crow

Semantic Field
flora-fauna
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
Meaning Portuguese

Languages

Language Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
Bankalachi Toloim Corvus brachyrhynchos al'-wut Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) loan Yokuts Yawdanchi ad'-dŏ-wut'; Yowlumne al'-lă-woot'r so showing cognacy in NimYokuts; this loan also in Takic WW %alwut same underived C. H. Merriam 72-77, 60-455 2 1 0 0 0 no
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone Corvus brachyrhynchos gak' (?)RV; kahk RM; Crapo 110 haih raven, crow; kaa”, kaa-cci crow Crow (Corvus americanus) inheritance *kak Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 584 (2008:117) (I think haih is Yokutsan, check! same underived sound imitative but throughout the family so not a neologistic sound-im, better simplex Merriam 61:73 2 1 0 0 0 no
Cahuilla Corvus brachyrhynchos ʔálwet ʹɂalwet crow loan into protolanguage *ʔata-wɨ-ta Northern Uto-Aztecan Yokuts S582 (Stubbs 2009:116); Loaned into Yokuts, or maybe from Yokuts?? Is it really NUA? WW %alwut same derived ʹɂal-wet mock-augmentative (probably, if this is of Takic origin) -7aʃ “pet” Possessive classifier -7aʃ wikikmal Seiler&Hioki 1979:14 Crow is a Wildcat Moiety Animal (Strong 1929:109) 2 1 no info hunted All roasted, stewed, eggs eaten 0 0 All Americas Diverse habitats no
Central Sierra Miwok Corvus brachyrhynchos ká:kulu- crow unique Note Mil kaakali, Callaghan Bodega Dic 33 thinks Mil might be loan from Costanoan underived Freeland & Broadbent 1960 2 1 0 0 0 no
Chemehuevi Corvus brachyrhynchos ă-tăt'-tuts ɂatápɘtsI (JPH) Crow (Corvus americanus) inheritance *atta-wɨ-ta unknown Stubbs 582 (2009:116), this version with -ka in Southern Numic only: Southern Ute taq'o-ci (Givon); Southern Paiute 'ata-G, 'ataqwotsi “crow”; note Mojave 'atqaaq “type of crow” same other complex ɂatá-pɘ-tsI crow-?-ABS Merriam 59:527 2 1 0 0 0 no
Chumash Barbareno Corvus brachyrhynchos ʔaʔ crow inheritance *7a7 Proto-Chumash Obispeno t-a7 underived ʔaʔ-ʔiwaʃ crow-pejorative Beeler 1978:171 2 1 0 0 0 no
Chumash Ineseno Corvus brachyrhynchos ah'-ă, ah'; ahk' crow inheritance *7a7 Proto-Chumash Obispeno t-a7 underived ʔaʔ-ʔiwaʃ crow-pejorative Merriam 55:9 2 1 0 0 0 no
Chumash Obispeno Corvus brachyrhynchos t-a7 crow inheritance *7a7 Proto-Chumash “ta7 means both crow and roble, you have to mention some other word to distinguish” other complex t- Harrington III:1:0049 2 1 0 0 0 no
Chumash Ventureno Corvus brachyrhynchos 7a7awash crow inheritance *7a7 Proto-Chumash Obispeno t-a7 other complex ʔaʔ-ʔiwaʃ crow-pejorative Merriam 55:41; JPH III:69:0080 from FL) 2 1 0 0 0 no
Cocopa Corvus brachyrhynchos qa·q crow inheritance Proto-Yuman Sound-imitative but probably good as *qaaq same onomatopoeic but cognate Crawford 1989 2 1 0 0 0 no
Comanche Corvus brachyrhynchos tuwikaa? raven, crow, blackbird inheritance *kak Uto-Aztecan Probably not a calque because it's in Rejon for “crow”; unique increment: Stubbs 584 (2008:117) broader (seems to be any old black bird) phrase tu- “black”??? -kaa is the “crow” cognate Robinson & Armagost 1990:163 2 1 0 0 0 no
Cupeño Corvus brachyrhynchos alwet ˈʔalwət crow loan into protolanguage *ʔata-wɨ-ta Northern Uto-Aztecan Yokuts S582 (Stubbs 2009:116); Loaned into Yokuts or maybe from Yokuts?? WW %alwut same derived ˈʔal-wə-t crow-augmentative-npn -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals mukikmal Hill & Nolasquez 1973:151 no info 2 crow calls, raven calls as signal to give 3-day manit ceremony (Strong 1929:259) 1 eggs surely eaten no info no info no info no info 0 0 Americas diverse habitats no
Esselen Corvus brachyrhynchos icka crow unique Esselen underived Form from Henshaw in Shaul 1988:699; Turner & Shaul 1981:120 2 1 0 0 0 no
Gabrielino Corvus brachyrhynchos 7aka:wkoc ʔaˈka:wkoʧ crow unique Perhaps ultimately from onomatopoeia but a more complex construction. This is more like the Yuman /qaq/ forms than the UA *atta forms. same underived ʔaˈka:wkoʧ: ʧ is not a Gabrielino NPN. Harrington also has 7awkot “crow” , so it seems likely there is some derivation here. Crow words are often loaned or sound-imitative. ʔaʧ “pet” possessive classifier for animals chi:ya Harrington 541, 601 no info 2 beaks, claws in Chingichngich figure (McC p. 28); but Harrington's Boscana notes caution may have been raven, not crow. crow danced hilariously at Wuyot's funeral, so people forgot themselves and laughed (Harrington 1978;121) 1 all birds eaten (McC 116) no info hunted men roasted 0 0 if feathers were used in ceremonial regalia, they were traded Americas diverse habitats no
Iipay 'Aa Corvus brachyrhynchos ɂehtaay crow loan Californian ?ata widespread in California -- but -taay could be “big” (in which case “raven”??? same underived Note that /taay/ “big” is not synchronic in 'Iipay Aa Couro & Hutcheson 1973 2 1 0 0 0 no
Kawaiisu Corvus brachyrhynchos Ɂataka-zi crow inheritance *ʔata-wɨ-ta Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 582 (2009:116), this version with -ka in Southern Numic only: Southern Ute taq'o-ci (Givon); Southern Paiute 'ata-G, 'ataqwotsi “crow”; note Mojave 'atqaaq “type of crow” same other complex Ɂataka-zi Zigmond et al. 2 1 0 0 0 no
Kiliwa Corvus brachyrhynchos ?+qhaaq Crow inheritance Proto-Yuman Sound-im but probably good as *qaaq same other complex ɂ- “dummy nominal prefix”; qaaq onomatopoeia Mixco 1985 2 1 0 0 0 no
Kitanemuk Corvus brachyrhynchos ʔaʔaʔ ˈʔaʔaʔ crow loan Chumash Ventureno ʔaʔa-ʔiwaʃ “crow-pejorative” > ʔaʔawaʃ same reduplicated -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals wicitat Anderton 1988:262 no info 2 1 no decent info but everybody ate songbirds and eggs no info hunted men roasted, boiled, eggs eaten 0 0 Americas diverse habitats no
Lake Miwok Corvus brachyrhynchos káakali crow loan unknown might be loan from Costanoan Callaghan Bodega Dic 33, but note Mics ka:kulu- underived Callaghan 1965 2 1 0 0 0 no
Luiseño Corvus brachyrhynchos alwut ʹɁalwut crow loan into protolanguage *ʔata-wɨ-ta Uto-Aztecan Yok-Utian S582 (Stubbs 2009:116); Loaned into Yokuts WW %alwut same derived ʹɁal-wu-t crow-augmentative-non.possessed.noun -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier; NPN form of noun is ʔaʃla 7ehéngmal Elliott 1999:112 no info 2 feathers for headdress (Sparkman 1908:208); has ceremonial couplet, muuta, qeweewish, mixeel, mixeevawut (Y1134); crow danced hilariously at Wuyot's funeral, so people forgot themselves and laughed (Harrington 1978:122) 1 eggs at least must have been eaten no info hunted men feathers 0 0 dance regalia often bought and sold, but crow-feather items not mentioned global diverse habitats no
Maidu Corvus brachyrhynchos k'ákk'a, 7á7a crow loan unknown both are widespread areal forms underived Shipley 1963 2 1 0 0 0 no
Mojave Corvus brachyrhynchos ɂaqaaq crow inheritance Proto-Yuman Sound-imitative but probably good as *qaaq same onomatopoeic Munro et al.1992 2 1 0 0 0 no
Mutsun Corvus brachyrhynchos sa:ray crow (Merriam confirms Merriam 55:409 inheritance Costanoan Pinart has in Co II, III, IV underived Okrand 1977;150 2 1 0 0 0 no
Nisenan Corvus brachyrhynchos 7a:k' crow loan unknown widespread similar areal forms underived Uldall & Shipley 1966 2 1 0 0 0 no
Northern Paiute Corvus brachyrhynchos kwē' ar'-rah' (arrah is “Raven”) ada “crow” (Y) Crow (Corvus americanus) inheritance *atta-wɨ-ta Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 582 (2009:116), without the increment same underived Merriam 61:139 2 1 0 0 0 no
Northern Sierra Miwok Corvus brachyrhynchos 7a:wyc-y- crow inheritance *a:wy(ch) Miwokan Callaghan 1997:28 WW %alwut other complex -y nominalizer Callaghan 1987 2 1 0 0 0 no
Plains Miwok Corvus brachyrhynchos 7awic:i-, 7awyc:i- smaller crow inheritance *7a:wy(ch) Miwokan Callaghan 1997:28 WW %alwut underived Callaghan 1984 2 1 0 0 0 no
Salinan A Corvus brachyrhynchos ška:k' crow unique Salinan other complex s- animal prefix (with sound symbolic variant?) Mason 1918:123; Turner 1980:71 2 1 0 0 0 no
Salinan M Corvus brachyrhynchos cka:k' crow unique Salinan underived Mason 1918:123 2 1 0 0 0 no
Seri (Comcaac) Corvus brachyrhynchos hanaj j is /x/ common raven unique broader (probably raven and crow) underived Comcaac Dictionary 324 2 belongs to the devil and goes around killing with a bow. A person who kills a raven will be killed with a gun, perhpas by one of his own children. 1 0 0 0 no
Serrano Corvus brachyrhynchos arTaw-t r is retroflexion/pharyngealization on preceding vowel; T is retroflex crow loan into protolanguage *atawɨ-t Northern Uto-Aztecan Yokuts S582b (Stubbs 2008:116) WW %alwut other complex -t NPN KCHill ms 2001:6 2 1 0 0 0 no
Southern Paiute Corvus brachyrhynchos atapɨtsI Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) (may be raven) inheritance *atta-wɨ-ta Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 582 (2009:116), this version with -ka in Southern Numic only: Southern Ute taq'o-ci (Givon); Southern Paiute 'ata-G, 'ataqwotsi “crow”; note Mojave 'atqaaq “type of crow” same other complex ata-pɨtsI crow-ABS (Sapir says it's not clear that -tsI here is the -tsi ABS) Sapir 1930:553 2 1 0 0 0 no
Southern Sierra Miwok Corvus brachyrhynchos 7a7:yt- Crow unique This is an areal form, but what is it most like?It's missing the /w/ that's in Mics, Mins. underived Broadbent 1964: 2 1 0 0 0 no
Southern Ute Corvus brachyrhynchos táq?o-cI crow, raven inheritance *atta-wɨ-ta Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 582 (2009:116), this version with -ka in Southern Numic only: Southern Ute taq'o-ci (Givon); Southern Paiute 'ata-G, 'ataqwotsi “crow”; note Mojave 'atqaaq “type of crow”; this form is strange broader (includes ravens) other complex has -ci ABS 2 1 0 0 0 no
Tübatulabal Corvus brachyrhynchos akkapīppitt ʔakabi:ˈpit “little crow”, possibly a reference to the common crow, as distinguished from the raven unique This doesn't match any “crow” words; may be part of S584 *kak (Stubbs 2007:117), but not a good match. Nobody collected the Sierra Miwok word for “Raven”, might be a source same derived ʔaka-bi:ˈ-pi-t raven-deriv.suffix-diminutive-npn chikkīt Hill 2010:4 no info 2 usually Raven feathers show up in ritual paraphernalia, but Crow doesn't 1 Voegelin 1938:12 no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Americas Diverse habitats no
Tümpisa Shoshone Corvus brachyrhynchos kaakki crow, raven inheritance *kak Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 584 (2008:117) same onomatopoeic this according to Crapo Big Smokey Valley Dayley 1989:39 2 1 0 0 0 no
Wappo Corvus brachyrhynchos ká7 crow (CHM confirms 52:569) unique Miwokan, Costanoan forms similar underived Sawyer 1965 2 1 0 0 0 no
Washo Corvus brachyrhynchos 7á:7a crow unique areal, but in this case source is impossible to determine because sound-imitation repeatedly comes up reduplicated Merriam 55:303; WPD 2 1 0 0 0 no
Western Mono Corvus brachyrhynchos sibitɨmɨ final voiceless crow unique This one is REALLY out of line -- a mistake? A euphemism? Gifford gives kaka “crow” p. 37 same underived must be derived somehow, too long for real simplex tsiipa “bird” Bethel et al. a totem animal in Moiety I (Kroeber 1925:588) 2 totem animal 1 some totems not eaten no info hunted men no info 0 0 no
Wintu Corvus brachyrhynchos 7a:L, 7alal (P) crow inheritance *7a:l Wintun Shepherd 2005 underived Schlichter 1981 2 1 0 0 0 no
Yavapai Corvus brachyrhynchos qsăq a has hachek crow loan Other Yuman? Not PY *qaaq unknown Shaterian 1983 2 1 0 0 0 no
Yokuts Palewyami Corvus brachyrhynchos xotai crow, raven inheritance Yokutsan unique in Kroeber for “crow”, and NOT alwuT! But all but one of Kroeber's “raven” words (1961:202) look like this. broader (probably raven and crow) underived Kroeber 1961:203, confirmed Merriam 58:521 2 1 0 0 0 no
Yokuts Yawdanchi Corvus brachyrhynchos áduuT, adwutc (220) crow inheritance *ɂalwuT' Nim-Yokuts Callaghan 1997:28, probably loan into this proto-language from UA *ata-wɨ-ta, hence Callaghan's resemblance to Pmi *ɂa:wy(č) is spurious same underived Kroeber 1961:203 2 1 0 0 0 no
Yokuts Yowlumne Corvus brachyrhynchos alwut crow inheritance *ɂalwuT' Nim-Yokuts Callaghan 1997:28, surely a loan into Proto-Nim-Yokuts from UA *ata-wɨ-ta “crow-aug-NPN”; hence Callaghan's resemblance to Pmi *ɂa:wy(č) is spurious WW %alwut same underived Kroeber 1961:203 2 1 0 0 0 no
Yuki Corvus brachyrhynchos hančam A crow inheritance *hənčam Yukian Schlichter 1985 phrase han -X?? Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 1 0 0 0 no
Yuma Corvus brachyrhynchos ah-kahk Raven (Corvus corax) inheritance Proto-Yuman Sound imitative but probably good as *qaaq unknown Merriam 61:455 2 1 0 0 0 no