tqajnuqa7 “moras” unknown JPH Jane Hill
good bueno bom quality chtYu, kLtyu (011R) unknown JPH Jane Hill
grow crecer crescer state leL7ashi “para que crezca” (see “big”) unknown JPH Jane Hill
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body cho7 (of head, also “head”) loan JPH Jane Hill
hand mano mão body pu inheritance Klar 1977:15 Jane Hill
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar t- unknown Jane Hill
head cabeza cabeça body cho7; sho7 in JPH RC) loan Klar 1977:49 Jane Hill
hear oír ouvir mental taqyny inheritance Klar 1977:92 Jane Hill
heavy pesado pesado quality chtiq'u “esta pesado”, myshtik'u “no esta pesado” unknown JPH Jane Hill
hide esconder esconder motion missing Jane Hill
hit golpear, pegar bater impact qipi “golpear”, mypy “pegale!” 0074L, pe7 “pegar” 0104R unknown JPH Jane Hill
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other mitoLqo7 jamsuwa7 “I hold my baby (in arms)” inheritance JPH Jane Hill
how? como como grammar hatYu (in “Como estas?”) inheritance JPH Jane Hill
1sg yo eu grammar mitYy inheritance JPH Jane Hill
if si se grammar missing Jane Hill
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location ni-, nimispu unknown JPH Jane Hill
intestines intestinos intestinos body powo7 “tripas” (see “belly”) unknown JPH Jane Hill
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body ts'usu janteme “my foot itches” JPH Jane Hill
kill matar matar impact siqsa, siksa “matalo!” unknown JPH Jane Hill
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental qiny unknown JPH Jane Hill
lake lago lago environment chniqene “any lake” unknown JPH Jane Hill
laugh reír rir mental ts'e unknown JPH Jane Hill
leaf hoja folha environment tu7 (see “ear”) loan direction unknown JPH Jane Hill
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body missing Jane Hill
leg/foot pierna perna body kmoLho unknown JPH Jane Hill
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion Lto7 inheritance Klar 1977:95 Jane Hill
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment missing Jane Hill
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body chqe7 “esta vivo” inheritance JPH Jane Hill
liver hígado figado body 7ala inheritance Klar 1977:95 Jane Hill
long largo comprido, longo quality tysu “largo, alto” unknown JPH Jane Hill
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna tskina head louse JPH 3(1)0091L inheritance Klar 1977:95 Jane Hill
lung pulmón pulmão body missing Jane Hill
man/male hombre homem human Lmon'o unknown Klar 1977:141 Jane Hill
meat/flesh carne carne fauna 7imy(7) inheritance Klar 1977:96 Jane Hill
moon luna lua environment t-awa7 inheritance Klar 1977:91 Jane Hill
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship ch'uju unknown JPH Jane Hill
mouth boca boca body 7ytYy inheritance Klar 1977:99 Jane Hill
name nombre nome human ti (JPH has ty from RC) inheritance Klar 1977:18 Jane Hill
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body ni7 “nuca” inheritance JPH Jane Hill
near/close cerca de perto quality timete7 “to be near” inheritance Klar 1977:131 Jane Hill
neck cuello pescoço body ni7 inheritance Klar 1977:19 Jane Hill
new nuevo novo quality 7ame inheritance Klar 1977:101 Jane Hill
night noche noite time L-tyimi unknown Klar 1977:119 Jane Hill
no/not no não grammar my-, ky-ny (neg. imp.) inheritance Klar 1977:59 Jane Hill
nose nariz nariz body kulu, qulu unknown JPH Jane Hill
old viejo velho quality Lmo7nosi “esta muy viejo” (of cat, person) unknown JPH Jane Hill
one uno um number sumo loan Klar 1977 Jane Hill
open/uncover abrir abrir other tYe-tYa, (k)she-tYa inheritance Klar 1977:103 Jane Hill
other otro outro grammar chusomuna7na “el otro” unique JPH Jane Hill
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body ts'ena “duele” unknown JPH Jane Hill
person/human being persona pessoa human ti-tYu inheritance Klar 1977:103 Jane Hill
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact tsiLmu7 (same as “mortero”) unknown JPH Jane Hill
rain lluvia chuva environment tu inheritance Klar 1977:24 Jane Hill
red rojo vermelho colour L-kupe, L-qupe inheritance Klar 1977:106 Jane Hill
right/right hand derecha direita location/body missing Jane Hill
road/path camino caminho manufacture kLhina, qLhina 0118L, tLhina 0247 unknown JPH Jane Hill
root raíz raiz flora missing Jane Hill
rotten podrido podre quality tspaLhani (of wood) unknown JPH Jane Hill
sand arena areia environment missing Jane Hill
say decir dizer mental 7ipi inheritance Klar 1977:109 Jane Hill
scratch rascar rasgar impact stYi unknown JPH Jane Hill
see ver ver mental pyni “to see”, qi-pyni “look at” p. 159; loan Klar 159 Jane Hill
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality -ewe inheritance Klar 1977:65 Jane Hill
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact mylhy, myLhy (3(1) 07234) inheritance Klar 1977:119 Jane Hill
short corto curto quality ts-lo7 unknown JPH Jane Hill
shoulder hombro ombro body pisy7 unknown JPH Jane Hill
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental qunosko inheritance Klar 1977:66 Jane Hill
sit sentar(se) sentar state qe unknown JPH Jane Hill
skin piel pele body missing Jane Hill
sky cielo céu environment tiLhisa unknown JPH Jane Hill
sleep dormir dormir body hoqo, 7oqo, oXo loan direction unknown JPH Jane Hill
small pequeño pequeno quality tsiwisnini “chiquitito”; chiwisnisu “muy chiquito” unknown JPH Jane Hill
smoke humo fumaça environment (ch)tuwo7 inheritance Klar 1977:108 Jane Hill
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body tYiLhi unknown JPH Jane Hill
spit escupir cuspir body Lk-tutu/-nu “Escupelo” loan direction unknown JPH Jane Hill
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact speleqe “split ... off”, have crack, partir inheritance Klar 1977:79 Jane Hill
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact missing Jane Hill
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact lo (milo “I spear or prick”) inheritance JPH Jane Hill
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state necha, netYa 0123L inheritance JPH Jane Hill
star estrella estrela environment (t)k/qshimu, tiLhisa chqsimu7 unknown Klar 1977:119 Jane Hill
steal robar roubar other tYotYo, chotcho (both recorded as good) unknown JPH Jane Hill
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora pono7 inheritance Klar 1977:115 Jane Hill
stone piedra pedra environment (t)qypy inheritance Klar 1977:111 Jane Hill
suck chupar chupar body quLhup7u unknown JPH Jane Hill
sweat sudar suor, suar body tisoqLho7 unknown JPH Jane Hill
swell hincharse inchar body missing Jane Hill
swim nadar nadar motion missing Jane Hill
tail cola, rabo rabo body teLhe7 inheritance Klar 1977:27 Jane Hill
that ese/esa esse grammar pa, paksa, jaksha “aquel” pa is “ese” unknown Klar 1977:44 Jane Hill
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar missing Jane Hill
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality missing Jane Hill
thin delgado fino quality tshe “seco y flaco” unknown JPH Jane Hill
think pensar pensar mental shumishtu loan JPH Jane Hill
this este/esta este grammar hiksha (“never say hi”) inheritance Klar 1977:44 Jane Hill
2sg xx xx grammar pi7 inheritance Jane Hill
three tres tres number misy' inheritance Klar 1977:120 Jane Hill
throat garganta garganta body 7ululu unknown JPH Jane Hill
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact tik'ele “throw away” unknown Klar 1977:126 Jane Hill
thunder truenos trovão environment (t)pismono “el trueno” unknown JPH Jane Hill
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact Lkchy7 “amarralo!”; sasa “amarrado” 0105R unknown JPH Jane Hill
tongue lengua lingua body 7eLhew(') (18, 113), 7eLhe' (p. 51) inheritance Klar 1977:18 Jane Hill
tooth diente dente body sha inheritance Klar 1977:113 Jane Hill
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other tutYino7a “return, come back” unknown JPH Jane Hill
two dos dois number 7estyu7 inheritance Klar 1977:29, 120 Jane Hill
vomit vomitar vomitar body pasy, paspa inheritance Klar 1977:114 Jane Hill
walk caminar, andar andar motion kysteji jakawayu “va andando el caballo” unknown JPH Jane Hill
water agua agua environment to7 inheritance Klar 1977:115 Jane Hill
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar k'itYy (pl), ksitYy (du) inheritance Jane Hill
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar k'itYy (pl), ksitYy (du) inheritance JPH Jane Hill
wet mojado molhado quality so7 (miso7 “estoy mojando) see “water” inheritance JPH Jane Hill
what? que, qué que grammar qasty unknown JPH Jane Hill
when? cuando quando grammar 7amy unknown JPH Jane Hill
where? donde onde grammar tYi unknown JPH Jane Hill
white blanco branco colour q'ele7 unknown JPH Jane Hill
who? quien, quién quem grammar haksu, myski, machki unknown JPH Jane Hill
wife esposa esposa kinship suju loan JPH Jane Hill
wind viento vento environment tkshilo, ksiLho7 (0116L) unknown JPH Jane Hill
wing ala asa body missing Jane Hill
woman/female mujer mulher human ktasitYuju unknown JPH Jane Hill
work trabajar trabalhar other saqwatspu/, tsaqwatspu JPH Jane Hill
yawn bostezar bocejar body sasa inheritance Klar 1977:117 Jane Hill
yellow amarillo amarelo colour missing Jane Hill
2pl ustedes vocês grammar pikshy7 (pl) inheritance Jane Hill


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (130)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
abalone flora-fauna Haliotis spp. tspete7; Lkupekupe aulon; red abalone (-kupe “red”) unique other complex c-; red abalone is reduplicated, obviously Harrington III:1:0292 2 1 0 0 1 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae tqaya ant, small red ant? inheritance *tkaya7 Proto-Chumash other complex t- Harrington III:1:0324 0 0 2 0 0 no
antelope flora-fauna Antilocapra americana missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
badger flora-fauna Taxidea taxus missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 yes
bald eagle flora-fauna Haliaeetus leucocephalus tʃinatʸi white-headed eagle unique Note Salinan M snai underived Harrington III:1:0078 1 2 0 0 1 no
band-tail pigeon flora-fauna Patagioenas fasciata missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp mitʸala bat inheritance *mVkala Proto-Chumash WW %tamakala underived Klar 1977:68 0 1 0 0 0 no
beaver flora-fauna Castor missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
beetle flora-fauna Coleoptera spp tamikšnojho pinacate unique phrase elements unanalyzable Harrington III:1:0326 2 0 0 0 0 no
big round tule flora-fauna Schoenoplectus acutus tqmima7 carrizo unique other complex t'- Harrington III:1:0274 2 1 2 0 0 no
big skunk flora-fauna Mephitis mephitis tqema skunk inheritance *tVqema Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:108 other complex t- Klar 1977:108 2 2 0 0 0 no
big wolf (gray wolf) flora-fauna Canis lupus k-asiməj, hesiməj; tolopʰopo wolves; el lobo inheritance Proto-Chumash məj surely same as Central mɨj phrase -mej "wolf" JPH 91:0031; 0084 1 2 0 0 0 yes
bighorn sheep flora-fauna Ovis canadensis tšopoX'o7o borrego, said to be domestic, not wild sheep, but NOT a Spanish loan; wild sheep not known unique phrase elements unanalyzable JPH III:1:233 2 1 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
black ant flora-fauna Camponotus pennsylvanicus/Lasius niger t qaya small black ant inheritance *tkaya' Proto-Chumash other complex t- Klar 1977:64 2 0 0 0 0 no
black bear flora-fauna Ursus americanus tuquski('), tuhuski(') bear inheritance *qus Proto-Chumash other complex xus with prefix, suffix Klar 1977:69 1 2 0 0 0 yes
black-tail Jackrabbit flora-fauna Lepus californicus (t)ma' rabbit inheritance *ma' Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:105 ; shared with Salinan map' but loan probably into Salinan (Turner 1983:226) other complex t- Klar 1977:105 2 1 0 0 0 no
blackberry flora-fauna Rubus ursinus tqajhuqa moras, wild blackberries unique other complex t-; might be phrase Harrington III:1:0263 2 1 2 0 0 no
blue grouse flora-fauna Dendrogapus? missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
bobcat, lynx flora-fauna Lynx rufus štoLk'ómo gato montes unique phrase elements unanalyzable JPH III:1:118 1 2 0 0 0 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera missing missing missing 2 0 0 0 0 no
California condor flora-fauna Gymnogyps californianus missing missing missing 1 2 0 0 1 no
California jay flora-fauna Aphelocoma californica? missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
California woodpecker flora-fauna Melanerpes formicivorus? (t)pilak'a woodpecker loan into protolanguage *pVlak'a(k') Proto-Chumash unknown Klar 1977;116; somewhat irregular and perhaps a loan, a widespread arealism WW %palaka ~ %pana(k) other complex t- Klar 1977:116 2 1 0 0 1 no
chia flora-fauna Salvia columbariae l'ɨpɨ Chia inheritance *'epV- Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:75-6 other complex 7al- Timbrook 2007:188 1 1 1 0 0 no
chipmunk flora-fauna Tamias spp. missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
cliff swallow flora-fauna Petrochelidon pyrrhonota tšo; telekseLkse; tošlojo golondrina; la clase de golondrinas que vienen primero; golondrinas mas grande unique underived Harrington III:1:118, 297; 304 2 1 0 0 0 no
coot flora-fauna Fulica americana missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottontail rabbit flora-fauna Sylvilagus audobonii tʸuni' jackrabbit (a reversal here?) inheritance *kuni Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:105 ; I think this is NOT a reversal, Rosario Cooper said she was not sure which one was the liebre (JPH III:1:0184). So this should be corrected. underived Klar 1977:105 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottonwood flora-fauna Populus spp. missing missing missing 2 0 2 0 0 no
coyote flora-fauna Canis latrans alaxəwət; Lnetya Coyote; el coyote unique JPH III:1 117 has Lnetya; could xuxaw be relate to first form? other complex 7al- JPH III: 91:0031; 0084; 1:117 1 2 0 0 0 no
crow flora-fauna Corvus brachyrhynchos t-a7 crow inheritance *7a7 Proto-Chumash “ta7 means both crow and roble, you have to mention some other word to distinguish” other complex t- Harrington III:1:0049 2 1 0 0 0 no
datura flora-fauna Datura wrightii moyoq Jimsonweed loan into protolanguage *moy Proto-Chumash Takic Really a loan from Gab. or Lu. “moon” (Klar 1977;93 views as inheritance) WW %moji ~ %moni same other complex -oq is some kind of suffix'file:///Users/janehhill/Desktop/HGProject/FloraFaunaDataEntryNAMChumashVentureno.ods'#'Flora Fauna Data Entry'.L57 Klar 1977:93 1 1 1 1 0 yes
deer, mule flora-fauna Odocoileus hemionus c'qono venado loan Yokuts This looks like the Yokutsan form WW %sok other complex c'- Harrington III:1:0049 2 1 0 0 0 no
digger pine flora-fauna Pinus sabiniana tpinu Pine loan Salinan other complex t- Harrington III:1:0172 2 1 2 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris qoqo'; tkawə pet, animal; dog inheritance *qo' Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:104; qo is the “pet” word -- you can't possess tqawə7 direction, it's the “real word for dog” reduplicated Klar 1977:104; Harrington III:1:0088 0 0 0 0 0 no
dogbane flora-fauna Apocynum cannabinum missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna Zenaida macrocoura toqmoloqlo dove loan Salinan Salinan Taxwen' Turner 1983:227; other Chumash Bar tukutuk, Ven shukushuk unknown Turner 1983:226 2 1 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae tpatpa el pato unique Note Salinan M helpaT' reduplicated t- Harrington III:1:0303 0 1 0 0 0 no
elder flora-fauna Sambucus tpəlipə7 sauco unique other complex t- Harrington III:1:0261 2 1 1 Flor is bueno para la fiebre 0 0 no
elk flora-fauna Cervas elaphus missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna tšhka7a fish unique underived JPH III:1:119 0 1 0 0 0 no
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna Siphonaptera Lqata, Lqat'a pulga unique other complex 7al- Harrington III:1:0050 2 0 0 0 0 no
flicker flora-fauna Colaptes sp. missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera tapuleqe fly inheritance *axulpes Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:87; I don't believe this one, but she is obviously invoking metathesis unknown Klar 1977:87 0 0 0 0 0 no
foothills yucca flora-fauna Yucca whipplei ts'isuyi' Yucca whipplei, Chaparral yucca, Spanish bayonet unique other complex c- ? Timbrook 2007:226 0 1 0 0 0 no
fox flora-fauna Vulpes, Urocyon missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna weqeq frog inheritance *waqaq Proto-Chumash widespread areal form, but NOT regular inside Chumash so diversely loaned? WW %wakat reduplicated Turner 1983:236 2 2 0 0 0 no
golden eagle flora-fauna Aquila chrysaetos missing missing missing 1 2 0 0 1 no
gooseberry flora-fauna Ribes spp. missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
gopher snake, bull snake flora-fauna Pituophis catenifer c-psoso Gophersnake inheritance *pSoSo Proto-Chumash other complex c- Klar 1977:89 2 2 0 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) pšelpše zacate unique reduplicated Harrington III:1:0232 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Caelifera tiqu grasshopper inheritance *ti/uqu (< *-qu) Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:89 underived Klar 1977:89 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray ground squirrel flora-fauna Sphermophilus sp. teme' ground squirrel inheritance *emet', em'et' Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:110 other complex t- Klar 1977;110 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray tree squirrel flora-fauna Sciurus spp. missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
great horned owl flora-fauna Bubo virginianus tukunu tecolote unique Salinan cokonoi? But other similar forms areally underived Harrington III:1:118 1 2 2 0 1 no
grizzly bear flora-fauna Ursus arctos horribilis missing missing missing 1 2 0 0 0 yes
horned toad flora-fauna Phrynosomatidae missing missing missing 2 2 2 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus kawaju horse loan Spanish WW %caballo underived Harrington III:1:0122 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae tskspana hummingbird unique other complex c- Harrington III:1:0050 0 0 0 0 0 no
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana spp. stu'yi' Indian tobacco loan Costanoan I think this is from t-su7yi and cognate with the %sokon loans, perhaps reflecting Costanoan vocalismin the suk-m words, so an earlier loan? WW %sokon underived Timbrook 2007:126 1 1 1 1 0 yes
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing missing missing 0 0 2 0 0 variable
junco flora-fauna Junco sppp missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
juniper flora-fauna Juniperus californica t'pi'nɨ Juniperus californica unique other complex t'- Timbrook 2007:108 2 1 1 0 0 no
louse flora-fauna order Phtiraptera (c)pšeqʰe louse (Harrigton: piojos del cuerpo) inheritance *Seke Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:92-3 other complex c- Klar 1977:92 2 0 0 0 0 no
mallard flora-fauna Anas platyrhynchos missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
manzanita flora-fauna Arctostaphylos spp. twaja manzanita unique other complex t- Harrington III:1:0261 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, broad leaf flora-fauna Asclepias eriocarpa missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, narrow leaf flora-fauna Asclepias fascicularis tpuq'u chichiquelite unique other complex t'- Harrington III:1:0264 0 1 1 Leaf with salt remedy for poison oak 0 0 no
mission tule flora-fauna Juncus missing missing word resembles meqmej but RC cannot recall (so must be cognate with Southern Chumash) missing Harrington III:1:0260 2 1 2 0 0 no
mockingbird flora-fauna Mimus polyglottos missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera pwew'e mosquito inheritance *pewe(we)' Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:98 underived Klar 1977:98 0 0 0 0 0 no
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna Heterocera missing missing missing 2 0 0 0 0 no
mountain lion flora-fauna Puma concolor tetʸe, tekš'e mountain lion inheritance *tVkem' Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:98 thinks is Proto-Ch but I think is a loan post that period, hence irregularity. This is a widespread arealism. underived Klar 1977:98 1 2 0 0 0 yes
mountain quail flora-fauna Oreortyx pictus missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
mussel flora-fauna Mytilus spp. missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
olivella (olive snail) flora-fauna Callianax biplicata missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 1 no
pinyon jay flora-fauna Cyanocitta stelleri? missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
pinyon pine flora-fauna Pinus monophylla twitak'a el pinyon blandito unique other complex t-; might be phrase Harrington III:1:0263 2 1 2 0 1 no
pismo clam flora-fauna Tivella stultorum L'anaqucu; č-kuyama Clam sp., money; Pismo clam inheritance *'ala-qu-Cum Proto-Chumash other complex 7al- Klar 1977:97; Turner 1983:226 2 1 0 0 1 no
pocket gopher flora-fauna Thomomys ts'ososo topo unique reduplicated c-; Note tspsoso “topera snake” JPH III:1:283 2 1 0 0 0 no
poison oak flora-fauna Toxicodendron diversilobum t-wala Poison-oak, Toxicodendron diversilobum unique other complex t- Timbrook 2007:214 2 2 2 0 0 yes
rattlesnake flora-fauna Crotalus spp. kaxʃap rattlesnake inheritance Proto-Chumash e.g. Ventureno xʃap underived JPH 92:0774 1 2 0 0 0 yes
red ant flora-fauna Solenopsis spp t qala' large red ant inheritance *tkaya' Proto-Chumash sound symbolism changes consonant other complex t- Klar 1977:64 1 0 1 0 0 no
red-shouldered blackbird flora-fauna Agelaius phoeniceus t-štyapa7 chanate unique other complex t- Harrington III:1:0300 2 1 0 0 0 no
red-tailed hawk flora-fauna Buteo jamaicensis missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
roadrunner flora-fauna Geococcyx californianus (t)pu' roadrunner loan into protolanguage *pu' Proto-Chumash Takic WW %pu: other complex t- Klar 1977:106 2 1 0 0 0 no
ruddy duck flora-fauna Oxyura jamaicensis missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
sage herb flora-fauna Artemisia californica tilho A. californica, Coastal Sagebrush unique underived Timbrook 2007:36 2 2 1 0 0 no
salmon/steelhead flora-fauna Oncorhynchus mykiss missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
scaly lizard flora-fauna Pygopus lepidopodus? t'akiškilopo cachora unique Schoenhals et al say is Sceloporus phrase elements unanalyzable JPH III;1:295 2 2 0 0 0 no
small bird flora-fauna missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
small brown lizard flora-fauna missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna tʃo vibora unique underived Harrington III:1:0085 0 1 0 0 0 no
soaproot flora-fauna Chlorogalum tqupa' Soap plant, soaproot, C. pomeridianum unique other complex t- Timbrook 2007:56 2 1 1 0 0 no
sour berry flora-fauna Rhus trilobata missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
sparrow hawk flora-fauna Falco tšmija7; tšinatyi a kind of gavilan, chiquito, cry mija; aguililla (Schoenhals et al. give F. sparviverius as one meaning); see (22) bald eagle unique underived Harrington III:1:0299; 0118 2 2 0 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae missing missing missing 0 0 2 0 0 variable
spotted skunk flora-fauna Spilogale gracilis missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna Bufonidae tkyujhu7 zapo (sic) unique other complex t- JPH III:1:119 2 2 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) pono' wood, tree, stick inheritance *pono' Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:115-16 underived Klar 1977:115 0 0 2 0 0 no
tree yucca flora-fauna Yucca schidegera missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
turkey buzzard flora-fauna Cathartes aura 7oʃo7jo aura unique underived Harrington III:1:0078 2 2 0 0 0 no
turtle (generic) flora-fauna Testudines tsuwini tortuga (NOT sea turtle) unique underived Harrington III:1:0295 2 2 0 0 1 no
valley live oak flora-fauna Quercus agrifolia tʸuwu' Klar) Q. agrifolia, coast live oak inheritance *kuwu(') Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:102 underived Timbrook 2007:160 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley oak flora-fauna Quercus lobata ta' Q. lobata inheritance *ta' Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:102 underived Timbrook 2007:163 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley quail flora-fauna Callipepla californica takaka quail loan into protolanguage *takaka Proto-Chumash Takic Klar 1977:105; a widespread arealism, probably a loan WW %kaka reduplicated Klar 1977:105 2 1 0 0 0 no
Washington clam flora-fauna Saxidomus nuttalli missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
Western Canada goose flora-fauna Branta canadensis lele, leqlele. qlele goose loan into protolanguage Proto-Chumash unknown widespread areal form WW %lala ~ %lak reduplicated Turner 1983:237 0 1 0 0 0 no
whale flora-fauna Eschrichtius robustus (t)pxatu, (t)pqatu whale inheritance *paqat(V) Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:115; Harrington's inf. said “same as Tulareño” 0082 other complex t- Klar 1977;115 2 1 2 0 1 no
white pelican flora-fauna Pelicanus erythrorhynchos sewene pelican (may be brown) inheritance *sew Proto-Chumash underived Klar 1977:103 0 2 0 0 0 no
wild grapevine flora-fauna Vitis californica missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild oats flora-fauna Avena (introduction) missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild rose flora-fauna Rosa californica missing missing missing 0 1 2 0 0 no
wild sunflower flora-fauna Helianthus (and other genera) missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
willow flora-fauna Salix spp. tsa' Arroyo willow, S. lasiolepis unique underived Timbrook 2007:182 2 2 1 0 0 no
wood rat, round-tail flora-fauna Neotoma spp. tqolo raton (but cognate w/ C. Chumash rata) inheritance Proto-Chumash surely a sound-symbolic change other complex t- JPH III:1:119 2 1 0 0 0 no
worm, hairy caterpillar flora-fauna Arctiidae (many species) talupepe guzano quemador unique phrase elements unanalyzable JPH III:1:290 2 2 0 0 0 no
worm, smooth caterpillar flora-fauna Trichoplusia ni (?) cabbage looper tstyostyo animalito, guzanito inheritance probably cognate w/ Vent. Tskonin other complex c- JPH III:1:284 2 2 0 0 0 no
yellow jacket flora-fauna Vespula spp., Dolichovespula spp. (t)ɨyɨ yellowjacket inheritance *ɨyɨ, *ɨyɨ' Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:117 other complex t- Klar 1977;117 2 0 0 0 0 no
yellowbird flora-fauna Dendroica petechia missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
yerba santa flora-fauna Eriodictyon californicum missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna tqala7 “large red ant”, tqaya7 “small red ant” inheritance Klar 1977:64 Jane Hill
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna missing Jane Hill
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna tapuleqe inheritance Klar 1977:87 Jane Hill
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna qoqo tqawy7 “pet (dog”) unknown Klar 1977:49 Jane Hill
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna pshelpshe unknown JPH Jane Hill
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna q'ono, chqono (0123L) loan JPH Jane Hill
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna tqwa(y)hiqwa7, kwayhiqwa7 rattlesnake(? loan Klar 1977 Jane Hill
spider araña aranha flora-fauna missing Jane Hill


Cultural Vocabulary (115)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
acorn mush food missing missing Jane Hill
ball game food missing missing Jane Hill
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology timisputspu infierno (lit. abajo de la tierra) compound Harrington Jane Hill
feather headband dress missing missing Jane Hill
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool tslewa jara unique simplex Harrington Jane Hill
arrow straightener other missing missing Jane Hill
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
school escuela escola acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
stone bowl culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material tSaja S is long s (tS=č) chaya, traste unknown note Cupeno chaymal 'big round basket, winnowing basket'. Chaya might be California Spanish??? WW %chaj2 simplex Harrington Jane Hill
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
basketry hat culture-material tamacsuma basketry hat unknown this is a 'nescit' -- from where? Fages? Can't find compound surely Harrington Jane Hill
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material te7le abalorio, cuentitas que ponen el el pescuezo inheritance *-el Proto-Chumashan Klar 1977 simplex this has borrowed the Salinan prefix but it's not a prefix in OC Harrington Jane Hill
ochre culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
bow arco arco subsistence tool 7aqa arco, bow inheritance *aqa Proto-Chumashan Klar 1977:65;also ič-kuyan 'bow, weapon' p. 197 simplex Harrington Jane Hill
canoe canoa canoa transport tomololo (check Jones & Klar) inheritance Jane Hill
carrying net subsistence tool sëpsmu7 carrying net unknown simplex s- is definite article Harrington Jane Hill
bottle botella garrafa acculturation sipsmu el frasco??? unknown copy of Fages; looks like it may be same word as 'carrying net' simplex Harrington Jane Hill
paper papel papel acculturation sak'spa7 cigarro, papel unknown other complex has sa- 'fire'??? Harrington Jane Hill
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress e-le-hō breech cloth unknown Henshaw (Heizer) Jane Hill
cook food food si-pšï cook thoroughly, ripen inheritance *pSel Proto-Chumashan tskiwisi cosió, he cooked JPH 3,1,0140 derived Klar 1977 Jane Hill
corpse food jatqsasu el difunto inheritance *qsa Proto-Chumashan saqsa los muertos 0059 ša 'morir' JPH 3,1,0087; tsksasu es difunto 106 Harrington Jane Hill
dance (generic) culture-mythology qinatSi bailar inheritance Proto-Chumashan atyi = axi derived qi- an IP Harrington Jane Hill
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
dipper subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
drone pipe culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
chicken gallina galinha acculturation ktakaka gallina, rooster loan into protolanguage, semantic shift Proto-Chumashan Northern Uto-Aztecan widespread 'quail' word WW %kaka simplex Harrington Jane Hill
earring other jamqima7na mis aretes unknown derived k'iqima7na nuestros aretes 0451 Harrington Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology tquLmitsi7 L is barred l devil unknown derived Harrington Jane Hill
fire drill subsistence tool ku-li/-mĭ fire drill unknown derived Henshaw (Heizer) Jane Hill
fire-tender culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
fireplace hogar lareira other kits-sna/-pa / is acute fireplace unknown derived Henshaw (Heizer) Jane Hill
firewood leña lenha other pono7 wood, tree, stick inheritance *pono Proto-Chumashan tu-pâ'-na-ti-na (Henshaw) 'firewood'; Fages had tuxugo 'la leña', but R.C. insisted pono7 was only word simplex Klar 1977 Jane Hill
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing missing Jane Hill
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food missing missing Jane Hill
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fish hook subsistence tool pa-wi-sa fish hook unknown simplex Henshaw (Heizer) Jane Hill
acorn bread food te/-tĭ-ti-na bread loan Spanish WW %tortilla simplex Henshaw (Heizer) Jane Hill
wheat food missing missing Jane Hill
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
gambling sticks other missing missing Jane Hill
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food missing missing Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
glue subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
alcohol food missing missing Jane Hill
Datura wrightii narcotics moyoq Jimsonweed loan into protolanguage *mom'oy from *moy Proto-Chumashan Gabrielino may not be proto if from Gab. Moya- 'moon', loan wouldn't be into Proto-Chumashan WW %moji ~ %moni compound moy-oq 'jweed-go.to.slee' Klar 1977 Jane Hill
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology tsi7masu un brujo, hechizador unknown derived Harrington Jane Hill
honey miel mel food missing missing Jane Hill
house other qnipu house loan Numic I am no longer sure this is a Numic loan. Note Plains Miwok hanepu, and Yukian *han 'house', may be something quite different; also jaL7imi 'any house" 0136 simplex Harrington Jane Hill
hunt cazar caçar food tuquelequetai vamos a cazar unknown copy of Fages derived Harrington Jane Hill
initiate boy culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
initiate girl culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
knife cuchillo faca culture-material jatqa7minë, jamq'aminë el cuchillo, mi cuchillo (0107) unknown derived Harrington Jane Hill
mat culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool tSiLmu7 mortero (to pound) unknown tu-na/-mu Henshaw derived Harrington Jane Hill
necklace other tel'e necklace inheritance *el' Proto-Chumashan the t- from Salinan?? simplex Klar 1977 Jane Hill
needle/awl subsistence tool tstipësë la aguja unknown derived Harrington Jane Hill
paddle/oar remo remo transport missing missing Jane Hill
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool jatspu jatSiLmu pestle (lit. la mano de mortero) unknown t'spu-na/-ma, t'spu-hu-na-ma (Henshaw) phrase Harrington Jane Hill
pinole food tskisini pinole unknown also tpi7na 'pinole de guata amarillo 0267; looks like Yokkuts te:pin 'acorn mush' JHH simplex Harrington Jane Hill
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other t'ska/-lĭ pipe of reed unknown simplex Henshaw (Heizer) Jane Hill
pitch food missing missing Jane Hill
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool jamkinu mi traste (not chaya) unknown simplex Harrington Jane Hill
quiver subsistence tool t'aka quiver unknown note Wappo t'ak'a7 'carrying net, pack strap' simplex Henshaw (Heizer) Jane Hill
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
red paint culture-mythology na-hu-pĭ red paint unknown simplex Henshaw (Heizer) Jane Hill
salt sal sal food tepu7 salt inheritance *tepu(7), *tipu(7) Proto-Chumashan simplex Klar 1977 Jane Hill
seed beater subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology exetehs, extechs toute espèce de vêtements unknown copy of Fages simplex Harrington Jane Hill
sinew-backed bow subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
snare subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology qle canta! unknown simplex Harrington Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
stirring stick food missing missing Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture tlaxpil la cuerda (might be sinew) unknown copy of Fages simplex Harrington Jane Hill
bag, sack culture-material jamkustala mi costal loan Spanish WW %costal simplex Harrington Jane Hill
string of shell money other ł'anaquču money inheritance 7ala-qu-Cum, *ana-qu-Cum Proto-Chumashan I disagree; cognacy is not perfect and shell money is too late to be P-C derived JPH writes L'anaqutsu at 430 Klar 1977 Jane Hill
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation jatSqe jaktajusa el panal, like onde ponen el azucar (= el miel) only word unknown phrase Harrington Jane Hill
sweathouse other tpu7 temescal unknown simplex Harrington Jane Hill
tell history culture-mythology piLhi, L'ipi, pi7i??? decir unknown simplex Harrington Jane Hill
cremate culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
tobacco (native) narcotics stu7ji7 tobacco unique simplex Harrington Jane Hill
tule boat transport missing missing Jane Hill
white paint culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
winnowing basket culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
wood tray subsistence tool tstiqujuju jicara de palo muy bonitos derived Harrington Jane Hill
shoes zapatos sapatos dress snipajmu7 shoes unknown derived lit. 'pisador' Harrington Jane Hill
medicine narcotics tëksmu7 'or something like that' medicine unknown note Ltëksmu7 'pespibata' derived Harrington Jane Hill
cradleboard culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
policeman polícia policía acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
soldier soldado soldado acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
corn food missing missing Jane Hill
beans food piqolisi frijol, frijoles loan Spanish WW %frijol simplex Harrington Jane Hill
cat gato gato acculturation miSina, miXina as in German ich' gato (tame), house cat loan Spanish maybe from a UA language?? WW %mis simplex Harrington Jane Hill
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
hat sombero chapéu dress sumpelelu sombrero loan Spanish WW %sombrero simplex Harrington Jane Hill
clapper acculturation wašaqa, wacsaqa, wacsaq'a split-stick rattle inheritance *wanS-aq'a, *wacs-aq'a Proto-Chumashan simplex Klar 1977 Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture yak'ishaqshi7 “our rope” unknown Klar 1980:91 Jane Hill
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material missing Jane Hill
bottom grinding stone manufacture kichiksmu7 “metate”; hytYyqsmu7 0424 unknown JPH Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool missing Jane Hill
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture missing Jane Hill
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture jatspu jachiLmu7 “la mano del mortero” unknown JPH Jane Hill
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing Jane Hill
spearthrower subsistence tool 7axa inheritance Klar 1977:51 Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool tslewe “arrow” inheritance JPH Jane Hill
house other qnipu loan Klar 1977:49 Jane Hill


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
small HG dense sedentary no