Yuki

Family
Isolate (NAM)
Region
North America
ISO 639-3
yuk
Location
39.84°, -123.30°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (185)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location mi:T inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar ha,sha,(7) , is nasalization on preceding V unknown S&S 1984 Jane Hill
all todo todos other hi:l inheritance S&S1984 Jane Hill
and y e grammar hoy unknown S&S1984 Jane Hill
ankle tobillo tornozelo body to/-kum CHM, t&o/-ku\/m inheritance S&S1984 Jane Hill
armpit axila, sobaco axila body yo:han unknown S&S1984 Jane Hill
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment po7oT'el inheritance S&S1984 Jane Hill
at en, a em, a location -at unknown S&S1984 Jane Hill
back espalda costas body k'olk'i inheritance S&S1984 Jane Hill
bad mal mal quality ka7ach'am inheritance S&S1984 Jane Hill
belly barriga barriga body k'i:p inheritance S&S1984 Jane Hill
below abajo, debajo abaixo location ha.:hen, ha,:m, hahm unknown S&S1984 Jane Hill
big grande grande quality ho:T inheritance S&S1984 Jane Hill
bite morder morder body sha,sh- inheritance S&S1984 Jane Hill
black negro preto colour shi7ik c is sh inheritance S&S1984 Jane Hill
blood sangre sangue body 7a,s inheritance S&S1984 Jane Hill
blow soplar soprar body puch- inheritance S&S1984 Jane Hill
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body [pash] “sore” unknown S&S 1984 Jane Hill
bone hueso osso body k'i:t inheritance S&S1984 Jane Hill
breast pecho, seno peito body huy (“female, milk”) inheritance S&S1984 Jane Hill
breathe respirar respirar body 7ot- inheritance S&S1984 Jane Hill
burn quemar queimar environment k'al- unknown K1911:Voc Jane Hill
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body sha,y, shoy loan S&S1984 Jane Hill
child niño, niña criança human sak inheritance S&S1984 Jane Hill
climb subir subir motion ya7 unknown S&S1984 Jane Hill
cloud nube nuvem environment 7ip inheritance S&S1984 Jane Hill
cold frío frio quality Ta:m-, Tam- (of person or weather) inheritance S&S1984 Jane Hill
come venir vir motion ko:m (come 1) inheritance S&S1984 Jane Hill
cook cocinar cozinhar impact 7u7uch'a:h-, 7u7uch'a7ah- “cook1, fry” unknown S&S1984 Jane Hill
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality missing Jane Hill
count contar contar mental T'il inheritance S&S1984 Jane Hill
cry llorar chorar mental k'in- inheritance S&S1984 Jane Hill
cut/hack cortar cortar impact ta,y- “cut1” inheritance K1911:Voc Jane Hill
day día dia time 7inay', 7enay' loan into protolanguage S&S1984 Jane Hill
die/be dead morir morrer state k'o(:)l- “die, shrivel (K1911)”, also “kill” S&S inheritance S&S1984 Jane Hill
dig cavar cavar impact pa,l-, pol-, pul- unknown S&S1984 Jane Hill
dingo/wolf fauna waN-yil-mol “wolf” inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
dirty sucio sujo quality shImIt, shimet inheritance S&S1984 Jane Hill
dream soñar sonhar mental 7inam- inheritance S&S1984 Jane Hill
drink beber, tomar beber body mi7-, me7-, mi:- loan into protolanguage S&S1984 Jane Hill
dry seco seco quality kon (dry 1) inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality 7a,lTa,l “sharp-not” unknown S&S 1984 Jane Hill
dust polvo poeira environment po7oT'el inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
ear oreja orelha body sha,m, shom, shum, $a:m loan direction unknown S&S 1984 Jane Hill
earth/soil tierra terra environment 7on inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
eat comer comer body ha,wa,y- inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
egg huevo ovo fauna ha,: loan direction unknown S&S 1984 Jane Hill
eye ojo olho body hu(:)l loan into protolanguage S&S 1984 Jane Hill
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body sha,y, shoy inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
fall caer cair motion p'a:n- “fall 1” unknown S&S 1984 Jane Hill
far lejos longe quality wit unknown S&S1984 Jane Hill
fat/grease grasa gordura body lu(:)l inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
father padre, papá pai kinship -k'on', -k'unu' inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
fear miedo medo mental 7u7- unknown S&S1984 Jane Hill
feather pluma pena fauna kop loan into protolanguage S&S 1984 Jane Hill
fire fuego fogo environment yim unknown S&S 1984 Jane Hill
fish xx xx fauna ha,w “fish, salmon” inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
flow fluir fluir motion Tal-, Ta:l-, Ta:- unknown S&S 1984 Jane Hill
flower flor flor environment 7in' ka,wa,m, 7inka,wom inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
fly volar voar motion ti7- unknown S&S 1984 Jane Hill
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment k'o: na,:T unknown S&S 1984 Jane Hill
foot pie body mepan, mipan inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
fruit fruta fruta flora mam “berry, nut, seed” inheritance S&S1984 Jane Hill
good bueno bom quality Tat, tat inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
grow crecer crescer state mam unknown K1911:Voc Jane Hill
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body t'ol loan direction unknown Jane Hill
hand mano mão body mepat inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar ki-, ki(7), ki:, kih unknown S&S1984 Jane Hill
head cabeza cabeça body nan inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
hear oír ouvir mental ha,l inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
heavy pesado pesado quality hanach inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
hide esconder esconder motion pis- (vt) unknown S&S 1984 Jane Hill
hit golpear, pegar bater impact taNl “win, beat” unknown K1911:Voc Jane Hill
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other 7ah- “catch, hold, take” inheritance S&S1984 Jane Hill
how? como como grammar haymas inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
1sg yo eu grammar 7a,p (agent) inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
if si se grammar -ika unknown S&S1984 Jane Hill
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location -am, -m (or -ki) unknown K1911:356 Jane Hill
intestines intestinos intestinos body 7a,m “entrails, guts” inheritance S&S1984 Jane Hill
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body k'ik'- inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
kill matar matar impact li7-, le7 inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental na,nak “know, know a person”, na,nak'- “learn” unknown S&S 1984 Jane Hill
lake lago lago environment 7u: T'a,:, 7u7u T'a: unknown S&S 1984 Jane Hill
laugh reír rir mental mush- “laugh, smile” inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
leaf hoja folha environment pal, 7olpal loan direction unknown S&S 1984 Jane Hill
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body mIka7acham, mika'ach(a,m) unknown S&S 1984 Jane Hill
leg/foot pierna perna body T'a,7a,ch, T'a,:t leg 1 (CHM “thigh”) inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion na,m-, num-, nom- inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment p'ah inheritance S1985 Jane Hill
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body me\//-he\/ (CHM), meh-, m2h- “be, exist” inheritance S&S84 Jane Hill
liver hígado figado body ho: inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
long largo comprido, longo quality ka,y-, koy- “long, tall, far inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna shishuk inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
lung pulmón pulmão body 7o7oTam, 7o:Tam inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
man/male hombre homem human 7iwop, 7iwa,p, 7iwup, inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
meat/flesh carne carne fauna mil (see “deer”) inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
moon luna lua environment lashk'aw “moon, month” inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship -k'an' inheritance Jane Hill
mouth boca boca body na,hen, nahan inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
name nombre nome human ya,w- inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body li:kam inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
near/close cerca de perto quality 7i(:)ch, 7e(:)ch, -ich, -ech inheritance S&S1984 Jane Hill
neck cuello pescoço body li7ik'am inheritance S&H 1984 Jane Hill
new nuevo novo quality ma,ha,l, ma,h, ma, ; ma,l inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
night noche noite time na,k, nok “dark, night” inheritance S&S1984 Jane Hill
no/not no não grammar Ta,l- “negative” inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
nose nariz nariz body hanT'il inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
old viejo velho quality 7olwis, 7o:lwis, 7olwi:s, inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
one uno um number pa,7- inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
open/uncover abrir abrir other hil (vt) inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
other otro outro grammar k'ol inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body Ti:hish (N) sh as in English inheritance S&S84 Jane Hill
person/human being persona pessoa human 7a:Yat, 7a(:)Tat “people, Indian (s), man, person loan into protolanguage S&S 1984 Jane Hill
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact TuT' unknown S&S 1984 Jane Hill
rain lluvia chuva environment t'u:m (N) unknown S&S 1984 Jane Hill
red rojo vermelho colour 7a,:sich, 7a,(:)si:7ich, etc. (see “blood”) inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
right/right hand derecha direita location/body me-ta\//-to (CHM), mipat mitat unknown S&S 1984 Jane Hill
road/path camino caminho manufacture mi:sh, mesh, mish, me:sh inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
root raíz raiz flora kutkin (K1911) inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
rotten podrido podre quality loT'- unknown S&S 1984 Jane Hill
sand arena areia environment nu7, nu7uch, nu:ch inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
say decir dizer mental 7i:m, 7e:m inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
scratch rascar rasgar impact k'o:t-, k'ot'- inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
see ver ver mental na,w inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality 7a,l inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact mat-, maNt, matke inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
short corto curto quality pu:hich, puhu7ich inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
shoulder hombro ombro body 7a,:sel', CHM aw-shawt' inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental 7i: t'olo7otek loan direction unknown S&S1984 Jane Hill
sit sentar(se) sentar state shu7- inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
skin piel pele body shil (skin, shell, bark) loan into protolanguage S&S 1984 Jane Hill
sky cielo céu environment mi:T, mit inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
sleep dormir dormir body 7in loan into protolanguage S&S1984 Jane Hill
small pequeño pequeno quality 7o:lsil, 7u:nshil, 7unsil, 7unsel inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
smoke humo fumaça environment woyam, woyom inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body missing Jane Hill
spit escupir cuspir body oh- “vomit, spit” unknown S&S 1984 Jane Hill
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact haN (vi) unknown K1911:Voc Jane Hill
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact mit'ik, meti'ik, met'ik unknown S&S 1984 Jane Hill
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact sut'- unknown S&S 1984 Jane Hill
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state ya,sh- (of a person) inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
star estrella estrela environment manch'ip'a,:se, manch'ip2,s inheritance Jane Hill
steal robar roubar other wa,ch' unknown S&S 1984 Jane Hill
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora 7al loan into protolanguage S&S 1984 Jane Hill
stone piedra pedra environment lil loan into protolanguage S&S 1984 Jane Hill
suck chupar chupar body 7oT'-, 7oT'e inheritance S&S1984 Jane Hill
sweat sudar suor, suar body hi:w- unknown S&S1984 Jane Hill
swell hincharse inchar body k'a:n- inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
swim nadar nadar motion k'i(:)s- inheritance S&S1984 Jane Hill
tail cola, rabo rabo body k'a,:s inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
that ese/esa esse grammar ki-, ki(7), ki:, kih inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar ki-, ki(7), ki:, kih unknown S&S 1984 Jane Hill
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality Tu:T unknown S&S 1984 Jane Hill
thin delgado fino quality ho:p, ho7op inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
think pensar pensar mental hanak, hana unknown S&S 1984 Jane Hill
this este/esta este grammar ka-, ka(&), ka: inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
2sg xx xx grammar me7, mi7, meh inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
three tres tres number molme inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
throat garganta garganta body lo:mul' inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact su(:)p unknown S&S 1984 Jane Hill
thunder truenos trovão environment 7a,la:mal,7ola:mal inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact at unknown K1911:Voc Jane Hill
tongue lengua lingua body na,mlat, na,mlap, nomlat inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
tooth diente dente body sa,(:)k inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other wit inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
two dos dois number 7ope, 7opa inheritance S&S1984 Jane Hill
vomit vomitar vomitar body 7o7- inheritance K1911:362 Jane Hill
walk caminar, andar andar motion wo7 “walk, go” inheritance K1911:Voc Jane Hill
water agua agua environment 7u:k, 7u7uk loan into protolanguage S&S 1984 Jane Hill
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar 7us (agent) inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar mi:, me: inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
wet mojado molhado quality k'at', k'a7aT inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
what? que, qué que grammar 7iyi inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
when? cuando quando grammar 7i:win inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
where? donde onde grammar 7im inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
white blanco branco colour ch'a:l, ch'al loan direction unknown S&S 1984 Jane Hill
who? quien, quién quem grammar ma,y-, moy-, moih inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
wife esposa esposa kinship musp inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
wind viento vento environment p'ans inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
wing ala asa body ka/\p P loan direction unknown S&S 1984 Jane Hill
woman/female mujer mulher human musp inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
work trabajar trabalhar other wi(:)T inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
yawn bostezar bocejar body k'aw- unknown S&S 1984 Jane Hill
yellow amarillo amarelo colour poT unknown S&S 1984 Jane Hill
2pl ustedes vocês grammar mo7os, mos inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (130)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
abalone flora-fauna Haliotis spp. paaNt-am B N is raised n abalone inheritance *pət'am Yukian Schlichter 1985 other complex -am derives nouns Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 1 0 0 1 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae hun-tum she'-mah black ant (but note is base for “red ant”) unique phrase unknown elements Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 0 0 2 0 0 no
antelope flora-fauna Antilocapra americana missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
badger flora-fauna Taxidea taxus ōn-tip'-pus MWO, on=ti'-pŭs CS badger unique phrase on “earth, ground” Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 1 0 0 0 yes
bald eagle flora-fauna Haliaeetus leucocephalus pahl' MWO bald eagle (Elmendorf uses (B) sa 1993:231 inheritance *pal Yukian Schlichter 1985 underived Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 1 2 0 0 1 no
band-tail pigeon flora-fauna Patagioenas fasciata ō-pl MWO, ōp'-leh P band-tail pigeon inheritance *7opli Yukian & Wappo Schlichter 1985 underived Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 0 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
beaver flora-fauna Castor missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
beetle flora-fauna Coleoptera spp chum-pōs MO beetle unique underived probably complex Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 0 0 0 0 no
big round tule flora-fauna Schoenoplectus acutus su:n A big round tule, S. lacustris inheritance *son Yukian-Wappo Schlichter 1985; Elmendorf 1993:211 underived Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 1 2 0 0 no
big skunk flora-fauna Mephitis mephitis si:skina F, si:skin A skunk inheritance *sihskin(a) Yukian Schlichter 1985 compound lit. behind stink (kin) Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 2 0 0 0 no
big wolf (gray wolf) flora-fauna Canis lupus wois'-mah MWO, wais'-mol P, wáN-'yĭl-mol Cs big wolf inheritance *wayis(m)ol' Yukian Schlichter 1985 relative clause -mol agentive Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 1 2 0 0 0 yes
bighorn sheep flora-fauna Ovis canadensis missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna č'i:mit bird, blackbird inheritance *č'imit' Yukian Schlichter 1985; here “Yukian” means “Proto-Northern Yukian” (PNY), “Yuki-Wappo” means “Yukian” in the broad sense other complex -it "perhaps an absolutive" Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 0 0 0 0 0 no
black ant flora-fauna Camponotus pennsylvanicus/Lasius niger o-lah'-letch MWO small odorous ant, piss ant unique other complex -ich suffix Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 0 0 0 0 no
black bear flora-fauna Ursus americanus wošet A, F, wah-shit MWO black bear inheritance *wəšit' other complex -it is absolutive Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 1 2 0 0 0 yes
black-tail Jackrabbit flora-fauna Lepus californicus lo:pis A, F black-tail jackrabbit (CHM confirms) unique Note Nim-Yokuts *topol underived Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 1 0 0 0 no
blackberry flora-fauna Rubus ursinus k'a:le mam F blackberry inheritance *k'alimam Yukian Schlichter 1985; -mam “berry” (Note Nim-Yokuts *mam-l) (Note also Miwokan k'ili “thorn” (approx)) WW %mam compound thorn berry; contains word for “wild rose/thorn”, *-mam “berry” (Elmendorf 1993) Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 1 2 0 0 no
blue grouse flora-fauna Dendrogapus? e-too'-kum MWO blue grouse inheritance *7iTukam Yukian Schlichter 1985 other complex -am derives nouns (Schlichter diss) Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 0 1 0 0 0 no
bobcat, lynx flora-fauna Lynx rufus >kam'-mĕ-litch> MWO bobcat inheritance *k'amol' Yukian Schlichter 1985 other complex panther--ič 'close,near, similar to” Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 1 2 0 0 0 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera p'al-p'ol-i K butterfly inheritance *pal-, *palpol ? Yukian Schlichter 1985 reduplicated -i is noun suffix Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 0 0 0 0 no
California condor flora-fauna Gymnogyps californianus pahl' MWO California Condor inheritance *pal Yukian Schlichter 1985 underived Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 1 2 0 0 1 no
California jay flora-fauna Aphelocoma californica? čą7e A bluejay loan *č'ə7əy Yukian unknown Schlichter 1985; areal WW %chaj underived Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 1 0 0 0 no
California woodpecker flora-fauna Melanerpes formicivorus? aw-se'-um MWO, ûNsīam B, áN-sĭn CS California woodpecker inheritance *7əsiyam Yukian Schlichter 1985 derived 7əs “blood” Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 1 0 0 1 no
chia flora-fauna Salvia columbariae pā'-shil hel “meal of small seeds”; CHM says pa'-shil is tarweed, Madia elegans loan Salinan? ultimately California “chia” word, *hil “seed” is Yukian; look at Chia, Tarweed and see if other eg's WW %pasv other complex -il' is suffix (MW) in Schlichter 1985:299 1 1 1 0 0 no
chipmunk flora-fauna Tamias spp. naw-kin'-ne-um MWO, mΩ:k'ɩnɩn LL chipmunk unique other complex -am derives nouns Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 1 0 0 0 no
cliff swallow flora-fauna Petrochelidon pyrrhonota awl-koos-spă'-tah MWO barn swallow (Hirundo) inheritance *pot'a, *pot'a7 Yukian Schlichter 1985 phrase “tree-bodyhair (moss) swallow” Schlichter 1985:88 Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 1 0 0 0 no
coot flora-fauna Fulica americana we'-shil mat'-mah MO, ūūtcûNi B mudhen inheritance *wišil matma Yukian Schlichter 1985; B form is *7uk'čəy compound Schlichter diss Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottontail rabbit flora-fauna Sylvilagus audobonii pu:la>n LL, pu:lʌNm LF brush rabbit, cottontail unique underived Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottonwood flora-fauna Populus spp. pątme7 F cottonwood tree inheritance Yukian-Wappo Note Merriam has pahtah'-pah al'-way for Mil (57:533); Wappo is pah-to phrase pat “cottonwood” is my guess, a Wanderwort -- -me7?? Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 0 2 0 0 no
coyote flora-fauna Canis latrans hulk'o7e Coyote inheritance *hulk'oy' Yukian Schlichter 1985 compound eye-put.out in ref to a myth of Raven & Coyote S&S 1984:54 (hul- “eye”) Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 1 2 0 0 0 no
crow flora-fauna Corvus brachyrhynchos hančam A crow inheritance *hənčam Yukian Schlichter 1985 phrase han -X?? Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 1 0 0 0 no
datura flora-fauna Datura wrightii missing missing missing 1 1 1 1 0 yes
deer, mule flora-fauna Odocoileus hemionus mile, mili A deer (black-tail, O. columbianus) inheritance *mil Yukian Schlichter 1985; note that “Yukian” is also known as “North Yukian”, and Yuki-Wappo as “Yukian” in the literature underived Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 1 0 0 0 no
digger pine flora-fauna Pinus sabiniana po'-kum MWO, palkam-ol B, pók-mi CS Digger pine (P. sabiniana) inheritance *pokam Yukian Schlichter 1985 compound -ol, -mi "tree" Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 1 2 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris 7a(:)Twošet dog inheritance *hə7wəšit' Yukian Schlichter 1985 compound lit. image of a bear, like bear (wošet); Schlichter diss says is “house-grizzly” Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 0 0 0 0 0 no
dogbane flora-fauna Apocynum cannabinum mah' MWO Indian hemp, thread inheritance *mah Yukian Schlichter 1985; note proto-Pomo *mahxa (McLendon 1973:78) WW %mah underived Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 1 2 0 0 no
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna Zenaida macrocoura hą:yu:me A, F dove inheritance *mayu (?) Yukian Schlichter 1985; Proto-Pomo *ma:yu(:) (McLendon 1973:73) underived Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 1 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae su:s A duck, goose, mallard; MW Canada goose inheritance *sus, *susa Yukian Schlichter 1985 underived Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 0 1 0 0 0 no
elder flora-fauna Sambucus kew'-e MWO elder inheritance *kiwi Yukian Schlichter 1985 other complex -i a noun siffix Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 1 1 0 0 no
elk flora-fauna Cervas elaphus mil'onti:tam LF elk inheritance *milatihtam Yukian Schlichter 1985 phrase, other complex deer-mountain; -am derives nouns Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 1 0 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna hąw A, F fish, salmon inheritance *həw Yukian-Wappo Schlichter 1985; Elemendorf 1997:80 Wappo 7ew underived Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 0 1 0 0 0 no
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna Siphonaptera T'oko7, T'oke (?) A flea inheritance *T'ohk, *T'ohka, *T'ohki Yukian Schlichter 1985; note Wappo č'oth “mosquito”, (Elemendorf 1993:233); also č'óTe “flea” JHH underived Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 0 0 0 0 no
flicker flora-fauna Colaptes sp. woi'-mo, woi-muh MWO, woi>mol B, wâ/-i-mol Cs flicker, yellowhammer inheritance *moymol' Yukian Schlichter 1985 relative clause -mol "agentive" Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 1 0 0 1 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera č'o:pe F fly inheritance *č'op, *č'opi, *č'opa ? Yukian Schlichter 1985; note Wappo chiw “fly, housefly” underived Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 0 0 0 0 0 no
foothills yucca flora-fauna Yucca whipplei missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
fox flora-fauna Vulpes, Urocyon yuk=wáN-shi Cs fox (CHM Gray fox, Urocyon) unique phrase unknown elements Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 2 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna 7oT'a F, 7o:7oT A frog inheritance *7oT'a7; *7oT' Yukian Schlichter 1985 other complex -a7 "animate suffix on substantives" (Schlicter diss p. 52) Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 2 0 0 0 no
golden eagle flora-fauna Aquila chrysaetos sahol' A, F eagle, MW: red-tailed hawk, with sah' as “eagle MWO inheritance *sahol', *sah Yukian Schlichter 1985 other complex Schlichter diss says -ol short for -mol agentive Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 1 2 0 0 1 no
gooseberry flora-fauna Ribes spp. mum' MW; mam ču:hu (?) A gooseberry, currants (Ribes sp.); gooseberry inheritance *mam Yukian JHH. see blackberry, note Nim-Yokuts *mam-l WW %mam underived Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 1 1 0 0 no
gopher snake, bull snake flora-fauna Pituophis catenifer ol-lool' MWO (p. 97), a:lula' LF bull snake, gopher snake inheritance *ollul Yukian Schlichter 1985; *7ol-lul (tree fat) also Yukian; Wappo hána:koTa “bullsnake” compound tree-fat; LF form has animate -a7 Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 2 0 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) yo:T A, F grass unique underived Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Caelifera la:čam, la:č'am A grasshopper inheritance *lač'am Yukian Schlichter 1985 other complex -am derives nouns Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray ground squirrel flora-fauna Sphermophilus sp. šišąl' F gray ground squirrel (CHM confirms) loan *šiš, *šiša Yukian unknown Schlichter 1985 WW %sik underived Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray tree squirrel flora-fauna Sciurus spp. na:Tam A gray squirrel, gray tree squirrel S. fossor inheritance *nəhTam Yukian Schlichter 1985 other complex -am derives nouns Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 1 0 0 0 no
great horned owl flora-fauna Bubo virginianus minkuTa F, minkuT A great horned owl inheritance *məhk'uT(a7) Yukian Schlichter 1985 underived probably complex Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 1 2 2 0 1 no
grizzly bear flora-fauna Ursus arctos horribilis wah-shit chahl> MWO č'al grizzly bear inheritance *wəšit' Yukian Schlichter 1985 phrase bear white Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 1 2 0 0 0 yes
horned toad flora-fauna Phrynosomatidae missing missing missing 2 2 2 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus kawaye, kawayo A horse loan Spanish WW %caballo underived Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae hoo'-mŭl hummingbird loan no information Note Maidu húmp'ilìsto; Costanoan *(h)umu:ña relative clause -mol agentive Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 0 0 0 0 0 no
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana spp. woyąl' A, F, woyol' A tobacco inheritance *woy(m)ol' Yukian Schlichter 1985 other complex -ol short for -mol Schlichter diss Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 1 1 1 1 0 yes
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing missing missing 0 0 2 0 0 variable
junco flora-fauna Junco sppp hun'-to-lahsh' MWO junco unique phrase unknown elements Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 0 1 0 0 0 no
juniper flora-fauna Juniperus californica missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
louse flora-fauna order Phtiraptera ik'a7 LF louse (not body louse, so perhaps head louse JHH) inheritance *7ik' Yukian Schlichter 1985 other complex -a7 animate suffix Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 0 0 0 0 no
mallard flora-fauna Anas platyrhynchos su:s A duck, goose, mallard; MW Canada goose inheritance *sus, *susa Yukian Schlichter 1985 underived Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 1 0 0 0 no
manzanita flora-fauna Arctostaphylos spp. ku7uč F manzanita inheritance *kuč' Yukian-Wappo Schlichter 1985; Elemendorf 1997:80 Wappo huc'e underived Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, broad leaf flora-fauna Asclepias eriocarpa mah chahk' MWO broad-leaf milkweed inheritance *mah Yukian Schlichter 1985 phrase ch'ak “whip”??? Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, narrow leaf flora-fauna Asclepias fascicularis hamč'uk A greens, gray-leaf, eaten like clover; chewing gum (probably A. fascicularis JHH) unique underived probably complex, but unidentified elements Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 0 1 1 0 0 no
mission tule flora-fauna Juncus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
mockingbird flora-fauna Mimus polyglottos missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera č'o:p č'ala F mosquito inheritance *č'op č'ala Yukian Schlichter 1985; note Wappo č'oth (Elemendorf 1993:233) relative clause lit. fly sting; Schlichter diss says is “compound” but perhaps not in our sense Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 0 0 0 0 0 no
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna Heterocera missing missing missing 2 0 0 0 0 no
mountain lion flora-fauna Puma concolor >kam'-mo MWO; k'amul' A mountain lion, panther inheritance *k'amol' Yukian Schlichter 1985; Check Costanoan, Mil; note Wappo k'atama ? underived Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 1 2 0 0 0 yes
mountain quail flora-fauna Oreortyx pictus kawk'-kĕ MWO, kaNk Cs mountain quail unique looks like regional kakata, etc. forms; Pomoan *xaqa:qa (McLendon 1973:86 underived Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 1 0 0 0 no
mussel flora-fauna Mytilus spp. nawk> MW, naNk-cil B mussels inheritance *nok' Yukian Schlichter 1985 underived Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 1 0 0 1 no
olivella (olive snail) flora-fauna Callianax biplicata missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 1 no
pinyon jay flora-fauna Cyanocitta stelleri? chi'-han-haht' MWO crested jay, Cyanocitta loan *č'ə7əy Yukian unknown Schlichter 1985; areal; I assume root here is same as in (4) WW %chaj phrase ch'ay X? (see han in “crow”) Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 1 0 0 0 no
pinyon pine flora-fauna Pinus monophylla missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
pismo clam flora-fauna Tivella stultorum missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
pocket gopher flora-fauna Thomomys koi-yah, koi-yŭ' MWO pocket gopher inheritance *koya7 Yukian-Wappo Schlichter 1985; Wappo čóya underived Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 1 0 0 0 no
poison oak flora-fauna Toxicodendron diversilobum we'-el MWO, wahl-hoosh MWO Poison oak inheritance *wi7il Yukian Schlichter 1985 other complex -il a noun suffix Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 2 2 0 0 yes
rattlesnake flora-fauna Crotalus spp. lil nąw'en, lil ną7in, etc. F rattlesnake unique phrase lil “rock” Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 1 2 0 0 0 yes
red ant flora-fauna Solenopsis spp hun-tum she'-mah us'-sah MW red ant unique phrase huntum shima is a black ant, us-sah red??? Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 1 0 1 0 0 no
red-shouldered blackbird flora-fauna Agelaius phoeniceus shoo-pah MWO, Sup U brewer's or red-shouldered blackbird inheritance *šipa Yukian Schlichter 1985 underived Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 1 0 0 0 no
red-tailed hawk flora-fauna Buteo jamaicensis T'o7okmul' A T retroflex t chicken hawk unique relative clause -mol agentive? Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 2 0 0 0 no
roadrunner flora-fauna Geococcyx californianus o-chaw'-e MWO road runner unique Wappo cuch other complex -i is a noun suffix Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 1 0 0 0 no
ruddy duck flora-fauna Oxyura jamaicensis su:s A duck, etc. inheritance *sus, *susa Yukian underived 2 1 0 0 0 no
sage herb flora-fauna Artemisia californica hanmu:le A, pun'-kuni C, p!úCnkini Cs wormwood inheritance *pun- Yukian Schlichter 1985 phrase han- ? Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 2 1 0 0 no
salmon/steelhead flora-fauna Oncorhynchus mykiss hąw A, F fish, salmon inheritance *həw Yukian-Wappo Schlichter 1985; Elmendorf 1997:80 Wappo 7ew underived Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 1 0 0 0 no
scaly lizard flora-fauna Pygopus lepidopodus? są:t'e F, sątin A Scaly lizard (CHM confirms) inheritance *sət'i(ya)m Yukian Schlichter 1985 underived Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 2 0 0 0 no
small bird flora-fauna missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
small brown lizard flora-fauna missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna hunk'an' any snake MW inheritance *hunk'an' Yukian-Wappo Schlichter 1985 underived Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 0 1 0 0 0 no
soaproot flora-fauna Chlorogalum nösh C, noosh MWO, nuš Fo, nush Cs also ku-lum (C) soaproot inheritance *kəlam Yukian-Wappo Schlichter 1985; Wappo o-kah'-le underived Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 1 1 0 0 no
sour berry flora-fauna Rhus trilobata missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
sparrow hawk flora-fauna Falco me-leel' MWO sparrow hawk unique other complex -il a noun suffix Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 2 0 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae hulmu:nin F spider inheritance *hulmuni- Yukian Schlichter 1985 compound eye covered.with.web. Cs Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 0 0 2 0 0 variable
spotted skunk flora-fauna Spilogale gracilis mil-moo'-she MWO, mil=mú-shi Cs little spotted skunk unique phrase lit. deer laugh, alluding to a myth in which skunk trails his intestines and makes spider laugh so hard that fire erupts from his abdomen S&S 1984:189) Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 2 0 0 0 no
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna Bufonidae al-kap'-to MWO toad inheritance Yukian-Wappo Wappo lelekópa phrase tree-X Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 2 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) 7o(:)l A, F, 7al A tree inheritance *7ol Yukian-Wappo Schlichter 1985; Elemendorf 1993:207 (but perhaps areal) underived Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 0 0 2 0 0 no
tree yucca flora-fauna Yucca schidegera missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
turkey buzzard flora-fauna Cathartes aura 7ayam A buzzard inheritance *7ayam Yukian Schlichter 1985; Wappo maya:t'a -- metath? other complex -am derives nouns; J46Kroeber suggested was related to /aNy/ “glide” (S&S 1984:93) Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 2 0 0 0 no
turtle (generic) flora-fauna Testudines só-pŭ Cs, sop B, so-pah' MWO turtle inheritance *sop'(a7) Yukian Schlichter 1985 other complex -a7 animate in 2 of 3 forms Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 2 0 0 1 no
valley live oak flora-fauna Quercus agrifolia hah''-sĕ MWO, ha:s U Q. chrysolepis, Mountain live oak inheritance Yukian-Wappo Note Yokutsan forms like “esin” ?? for Black Oak Q. Californica; Wappo híšo underived Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley oak flora-fauna Quercus lobata ki-e'-me MWO, káN-yi-mi Cs Q. lobata inheritance *kəyam 7ol “valley oak” Yukian Schlichter 1985 compound -mi "tree" Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley quail flora-fauna Callipepla californica Tu:liš A, F quail inheritance *tulihš Yukian Schlichter 1985 underived Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 1 0 0 0 no
Washington clam flora-fauna Saxidomus nuttalli hûslawe B; hus-sahl MW clam; clamshell disks; hasul' A string of beads 205 loan into protolanguage *həs “clamshell beads” Yukian Costanoan Schlichter 1985 WW %kys underived Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 1 0 0 1 no
Western Canada goose flora-fauna Branta canadensis su:s A duck, goose, mallard; MW Canada goose (Shlichter has la'k) inheritance *sus, *susa Yukian underived Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 0 1 0 0 0 no
whale flora-fauna Eschrichtius robustus hąw -hoT-am (K) whale inheritance *həw-*hohTam “fish big” Yukian phrase, other complex fish-large; -am derives nouns Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 1 2 0 1 no
white pelican flora-fauna Pelicanus erythrorhynchos missing missing missing 0 2 0 0 0 no
wild grapevine flora-fauna Vitis californica mu7umam (A, F), mu7umam hąyen' (the vine) A wild grapes, grapevine inheritance Yukian-Wappo Elmendorf 1997:80 (Wappo mehwa) and note Miwok muTe phrase mu7u-berry Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild oats flora-fauna Avena (introduction) wah-shit' kil-litch' MW; waN-shĭ/t=k'i-lĭch Cs wild oats inheritance *wəš (it') ka/il- Yukian phrase, other complex lit. bear seed; -ič is probably the “like, resembling” suffix (Schlichter diss p. 52) Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild rose flora-fauna Rosa californica kah'-le MW, ka-li C wild rose inheritance *kala/i Yukian Schlichter 1985; really “thorn”, note similar Wintun, Miwokan “thorn” words other complex -i is noun suffix Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 0 1 2 0 0 no
wild sunflower flora-fauna Helianthus (and other genera) p'i:š nan F sunflower unique phrase nan is “head” Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 0 1 0 0 0 no
willow flora-fauna Salix spp. šipi A,šipit A Willow (white) inheritance *sip, *sipa, *sipi Yukian-Wappo Schlichter 1985; Elmendorf 1993:211 other complex -it a noun suffix Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 2 1 0 0 no
wood rat, round-tail flora-fauna Neotoma spp. naw-che'-um WHO wood rat inheritance *nawč Yukian Schlichter 1985 other complex -am derives nouns Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 1 0 0 0 no
worm, hairy caterpillar flora-fauna Arctiidae (many species) chotch'-muh MW hairy caterpillar unique underived probably complex Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 2 0 0 0 no
worm, smooth caterpillar flora-fauna Trichoplusia ni (?) cabbage looper muy' F worm inheritance *muy' Yukian Schlichter 1985 underived Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 2 0 0 0 no
yellow jacket flora-fauna Vespula spp., Dolichovespula spp. naw A, nah'-ahm MWO, na>əNm LF bee, yellowjacket inheritance *naw' Yukian-Wappo Schlichter 1985; Elmendorf 1993:233) other complex -am derives nouns Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 0 0 0 0 no
yellowbird flora-fauna Dendroica petechia missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
yerba santa flora-fauna Eriodictyon californicum tel-at'-mo C Yerba Santa unique relative clause stick catch Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 1 1 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna hun-tum she/-mah CHM unknown S&S1984 Jane Hill
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna ch'i:mit (bird, blackbird) inheritance S&S1984 Jane Hill
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna ch'o:pe, ch'op, ch'opi inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna 7a(:)Twoshet inheritance S&S1984 Jane Hill
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna yo:T unknown S&S 1984 Jane Hill
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna mile, mili inheritance S&S1984 Jane Hill
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna lil na,w'en, lil na,7in, lil na,7en, lil na,:7en' “rattlesnake” unknown S&S 1984 Jane Hill
spider araña aranha flora-fauna hulmu:nin inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill


Cultural Vocabulary (115)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
acorn mush food hot acorn soup, mush, gravy inheritance Proto-North Yukian also šaymuč aaas7s 1984:19 simplex Schlichter 1985 Jane Hill
ball game food t'oč-lele shinny game unknown ToT S&S 24 Elmendorf 1993 Jane Hill
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
feather headband dress nan yu7 headdress unknown phrase nan head Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 Jane Hill
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool kiu arrow unknown simplex Schlichter 1985 Jane Hill
arrow straightener other missing missing Jane Hill
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
school escuela escola acculturation papel han school (lit. paper house) loan Spanish loan blend WW %papel phrase Schlichter & Sawyer 1984 Jane Hill
stone bowl culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material tu:k (Elmendorf form) basket inheritance Tuk' Proto-North Yukian Elmendorf 1993:227 confirms as generic simplex Schlichter 1985 Jane Hill
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material cho'-lil mush basket, small mush or soup basket inheritance *č'ulil' Proto-North Yukian Elmendorf gives šolóle p. 227 simplex Schlichter 1985 Jane Hill
basketry hat culture-material pok, pąk'ąl, pokul', pok'ol' hat inheritance *pëhk Proto-North Yukian Schlichter 1984:124 simplex Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 Jane Hill
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material hoşo clamshell bead unknown PNY in Elmendorf 1993; also šip 'magnesite bead' WW %kys simplex Jane Hill
ochre culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
bow arco arco subsistence tool lu7waT (Elmendorf form) bow. Gun inheritance *li7wëht Proto-North Yukian also hitmo7 S&S p. 33 derived from 'kill' Schlichter 1985:48 Schlichter 1985 Jane Hill
canoe canoa canoa transport utatumol boat unknown could this possibly be a blend of uta plus Chumash tomol, maybe by way of Spanish???? Or the source of tomol?? compound Elmendorf 1993 Jane Hill
carrying net subsistence tool hom burden net inheritance *hom Proto-North Yukian also hay 'pack net, burden net" *hay Schlichter 1985:255 simplex Schlichter 1985 Jane Hill
bottle botella garrafa acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
paper papel papel acculturation papel paper loan Spanish WW %papel simplex Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 Jane Hill
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology Ti7ul chief inheritance *Ti7ol' Proto-North Yukian S&S 1984:43 say this is Chinook Jargon. Also are other, more complex words p. 43 simplex Schlichter 1985 Jane Hill
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress nŭh'-ŏ breechcloth inheritance *në7a Proto-North Yukian simplex Schlichter 1985 Jane Hill
cook food food huy- cook inheritance *huy Proto-North Yukian also hąwąy yu7 food make S&S 51 simplex Schlichter 1985 Jane Hill
corpse food ko'-let dead person inheritance *k'ol Proto-North Yukian Looks Proto-Yukian, note Wappo k'à: čhó7el; compare k' = ch in 'needle, awl' derived k'ol 'die' Schlichter 1985 Jane Hill
dance (generic) culture-mythology wok'- dance, sing inheritance *wok' Proto-North Yukian simplex Schlichter 1985 Jane Hill
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool 7ëms digging stick inheritance *7ëms Proto-North Yukian also 7on pąl(m)ul' lit. stick for digging S&S p. 64 simplex Schlichter 1985 Jane Hill
dipper subsistence tool 7učuyul' water dipper (to get water out of the spring) also hot 7a7ol' 'dipper for acorn soup', nok 'dipper, spoon' derived Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 Jane Hill
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology 7inam to dream inheritance *inam Proto-North Yukian simplex cf. 7inkit 'sleep' 311 Schlichter 1985 Jane Hill
drone pipe culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology Tumul' drum (noise instrument) loan Miwok simplex Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 Jane Hill
chicken gallina galinha acculturation han č'i:mit chicken (lit. house bird) unique also čik phrase Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 Jane Hill
earring other missing missing Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology yaw'-mŭ devil or bad spirit, ghost loan Spanish WW %diablo simplex Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 Jane Hill
fire drill subsistence tool ahl-hoo'-lŏ, alT!iúdl-mol fire drill unknown compound al, ol 'wood Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 Jane Hill
fire-tender culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
fireplace hogar lareira other missing missing Jane Hill
firewood leña lenha other 7al wood, stick inheritance *7al Proto-Yukian Reconstruction is PNY; also 7al yi:kul' wood fire.instrument S&S 83 simplex Schlichter 1985 Jane Hill
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing missing Jane Hill
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food hút'óp to hunt, fish, look for derived frankly, guessing; most 'hunt' verbs aren't simple Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 Jane Hill
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool hąw hąmąl' fish poison unknown phrase Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 Jane Hill
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fish hook subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
acorn bread food hu7utmil, hoo-til acorn bread inheritance *huhtil' Proto-North Yukian simplex Schlichter 1985 Jane Hill
wheat food k'ilič wheat loan Spanish must have intermediate lg. WW %trigo simplex Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 Jane Hill
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology ki'w-i-pi'i-mo>l elder flute unknown pimo>l 'flute' 85 compound Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 Jane Hill
gambling sticks other al-toi, al-tikam black bone, white bone in grass game compound Elmendorf 1993 Jane Hill
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food missing missing Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology hulk'ilal ghost inheritance *hulk'ilal Proto-North Yukian compound includes "eye" (Schlichter 1985:48) Schlichter 1985 Jane Hill
glue subsistence tool k'at mehol glue unknown phrase Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 Jane Hill
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology pēt grave in ground (CHM) unknown simplex Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 Jane Hill
alcohol food yim 7u7uk whiskey (lit. fire water) unique phrase Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 Jane Hill
Datura wrightii narcotics missing missing Jane Hill
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology lamšim doctor, shaman inheritance *lamšim Proto-North Yukian simplex Schlichter 1985 Jane Hill
honey miel mel food missing missing Jane Hill
house other han house inheritance *han, *hën Proto-North Yukian simplex Schlichter 1985 Jane Hill
hunt cazar caçar food hút'óp to hunt, fish, look for unknown derived Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 Jane Hill
initiate boy culture-mythology missing missing woknam ''dance-lie' S&S 113 because initiates lie motionless in dancehouse Jane Hill
initiate girl culture-mythology hamnam wok puberty ceremony for girls (lit. lie dance) inheritance *hënëmwok Proto-North Yukian phrase Schlichter 1985 Jane Hill
knife cuchillo faca culture-material kuči knife loan Spanish also lil-mapin Elmendorf 1993:229 WW %cuchillo simplex Schlichter 1985 Jane Hill
mat culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool kutëm bedrock or slab mortar inheritance Proto-North Yukian k'o(:)l 'mortar, pounding basket' derived suffix -m nmlzr Elmendorf 1993 Jane Hill
necklace other hus'-sah necklace (see bead) loan Yok-Utian WW %kys simplex Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 Jane Hill
needle/awl subsistence tool k'ít awl inheritance Proto-Yukian looks P-Yukian, cf. Wappo c'íti; Merriam has shoo-to'-mah awl of bone used in basketry simplex Elmendorf 1993 Jane Hill
paddle/oar remo remo transport missing missing Jane Hill
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool k'o:l-amT pestle inheritance *k'olam Proto-North Yukian Looks P-Yukian in Elmendorf 1993 (Wappo č'ola) derived suffix -m Schlichter 1985 Jane Hill
pinole food wo7oT pinole inheritance *woT' Proto-Yukian Looks P-Yukian, Wappo wá7te simplex Schlichter 1985 Jane Hill
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other woyal' 7ot (m)ol' pipe inheritance *woy(m)ol 7al Proto-North Yukian phrase tobacco-stick (Schlichter 1985:49) Schlichter 1985 Jane Hill
pitch food t'uyel, t'uy gum, pitch inheritance *t'uy', t'uy'il Proto-North Yukian simplex Schlichter 1985 Jane Hill
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
quiver subsistence tool oo-nah quiver inheritance *7una Proto-North Yukian simplex see 'carry on back Schlichter 1985 Jane Hill
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology či:put cocoon rattle, shaman's rattle made of cluster of oak galls inheritance *čippot simplex Schlichter 1985:48 includes in list of compounds but as 'unanalyzable' Schlichter 1985 Jane Hill
red paint culture-mythology ah-sitch red paint inheritance *7asič simplex see 'blood' Schlichter 1985 Jane Hill
salt sal sal food kum salt inheritance *kum Proto-North Yukian simplex Schlichter 1985 Jane Hill
seed beater subsistence tool wilk seed paddle inheritance *wilk Proto-North Yukian simplex Schllichter 1985 Jane Hill
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology 7ačH (S) clothes, clothing inheritance *7ač Proto-North Yukian simplex Schllichter 1985 Jane Hill
sinew-backed bow subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material k'olkut apron, dress unknown compound Schlichter 1985:47 suggests is compound Schllichter 1985 Jane Hill
snare subsistence tool Tas (Elmendorf form) deersnare, trap inheritance *tas Proto-North Yukian simplex Schlichter 1985 Jane Hill
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology hą:p song inheritance *hëmp Proto-North Yukian simplex Schlichter 1985 Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool t'uk' gig, spear inheritance *t'uk'- Proto-North Yukian note Yawelmani t'uk'oj' 'fish gig, harpoon'; and sis-haNt 'fish spear' 181. t'umol' war spear 317 simplex Schllichter 1985 Jane Hill
stirring stick food hotpu:tc mush paddle inheritance *hotp'uč' Proto-North Yukian compound Schlichter 1985:49 Schlichter 1985 Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture TiT (THíTH in Elmendorf 1993) rope, string inheritance *tit Proto-Yukian see Wappo form simplex Schlichter 1985 Jane Hill
bag, sack culture-material k'ipul' bag, sack unknown also hi' 'bag for tobacco' where ' is acute simplex Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 Jane Hill
string of shell money other hus-sahl wampum (clam-shell beads) inheritance *hës Proto-North Yukian Yok-Utian WW %kys derived Schlichter 1985 Jane Hill
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation su:ke sugar loan English WW %sugar simplex Schlichter 1985 Jane Hill
sweathouse other iwil-han sweathouse unknown compound han 'house' Elmendorf 1993 Jane Hill
tell history culture-mythology 7olwi:s tell stories, myths inheritance *7olwihs 'old, animate' Proto-North Yukian derived must be denominal Schlichter 1985 Jane Hill
cremate culture-mythology >kah>-litch cremation (CHM) unknown unknown Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 Jane Hill
tobacco (native) narcotics woyol', woyąl' tobacco inheritance *woy(m)ol' Proto-North Yukian Schlichter 1985:344 simplex Sawyer & Schlicter 1984 Jane Hill
tule boat transport 7u:TA:, 7u:Tahol' boat, raft unknown simplex Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 Jane Hill
white paint culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
winnowing basket culture-material 7o:pič winnowing basket inheritance *opič' Proto-North Yukian also wan-mal 'sifting basket' <*wanmol' p. 307; Elemndorf has yëšëm 'winnowing basket' as PNY simplex Schlichter 1985 Jane Hill
wood tray subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
shoes zapatos sapatos dress mek'o7ol' shoe (foot.put.on-instrument) loan Miwokan also sapate, sapato WW %moko derived Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 Jane Hill
medicine narcotics mil'son medicine loan English hil'-le-ootă-tă-mah WW %medicine simplex Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 Jane Hill
cradleboard culture-material 7alwil cradle, baby basket inheritance *7alwil Proto-North Yukian simplex Schlichter 1985 Jane Hill
policeman polícia policía acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
soldier soldado soldado acculturation šulTa:n soldier loan Spanish WW %soldado simplex Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 Jane Hill
corn food mayiš corn loan Spanish WW %maiz simplex Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 Jane Hill
beans food pihul, pihol, piholi beans loan Spanish WW %frijol simplex Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 Jane Hill
cat gato gato acculturation kiti, kiTe cat loan English WW %kitty simplex Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 Jane Hill
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation lu7waT (Elmendorf form) bow. Gun semantic shift *li7wëht Proto-North Yukian derived Schlichter 1985 Jane Hill
hat sombero chapéu dress šamlil, šumlil, šomlil hat loan Proto-North Yukian Spanish WW %sombrero simplex Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 Jane Hill
clapper acculturation al-lah-chi'-mah clappersticks (elder) unknown phrase has 7ol 'stick' Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 Jane Hill
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material missing Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture TiT loan into protolanguage S&S 1984 Jane Hill
bottom grinding stone manufacture k'o(:)l “pounding basket, mortar, mortar hopper” inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool 7on pa,l(m)ul' unknown S&S1984 Jane Hill
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture missing Jane Hill
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture kaw/-lum CHM, k'ol-amT inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing Jane Hill
spearthrower subsistence tool le-wit/ CHM, lu-wat/, lu-wa,t “bow” inheritance S&S1984 Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool ke/-yu (CHM), kiu “arrow” inheritance S&S1984 Jane Hill
house other han inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
large HG medium seasonal no