black bear

Semantic Field
flora-fauna
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
Meaning Portuguese

Languages

Language Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
Bankalachi Toloim Ursus americanus oo'-nahl Black Bear (Ursus americanus) inheritance *hula- Proto-Uto-Aztecan S105 (Stubbs 2009:53) broader (probably can be used for all bears as in Tubatulabal) other complex -l is the non-possessed-noun suffix C. H. Merriam 72-797, 60-449 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone Ursus americanus wyyta bear (M: Black Bear (Ursus americanus) inheritance Numic See N. Paiute wɨdaɂa same underived Crapo 1976:109 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Cahuilla Ursus americanus húnwet ˈhunwet bear inheritance *huna-wɨ-ta Californian S132 (Stubbs 2009:59). This is “big badger”; badger, *hura(p), is UA etymon. But only means “bear” in California. broader (includes any bear) derived hun-wet “badger-augmentative” (presumably a euphemism) -7aʃ "pet" possesive classifier -7aʃ "pet" Seiler & Hioki 1979:60 no info 1 shamanism 2 only old people, shamans could eat (Bean 1972:63) no info hunted Men for skins,teeth, claws, for shamanic use, but very rarely hunted 0 0 Cahuillas consistently report that black bears didn't occur in their area chaparral, woodlands yes
Central Sierra Miwok Ursus americanus 7yšy:-maTi-, hyšy:mati- bear inheritance *7y$y-maTi7 Eastern Miwokan Callaghan 1971 phrase bad-creature Freeland & Broadbent 1960 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Chemehuevi Ursus americanus papáwA Bear loan *paha(wa) Proto-Numic unknown Stubbs 135 (2008:59); probably linked to Mono pahabici, Tsh pahamicci, NP padua WW %paha broader (probably any bear) underived Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Chumash Barbareno Ursus americanus xus bear (both grizzly and black) inheritance *qus Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:68-9 underived Beeler 1978:190 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Chumash Ineseno Ursus americanus xus bear, grizzly bear inheritance *qus Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:68-9 underived Merriam 55:3 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Chumash Obispeno Ursus americanus tuquski('), tuhuski(') bear inheritance *qus Proto-Chumash other complex xus with prefix, suffix Klar 1977:69 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Chumash Ventureno Ursus americanus xus bear (both grizzly and black) inheritance *qus Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:68-9 underived Merriam 55:35 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Cocopa Ursus americanus ɂu·s bear loan Spanish WW %oso same underived Crawford 1989 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Comanche Ursus americanus wasápe bear unique Central Numic from “kill several”; derivation means “game” same other complex has -pɨ ABS Robinson & Armagost 1990:162 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Cupeño Ursus americanus hunwet ˈhunwət bear inheritance *huna-wɨ-ta Californian S132 (Stubbs 2009:59). This is “big badger”; badger, *hura(p), is UA etymon. But only means “bear” in California. broader (includes all bears) derived ˈhun-wə-t badger-big-npn -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Hill & Nolasquez 1973:156 no info 1 shamans become bears 2 not eaten by Lu; for Ca., only elderly and shamans can eat no info hunted men mainly for claws, pelt 0 0 claw regalia perhaps traded, no info western North America chaparral, woodlands yes
Esselen Ursus americanus koltála bear unique underived note Miwokan kule “black”, word for “bear” in Lake Miwok Shaul 1995:226 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Gabrielino Ursus americanus pi'-yah'-ho'-naht ˈpa:yax ˈho:nat (?) (A Serrano-ized form) Black Bear loan Serrano or Kitanemuk for the hona:t part should be huna:r; Is this Kitanemuk interference? same phrase ˈpa:ya-x ˈhuna:-t ?-pres.tense bear-npn (why is this -t and not -r??) -ʔaʧ "pet" possessive classifier for animals http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n415/mode/2up; p. 415 no info 1 in shamanism; and a Chingichngish animal (McC 146) 2 McC p. 116 no info hunted men mainly for skin, claws, but according to McC bear meat eaten 0 0 hides often trade North America chaparral, woodland yes
Iipay 'Aa Ursus americanus nem-moo'-el (Merriam 55:199) bear unique Couro & Hutcheson record 'os, from Spanish; may be related to the wildcat word same underived Merriam 55:199 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Kawaiisu Ursus americanus moɁorii-ži black bear loan Yokutian, perhaps by way of Tumpisa Shoshone Note T. Shoshone mor-itch (Merriam) “black bear”; loan from Utian words for “black, dark” (Callaghan 2001:327); cf. Palewyami Yokuts molaj' “bear” Callaghan 2001:333 (and see Stubbs 134 (2008:59) WW %mol same other complex moɁorii-ži black.bear-ABS Zigmond et al. 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Kiliwa Ursus americanus kw+maqn bear; engine unique same relative clause kw-maqn REL-sweet Mixco 1985 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Kitanemuk Ursus americanus hunaɨt ˈhunaɨt bear inheritance *huna-wɨ-ta Californian S132 (Stubbs 2009:59). This is “big badger”; badger, *hura(p), is UA etymon. But only means “bear” in California. broader (includes all bears) derived ˈhuna-ɨ-t bear-augmentative-npn (-w- lost regularly) -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:322 no info 1 bear shamanism, guardian spirits 2 no info hunted men mainly for hide, claws 0 0 North America chaparral, woodland yes
Lake Miwok Ursus americanus kúle bear semantic shift Miwokan Pmiw *kule “bear” < Pmie *kul “black” (presumably originally Pmi as “black”), a typical “bear” word underived Callaghan 1965 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Luiseño Ursus americanus húnwut ʹhunwut bear inheritance *huna-wɨ-ta Californian S132 (Stubbs 2009:59). This is “big badger”; badger, *hura(p), is UA etymon. But only means “bear” in California. broader (includes all bears) derived ʹhun-wu-t badger-augmentative-non.possessed.noun (this is a euphemism and is felt as derived) hunwutal if dead Elliott 1999:358 no info 1 shamanism, especially 2 “never eaten” (Sparkman 1908:199) no hunted men skin, claws saved; stone erected at site of death (Sparkman 1908:199) 0 0 North America chaparral, woodland yes
Maidu Ursus americanus 7inánasi bear (general term) unique berry-eater? From Miwokan berry word?? other complex -i is stem former Shipley 1963 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Mojave Ursus americanus mahwat bear inheritance Proto-Yuman badger-big (see badger); Maricopa mәxwәt same phrase from mahwa - ɂatay badger big Munro et al.1992 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Mutsun Ursus americanus 7ores bear inheritance **7ole$ Costanoan Callagan 2001:326; and Note Yn, Yv ului in D&K (Callaghan 2001:340) underived Okrand 1977:39 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Nisenan Ursus americanus kapa bear (CHM koo'-loo-mim kah-pah; em-mol-im kah-pah; em-mŭl “black bear” loan unknown WW %paha underived Uldall & Shipley 1966 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Northern Paiute Ursus americanus wɨdaɂa Black bear, bear, brown bear inheritance Numic May be a loan, but see BSVS wyyta “bear”, Comanche wɨra “male bear”; may match the Merriam Walker Lake form (see “other notes”), which has “black” in it -- same underived Thornes 2003:192 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Northern Sierra Miwok Ursus americanus 7ysy:maTi- bear inheritance *7y$y-maTi7 Eastern Miwokan Callaghan 1971 (means “bad - creature” phrase bad-creature Callaghan 1987 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Plains Miwok Ursus americanus 7ysy:mati-, 7ysym:ati- bear inheritance *7y$y-maTi7 Eastern Miwokan Callaghan 1971 phrase bad creature Callaghan 1984 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Salinan A Ursus americanus Taxáy' bear unique Salinan could these be Takic loans meaning "person (vocative)"??? underived unless /T/ is articular prefix Mason 1918:125; Turner 1980:68 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Salinan M Ursus americanus T<Axaí' bear unique Salinan underived Mason 1918:125 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Seri (Comcaac) Ursus americanus missing missing missing 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Serrano Ursus americanus hu:na-t bear inheritance *huna-wɨ-ta Californian S132 (Stubbs 2009:59). This is “big badger”; *hura(p) “badger” is UA etymon. But this only means “bear” in Californian. other complex -t NPN KCHill ms 2001:16 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Southern Paiute Ursus americanus kwe-ahnt' A bear unique *kwiya Colorado River Numic only; Stubbs 136 (2008:59)(this is same word as Sapir's “grizzly”) same derived looks like a deverbal derivation with -tɨ Merriam's Ki-vav-vit 61:343 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Southern Sierra Miwok Ursus americanus 7yhy:maTi bear inheritance *7y$y-maTi7 Eastern Miwokan Callaghan 1971 bad-creature phrase bad creature Broadbent 1964: Bear moiety:7yhy:mati- 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Southern Ute Ursus americanus kwiyá-ga-tĮ bear unique Colorado River Numic only; Stubbs 136 (2008:59) broader (all bears?) derived looks like a deverbal derivation with -tI, but what is the verb? Givon 1979 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Tübatulabal Ursus americanus ūnal ʔu:ˈnal bear, Grizzly bear inheritance *hula- Uto-Aztecan S105 (Stubbs 2009:53) broader (includes all bears) other complex ʔu:ˈna-l bear-npn Hill 2010:102 no info 1 Bear is a supernatural being, a yümükīwal, and must be treated with respect 2 “A difference of opinion” (Voegelin 1938:12) no info hunted men roasted, skin, claws kept although bearkin robes said to be “too heavy” -- they were good for cutting boards, pounding surfaces because thick 0 0 North America chaparral, woodland yes
Tümpisa Shoshone Ursus americanus pahamittsi (M has also mor-itch) bear loan *paha Proto-Numic unknown Stubbs 135 (2008:59); mor-itch is loan from Utian words for “black, dark” (Callaghan 2001:327); cf. Palewyami Yokuts molaj' “bear” Callaghan 2001:333 WW %paha, %mol same other complex pahami-ttsi bear-DIM (rest is probably complex too) Dayley 1989:178 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Wappo Ursus americanus chíca bear (CHM also has hōl-tum' “black bear” unique underived Sawyer 1965 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Washo Ursus americanus mɨX:de black bear, brown bear unique underived Merriam 55:297; WPD 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Western Mono Ursus americanus wah-san'-nu; (cinnamon); wah-să-nah black bear unique same underived Bethel et al. no info 1 Brown Bear took Jimsonweed so is gentle; bear shamanism 2 no info hunted men no info 0 0 yes
Wintu Ursus americanus c'iL bear, black or brown, all except grizzly inheritance *č'il Wintun Shepherd 2005; Golla 1997:164 relates to Alsea su:Ln 'grizzly' and perhaps ultimately to words for “black” underived just means “black” Pitkin 1985 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Yavapai Ursus americanus mhwā(·)ta bear inheritance Proto-Yuman badger-big unknown Shaterian 1983 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Yokuts Palewyami Ursus americanus molay' bear loan Miwok only in Choynok, Yawe Callaghan 2001:333 says “may match PM *my:de “brown bear”. I think both are from “black, dark” P-U word; calling bears “the dark one, the brown one” is a near-universal WW %mol same underived Gamble 1991 (from Harrington) 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Yokuts Yawdanchi Ursus americanus dûuxun bear unique only in Yawd, Wik (Tule-Kaweah branch) same underived Kroeber 1961:199 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Yokuts Yowlumne Ursus americanus moloi bear loan Miwok only in Choynok, Yawe Callaghan 2001:333 says “may match PM *my:de “brown bear”. I think both are from “black, dark” P-U word; calling bears “the dark one, the brown one” is a near-universal WW %mol same underived Kroeber 1961:199 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Yuki Ursus americanus wošet A, F, wah-shit MWO black bear inheritance *wəšit' other complex -it is absolutive Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Yuma Ursus americanus mŭCH whet'-tah A bear (Ursus) inheritance Proto-Yuman badger-big (see badger) unknown Merriam 61:449 1 2 0 0 0 yes