Iipay 'Aa

Family
Yuman
Region
North America
ISO 639-3
dih
Location
32.52°, -116.61°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (185)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location 'emaay [Ɂəˈ maˑi] inheritance C&H, and see notes Jane Hill
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar nyinyuy [ɲɪˈɲʊi] inheritance Jane Hill
all todo todos other nyaamat [ɲaˑmat̯] unknown Jane Hill
and y e grammar May [mai] unknown Jane Hill
ankle tobillo tornozelo body emily heneway [əˈmɪʎ xən̯əˈwai] unique Jane Hill
armpit axila, sobaco axila body salyehwat [saʎəˈxʷat̯] unknown Jane Hill
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment 'empill [Ɂəmˈpɪɫ] unknown Jane Hill
at en, a em, a location -i (suffix) [ɪ] unknown Jane Hill
back espalda costas body hetat [xəˈt̯at̯] inheritance Jane Hill
bad mal mal quality wellich [wəˈɫɪtʃ] unknown Jane Hill
belly barriga barriga body etuu [əˈt̯uˑ˅] inheritance Jane Hill
below abajo, debajo abaixo location 'eyaak [Ɂəˈjaˑq] unknown Jane Hill
big grande grande quality 'iikuu [Ɂiˑˈkuˑ˅] unknown Jane Hill
bite morder morder body chuukuw [tʃuˑ˅ˈkʊu], [wəˈʃaˑ]] inheritance Jane Hill
black negro preto colour nyilly [ɲɪɫʸ] inheritance Jane Hill
blood sangre sangue body 'ehwatt [Ɂəˈxʷat] inheritance Jane Hill
blow soplar soprar body hepesuuy [xəpəˈsuˑ˅i] inheritance Jane Hill
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body missing Jane Hill
bone hueso osso body aq [aq] inheritance Jane Hill
breast pecho, seno peito body nyemay [ɲəˈmai] inheritance Jane Hill
breathe respirar respirar body yaas [jaˑs] inheritance Jane Hill
burn quemar queimar environment aaraaw, wellyaap [aˑˈraˑu], [wəˈɫʸaˑp] unknown Jane Hill
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body chuuhwar [tʃuˑ˅ˈxʷar] unknown Jane Hill
child niño, niña criança human elymaam [Ɂəʎˈm aˑm] loan Jane Hill
climb subir subir motion wekull [wəˈkʊɫ] inheritance Jane Hill
cloud nube nuvem environment 'ekwiiy [Ɂəˈkʷiˑi] inheritance Jane Hill
cold frío frio quality hechuur [xəˈtʃuˑ˅r] inheritance Jane Hill
come venir vir motion weyiw [wəˈjɪu] inheritance Jane Hill
cook cocinar cozinhar impact wellyully [wəɫˈjʊɫʸ] inheritance Jane Hill
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality 'ehan [Ɂəˈxan̯] inheritance Jane Hill
count contar contar mental missing Jane Hill
cry llorar chorar mental wemii [wəˈmiˑ] inheritance Jane Hill
cut/hack cortar cortar impact aakatt [aˑˈqat] inheritance Jane Hill
day día dia time enyaa [Ɂəˈɲaˑ], [kʊˈpɪɫʸ] inheritance Jane Hill
die/be dead morir morrer state melay, shaawattp [məˈlai], [şaˑˈwatp] unknown Jane Hill
dig cavar cavar impact wehwall [wəˈxʷaɫ] inheritance Jane Hill
dingo/wolf fauna hechkullk [xətʃˈkʊɫk] unknown Jane Hill
dirty sucio sujo quality taketak [takəˈtaq] unknown Jane Hill
dream soñar sonhar mental hemach [xəˈmaʧ] inheritance Jane Hill
drink beber, tomar beber body wesii [wəˈsiˑ] inheritance Jane Hill
dry seco seco quality saay (saych) [saˑi] inheritance Jane Hill
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality tepinn, teyir [t̯əˈpin], [təˈjɪr] unknown Jane Hill
dust polvo poeira environment 'empill [Ɂəmˈpɪɫ] unknown Jane Hill
ear oreja orelha body hemall [xəˈmaɫ] inheritance Jane Hill
earth/soil tierra terra environment emat [Ɂəˈmat̯] inheritance Jane Hill
eat comer comer body wemaa, [wəˈmaˑ], [wəˈsaˑu], [ʧuˑ˅ˈxɔr] inheritance Jane Hill
egg huevo ovo fauna 'ur [Ɂʊr] unknown Jane Hill
eye ojo olho body eyiiw [əˈjiˑu] inheritance Jane Hill
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body missing Jane Hill
fall caer cair motion wenall [wəˈn̯aɫ] unknown Jane Hill
far lejos longe quality 'ekur [Ɂəˈkʊr] unknown Jane Hill
fat/grease grasa gordura body weshay (weshaaych) [wəˈşai] inheritance Jane Hill
father padre, papá pai kinship paataat [paˑt̯aˑt̯] inheritance Jane Hill
fear miedo medo mental meheyaay [məxəˈjaˑi] inheritance Jane Hill
feather pluma pena fauna missing Jane Hill
fire fuego fogo environment 'aaw [Ɂaˑu] inheritance Jane Hill
fish xx xx fauna missing Jane Hill
flow fluir fluir motion wenuw [wəˈn̯ʊu] unknown Jane Hill
flower flor flor environment wetaph [wəˈt̯apɰ̥]? This sequence not discussed in sources inheritance Jane Hill
fly volar voar motion weman, uman [wəˈman̯], [ʊˈman̯] inheritance Jane Hill
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment haamaa [xaˑˈmaˑ] inheritance Jane Hill
foot pie body emily [əˈmɪʎ] inheritance Jane Hill
fruit fruta fruta flora chewuuw [tʃəˈwuˑ˅u] unknown Jane Hill
good bueno bom quality 'ehan [Ɂəˈxan̯] inheritance Jane Hill
grow crecer crescer state chepaa [ʧəˈpaˑ] unknown Jane Hill
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body lemis, hellytaa [ləˈmɪs], [xəɫʸˈtaˑ] unknown Jane Hill
hand mano mão body esally [əˈsaɫʸ] inheritance Jane Hill
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar puuch/puu [puˑ˅tʃ] loan Jane Hill
head cabeza cabeça body hellyta [xəɫʸˈta] unknown Jane Hill
hear oír ouvir mental yip [jɪp] inheritance Jane Hill
heavy pesado pesado quality wenah, wenih [wəˈn̯aɰ̥], [wəˈn̯ɪɰ̥] inheritance Jane Hill
hide esconder esconder motion aayullp, tuuyullp [aˑˈjʊɫp], [t̯uˑ˅ˈjʊɫp] inheritance Jane Hill
hit golpear, pegar bater impact wetoo, chetoo. Shuutoo [wəˈt̯ɔˑ], [ʧəˈt̯ɔˑ], [şuˑ˅ˈt̯ɔˑ] unknown Jane Hill
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other weyuuw [wəˈjuˑ˅u] unknown Jane Hill
how? como como grammar meyuu, mu'yuu [məˈjuˑ˅], [mʊˈjuˑ˅] inheritance Jane Hill
1sg yo eu grammar 'enyaach [Ɂəˈɲaˑtʃ] inheritance Jane Hill
if si se grammar -vek [vək] unknown Jane Hill
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location 'ukuwaay, kuwaay [Ɂʊkʊˈwaˑi], [kʊˈwaˑi] unknown Jane Hill
intestines intestinos intestinos body pehaa [pəˈxaˑ] inheritance Jane Hill
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body sakesak wii [sakəˈsaq wiˑ] loan direction unknown Jane Hill
kill matar matar impact aamuch, aawatt [aˑˈmʊʧ],[aˑˈwat] unknown Jane Hill
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental nur, uuyaaw [n̯ʊr], [uˑ˅ˈjaˑu] unknown Jane Hill
lake lago lago environment 'ehaa kwariw [Ɂəˈxaˑ kʷaˈrɪu] unique Jane Hill
laugh reír rir mental uusay [uˑ˅ˈsai] inheritance Jane Hill
leaf hoja folha environment missing Jane Hill
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body kesark [kəˈsark] inheritance Jane Hill
leg/foot pierna perna body emily [əˈmɪʎ] inheritance Jane Hill
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion welyak (pelyak) [wəˈʎaq], ([pəˈʎaq] inheritance Jane Hill
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment shuuluk [şuˑ˅ˈlʊk] inheritance Jane Hill
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body nyewaayp [ɲəˈwaˑip] inheritance Jane Hill
liver hígado figado body chepesii [tʃəpəˈsiˑ] inheritance Jane Hill
long largo comprido, longo quality 'equll [Ɂəˈqʊɫ] inheritance Jane Hill
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna hellychepuk, emilly [xəɫʸtʃəˈpʊk], [əˈmɪɫʸ] Jane Hill
lung pulmón pulmão body chehwaall, iichih [ʦəˈxʷaˑɫ], [iˑˈʧɪɰ̥] unknown Jane Hill
man/male hombre homem human 'iikwich [Ɂiˑˈkʷɪtʃ] unknown Jane Hill
meat/flesh carne carne fauna kukwaayp [kʊˈkʷaˑip] unknown Jane Hill
moon luna lua environment hellyaa [xəˈɫʸaˑ] inheritance Jane Hill
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship kuhkwany, paataly [kʊˈxˈkʷaɲ], [paˑˈt̯aʎ] unknown Jane Hill
mouth boca boca body aa [aˑ] inheritance Jane Hill
name nombre nome human chehich [tʃəˈxɪtʃ] unknown Jane Hill
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body eeyepuk, iipuk [əjəˈpʊk], [iˑˈpʊk] inheritance Jane Hill
near/close cerca de perto quality helyepay [xəʎəˈpai] inheritance Jane Hill
neck cuello pescoço body eyepuk, iipuk [əjəˈpʊk], [iˑˈpʊk] inheritance Jane Hill
new nuevo novo quality 'ehay. Wehay [Ɂəˈxai], [wəˈxai] inheritance Jane Hill
night noche noite time hunn, kuhunn [xʊn], [kʊˈxʊn] unknown Jane Hill
no/not no não grammar umaaw [ʊˈmaˑu] inheritance Jane Hill
nose nariz nariz body ehuu [əˈxuˑ˅] inheritance Jane Hill
old viejo velho quality wenuuy [wəˈn̯uˑ˅i] unknown Jane Hill
one uno um number 'ehink [Ɂəˈxɪn̯k] inheritance Jane Hill
open/uncover abrir abrir other uuttaq [uˑ˅ˈtaq] inheritance Jane Hill
other otro outro grammar kwa'hin [kʷaɁˈxɪn̯] unknown Jane Hill
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body malymaaly, henoo [maʎˈmaˑˈʎ], [xəˈn̯ɔˑ] unknown Jane Hill
person/human being persona pessoa human 'iipay [Ɂiˑˈpai] inheritance Jane Hill
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact aarrap, wetutt [aˑˈrap], [wəˈt̯ʊt] unknown Jane Hill
rain lluvia chuva environment ekwiy [Ɂəˈkʷɪi] inheritance Jane Hill
red rojo vermelho colour 'ehwatt [Ɂəˈxʷat] inheritance Jane Hill
right/right hand derecha direita location/body eyewiik, iiwiik [əjəˈwiˑk], [iˑˈwiˑk] unknown Jane Hill
road/path camino caminho manufacture 'uunyaa [Ɂuˑ˅ˈɲaˑ] inheritance Jane Hill
root raíz raiz flora pehemaa [pəxəˈmaˑ] inheritance Jane Hill
rotten podrido podre quality weshah [wəˈşaɰ̥] inheritance Jane Hill
sand arena areia environment Mes-haraay [məs xaˈraˑi] unique Jane Hill
say decir dizer mental wii [wiˑ] inheritance Jane Hill
scratch rascar rasgar impact hesak [xəˈsaq] loan direction unknown Jane Hill
see ver ver mental ewuuw [əˈwuˑ˅u] unknown Jane Hill
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality werraaw [wəˈraˑu] unknown Jane Hill
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact wettim [wəˈtɪm] inheritance Jane Hill
short corto curto quality meputtk [məˈpʊtk] unknown Jane Hill
shoulder hombro ombro body eyewii, iiwii [əjəˈwiˑ], [iˑˈwiˑ] inheritance Jane Hill
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental mereyii, mereyuy [mərəˈjiˑ], [mərəˈjʊi] unknown Jane Hill
sit sentar(se) sentar state wenak [wəˈn̯aq] inheritance Jane Hill
skin piel pele body ekwally [əˈkʷaɫʸ] inheritance Jane Hill
sky cielo céu environment 'emaay [Ɂəˈmaˑi] inheritance Jane Hill
sleep dormir dormir body hemaa [xəˈmaˑ] inheritance Jane Hill
small pequeño pequeno quality estik ('elyemis) [Ɂəsˈt̯ɪk] ([Ɂəʎəˈmɪs] unknown Jane Hill
smoke humo fumaça environment 'uuhuy [Ɂuˑ˅ˈxʊi] unknown Jane Hill
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body wehwii [wəˈxʷiˑ] inheritance Jane Hill
spit escupir cuspir body chehutt [ʧəˈxʊt] unknown Jane Hill
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact wechall [wəˈʧaɫ] unknown Jane Hill
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact uukwis [uˑ˅ˈkʷɪs] inheritance Jane Hill
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact uushaa [uˑ˅ˈşaˑ] inheritance Jane Hill
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state pehekwii, pehkwii [pəxəˈkʷiˑ], [pəxˈkʷiˑ] inheritance Jane Hill
star estrella estrela environment kwenmesaap [kʷən̯məˈsaˑp] inheritance Jane Hill
steal robar roubar other shuuhuu [şuˑ˅ˈxuˑ˅] unknown Jane Hill
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora ily [Ɂɪʎ] inheritance Jane Hill
stone piedra pedra environment 'ewily [Ɂəˈwɪʎ] inheritance Jane Hill
suck chupar chupar body chepesii [ʧəpəˈsiˑ] loan into protolanguage Jane Hill
sweat sudar suor, suar body wepilly [wəˈpɪɫʸ] unknown Jane Hill
swell hincharse inchar body waarp [waˑrp] unknown Jane Hill
swim nadar nadar motion aapull [aˑˈpʊɫ] unknown Jane Hill
tail cola, rabo rabo body heyull [xəˈjʊɫ] inheritance Jane Hill
that ese/esa esse grammar puu [puˑ˅] unknown Jane Hill
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar pupch [pʊptʃ] unknown Jane Hill
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality menuttk [məˈn̯ʊtk] unknown Jane Hill
thin delgado fino quality wekwiirp [wəˈkʷiˑrp] unknown Jane Hill
think pensar pensar mental iichaa [iˑˈʧaˑ] unknown Jane Hill
this este/esta este grammar peyaa [pəˈjaˑ] inheritance Jane Hill
2sg xx xx grammar maa [maˑ] inheritance Jane Hill
three tres tres number hemuk [xəˈmʊk] inheritance Jane Hill
throat garganta garganta body enyally [əˈɲaɫʸ] inheritance Jane Hill
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact wetom [wəˈt̯ɔm] unknown Jane Hill
thunder truenos trovão environment shuullaw [şuˑ˅ˈɫau] unknown Jane Hill
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact aannak [aˑˈnaq] unknown Jane Hill
tongue lengua lingua body enepall [ən̯əˈpaɫ] inheritance Jane Hill
tooth diente dente body eyaaw [əˈjaˑu] inheritance Jane Hill
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other apekwiilp, telekwin [apəˈkʷiˑlp], [t̯ələˈkʷɪn̯] inheritance Jane Hill
two dos dois number hewak [xəˈwaq] inheritance Jane Hill
vomit vomitar vomitar body weyuuq [wəˈjuˑ˅k] loan into protolanguage Jane Hill
walk caminar, andar andar motion wamp [wamp] unknown Jane Hill
water agua agua environment 'ehaa [Ɂəˈxaˑ] inheritance Jane Hill
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar 'enyaawapch [Ɂəɲaˑwaˈpʧ] inheritance Jane Hill
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar 'enyaawapch [Ɂəɲaˑwaˈpʧ] inheritance Jane Hill
wet mojado molhado quality 'ehar [Ɂəˈxar] inheritance Jane Hill
what? que, qué que grammar 'uuch [Ɂuˑ˅ʧ] unknown Jane Hill
when? cuando quando grammar kumyum, ma'yum [kʊmˈjʊm], [maɁˈjʊm] unknown Jane Hill
where? donde onde grammar maay [maˑi] unknown Jane Hill
white blanco branco colour nemeshap [n̯əməˈşap] inheritance Jane Hill
who? quien, quién quem grammar maap [maˑp] unknown Jane Hill
wife esposa esposa kinship paasiny [paˑˈsiɲ] inheritance Jane Hill
wind viento vento environment kuyaayp, yaayp [kʊˈjaˑˈip], [jaˑˈip] unknown Jane Hill
wing ala asa body wirewir [wɪrəˈwɪr] inheritance Jane Hill
woman/female mujer mulher human siny [siɲ] inheritance Jane Hill
work trabajar trabalhar other tarrvahaarr [t̯arvaˈxar] loan Spanish Jane Hill
yawn bostezar bocejar body waaps [waˑps] inheritance Jane Hill
yellow amarillo amarelo colour 'ekwas [Ɂəˈkʷas] inheritance Jane Hill
2pl ustedes vocês grammar menyawaap [məɲaˈwaˑp] inheritance Jane Hill


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (130)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
abalone flora-fauna Haliotis spp. missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae chemilly ant, red ant inheritance Proto-Yuman Mo. chamaduuly, Co. šmuyúły, Yavapai čmyúl same underived Couro & Hutcheson 1973 0 0 2 0 0 no
antelope flora-fauna Antilocapra americana missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
badger flora-fauna Taxidea taxus mehwaa badger inheritance Proto-Yuman Yavapai mhwá·, Kiliwa mxwaa=pi-y-l=t-kw+yaq; Cocopa mxwa same underived Couro & Hutcheson 1973 2 1 0 0 0 yes
bald eagle flora-fauna Haliaeetus leucocephalus expa uru bald eagle unique same phrase eagle ? Kroeber & Harrington 1914:181 1 2 0 0 1 no
band-tail pigeon flora-fauna Patagioenas fasciata karwiitaay wild pigeon unique has -*taay “big same underived etymologically has “big” Couro & Hutcheson 1973 0 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp milyaapan bat unique narrower (a kind of bat; another kind is milywaaw; neither identified) underived Dictionary and grammar have insufficient information to do much analysis Couro & Hutcheson 1973 0 1 0 0 0 no
beaver flora-fauna Castor āp-pin' Beaver (Castor) inheritance Proto-Yuman Mojave ɂapen; Cocopa kpin ?? same underived Merriam 55:169 2 1 0 0 0 no
beetle flora-fauna Coleoptera spp mes-hanan stinkbug inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Yavapai čk/qnāna, Cocopa şxmnan same underived mes- a common initial element but meaningless Couro & Hutcheson 1973 2 0 0 0 0 no
big round tule flora-fauna Schoenoplectus acutus ɂesuq small round tule in Couro and Hutcheson; Big round tule in Merriam inheritance Proto-Yuman Kiliwa suq “reed, tule” same underived Merriam 55:225; Couro and Hutcheson 2 1 2 0 0 no
big skunk flora-fauna Mephitis mephitis ketun big skunk unique same underived Couro & Hutcheson 1973 2 2 0 0 0 no
big wolf (gray wolf) flora-fauna Canis lupus hechkullk wolf inheritance Proto-Yuman Maricopa hatkult, and see Kiliwa that=kil; but I'm not sure same underived might ultimately have “dog” word in it Couro & Hutcheson 1973 1 2 0 0 0 yes
bighorn sheep flora-fauna Ovis canadensis ɂemuu wild sheep inheritance *?-mu(w) Proto-Yuman Mixco 1978:80, 91 WW %mo: same underived Couro & Hutcheson 1973 2 1 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna ɂaasha bird inheritance *č-sa Proto-Yuman Mixco 1978:81 same underived Couro & Hutcheson 1973 0 0 0 0 0 no
black ant flora-fauna Camponotus pennsylvanicus/Lasius niger mechhallaahall black ant (that bites, lives on oak trees) unique narrower (a kind of black ant) underived Couro & Hutcheson 1973 2 0 0 0 0 no
black bear flora-fauna Ursus americanus nem-moo'-el (Merriam 55:199) bear unique Couro & Hutcheson record 'os, from Spanish; may be related to the wildcat word same underived Merriam 55:199 1 2 0 0 0 yes
black-tail Jackrabbit flora-fauna Lepus californicus kunyaaw jackrabbit unique same underived Couro & Hutcheson 1973 2 1 0 0 0 no
blackberry flora-fauna Rubus ursinus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
blue grouse flora-fauna Dendrogapus? missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
bobcat, lynx flora-fauna Lynx rufus nyemii bobcat inheritance *nymi- Proto-Yuman Langdon 1979:638 LION, Mixco 1978:91 same underived Couro & Hutcheson 1973 1 2 0 0 0 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera mes-halyaap butterfly inheritance Delta-California Cocopz şxmalyáp same underived mes- a common initial element but meaningless Couro & Hutcheson 1973 2 0 0 0 0 no
California condor flora-fauna Gymnogyps californianus iCH-pah mat-tow'-wah California Condor unique same phrase eagle [earth-fire]? Merriam 55:205 1 2 0 0 1 no
California jay flora-fauna Aphelocoma californica? kulashaash bluejay unique Note Yavapai čàsčā·sa, aash part might just be “bird” same underived looks like it might contain the “bird” word etymologically Couro & Hutcheson 1973 2 1 0 0 0 no
California woodpecker flora-fauna Melanerpes formicivorus? hatepull woodpecker; Merriam confirms California Woodpeckker, Melanerpes formicivorus inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Kiliwa t?lphuu same underived Couro & Hutcheson 1973 2 1 0 0 1 no
chia flora-fauna Salvia columbariae mulh' amulh Chia, Salvia columbariae unique same underived mulemul “round like ball”? (of inflorescence?) http://www.powayusd.com/projects/kumeyaay/Ethnobotany.htm 1 1 1 0 0 no
chipmunk flora-fauna Tamias spp. missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
cliff swallow flora-fauna Petrochelidon pyrrhonota mil'de-kar' Cliff swallow (Petrochelidon) unique same underived really a wild guess Merriam 55:207 2 1 0 0 0 no
coot flora-fauna Fulica americana ɂeyuw mud hen unique broader (includes ducks) underived Couro & Hutcheson 1973 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottontail rabbit flora-fauna Sylvilagus audobonii hellyaaw cottontail rabbit inheritance Proto-Yuman Kiliwa xa?law; Mojave halyɂaw; Cocopa Cocopa xłyɂa·; Yavapai hlo same underived may be related to word for “moon”; there is a rabbit in the moon Couro & Hutcheson 1973 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottonwood flora-fauna Populus spp. halampuulaamp cottonwood unique could this be the %lap word?? same underived may contain the cottonwood cognate, ?aha or whatever it is Couro & Hutcheson 1973 2 0 2 0 0 no
coyote flora-fauna Canis latrans hattepaa coyote inheritance Delta-California Contains *(č)-xat “dog”; note Cocopa ţxpa same underived contains “dog” word etymologically Couro & Hutcheson 1973 1 2 0 0 0 no
crow flora-fauna Corvus brachyrhynchos ɂehtaay crow loan Californian ?ata widespread in California -- but -taay could be “big” (in which case “raven”??? same underived Note that /taay/ “big” is not synchronic in 'Iipay Aa Couro & Hutcheson 1973 2 1 0 0 0 no
datura flora-fauna Datura wrightii tolvaach Jimsonweed, Datura meteloides loan Spanish Spanish toloache (ultimately Nahuatl) same underived http://www.powayusd.com/projects/kumeyaay/Ethnobotany.htm 1 1 1 1 0 yes
deer, mule flora-fauna Odocoileus hemionus ɂekwak deer inheritance Proto-Yuman Yavapai (ɂ)kʷ/qʷá:qa; M. ɂaqwaq same underived Couro & Hutcheson 1973 2 1 0 0 0 no
digger pine flora-fauna Pinus sabiniana hellykaay type of pine; Merriam confirms Coulter pine (Pinus coulteri) unique same underived Couro & Hutcheson 1973 2 1 2 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris ɂehatt dog, pet, horse, domestic 4-legged animal inheritance *(č)-xat “dog” Proto-Yuman Mixco 1978:83 broader (“pet”, includes horse) underived Couro & Hutcheson 1973 0 0 0 0 0 no
dogbane flora-fauna Apocynum cannabinum ah-holCH Indian hemp (Apocynum) unique unique because this is ONLY Yuman form anywhere for Apocynum same underived Merriam 55:223 2 1 2 0 0 no
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna Zenaida macrocoura kilyaahwii turtledove unique Contains *k-wi(?) DOVE Mixco 1978:84 same underived etymologically is *kilya-hwi ?-dove Couro & Hutcheson 1973 2 1 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae paat duck loan Spanish pato; Except note Kiliwa t+walu=xa?=kw+paa-t “tide bird” where paa-t is “swims”; but “swim” is aapull in IA, not paa WW %pato same underived Couro & Hutcheson 1973 0 1 0 0 0 no
elder flora-fauna Sambucus kupall Elderberry, Sambucus Mexicana unique same underived http://www.powayusd.com/projects/kumeyaay/Ethnobotany.htm 2 1 1 0 0 no
elk flora-fauna Cervas elaphus missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna che' fish (any) inheritance *?-či· Proto-Yuman Langdon 1979:637 FISH, same underived Merriam 55:181 0 1 0 0 0 no
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna Siphonaptera ɂewill flea unique Probably contains *?-?il WORM same underived Couro & Hutcheson 1973 2 0 0 0 0 no
flicker flora-fauna Colaptes sp. kekhuu flicker (woodpecker) unique Mojave kukho “type of bird”??? same underived Couro & Hutcheson 1973 2 sacred bird (Merriam); feather headbands sacred and also for arrow feathers 1 0 0 1 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera mechhaapuully fly unique same underived mech- probably separable but meaningless Couro & Hutcheson 1973 0 0 0 0 0 no
foothills yucca flora-fauna Yucca whipplei ɂaakuull Yucca whipplei, Our Lord's Candle unique same underived http://www.powayusd.com/projects/kumeyaay/Ethnobotany.htm (spelling is Couro & Hutcheson 1973) 0 1 0 0 0 no
fox flora-fauna Vulpes, Urocyon parhaaw fox (Merriam Urocyon, Gray fox) inheritance *p-rxa·w/m-rxa·w Proto-Yuman Langdon 1979:637 FOX WW %kaw same underived Couro & Hutcheson 1973 2 2 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna hantak frog, toad inheritance *xa-nya Proto-Yuman Langdon 1979:637 FROG broader (frogs and toads) underived etymologically complex, ha-n-tak water its-?(dirt?) Couro & Hutcheson 1973 2 2 0 0 0 no
golden eagle flora-fauna Aquila chrysaetos ɂihpaa eagle inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Kiliwa ti?payu same underived Couro & Hutcheson 1973 1 2 0 0 1 no
gooseberry flora-fauna Ribes spp. missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
gopher snake, bull snake flora-fauna Pituophis catenifer ɂewiiyaq gopher snake unique Contains Proto-Y “snake” same phrase ɂewii-yaq snake-lies? Couro & Hutcheson 1973 2 2 0 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) ɂesemay grass, reed, hay inheritance Delta-California Note Cocopa şmal ; a loan from NUA *sama/u?? broader (includes “reed” and fodder function) underived Couro & Hutcheson 1973 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Caelifera tuɂmuw, tuumuw grasshopper unique narrower (a kind of grasshopper) underived Couro & Hutcheson 1973 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray ground squirrel flora-fauna Sphermophilus sp. ɂehmaall ground squirrel; Merriam Gray ground squirrel, Citellus beecheyi group (55:201) inheritance Proto-Yuman Kiliwa xmaal same underived Couro & Hutcheson 1973 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray tree squirrel flora-fauna Sciurus spp. mahCH-ti' gray tree squirrel (Sciurus fossor) inheritance Proto-Yuman Kiliwa xmaal same phrase 7emall-tay “big emall” Merriam 55:201 2 1 0 0 0 no
great horned owl flora-fauna Bubo virginianus ɂuɂuu horned owl unique same reduplicated and onomatopoeia Couro & Hutcheson 1973 1 2 2 0 1 no
grizzly bear flora-fauna Ursus arctos horribilis nem-mool' Grizzly bear (might be jaguar Merriam) unique broader (any bear; although Merriam comments black bear not in this region) underived Merriam 55:199 1 2 0 0 0 yes
horned toad flora-fauna Phrynosomatidae hasuyan horned toad unique same underived might have ha- “water” etymologically Couro & Hutcheson 1973 2 2 2 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus ɂehatt horse semantic shift *(č)-xat “dog” Proto-Yuman as “dog” Mixco 1978:83 broader (“pet”, includes dog) underived Couro & Hutcheson 1973 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae halypuusuutt hummingbird unique same underived looks kinda long, but I can't find any derivational elements Couro & Hutcheson 1973 0 0 0 0 0 no
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana spp. ɂup tobacco loan into protolanguage Proto-Yuman unknown Mojave 'a'uuv, etc.; Karuk 7uhípih, Chimariko h-óphat ‘smoking’, Proto-Palaihnihan *o:xpi WW %7u:p same underived Couro & Hutcheson 1973 1 1 1 1 0 yes
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing missing missing 0 0 2 0 0 variable
junco flora-fauna Junco sppp shang-il' (MG) Junco unique unique because this is ONLY Yuman dictionary with “Junco”, a common highland bird! same phrase I'm betting on sha-nyil “bird-black” (they are dark colored with black heads) Merriam 55:269 0 1 0 0 0 no
juniper flora-fauna Juniperus californica missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
louse flora-fauna order Phtiraptera emilly head louse unique same underived Couro & Hutcheson 1973 2 0 0 0 0 no
mallard flora-fauna Anas platyrhynchos e-yow' (same as “Coot” (29) Mallard (Anas boschas) unique broader (includes “mudhen”) underived Merriam 55:211 2 1 0 0 0 no
manzanita flora-fauna Arctostaphylos spp. hesill, haasill Manzanita, Arctostaphylos unique same underived http://www.powayusd.com/projects/kumeyaay/Ethnobotany.htm 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, broad leaf flora-fauna Asclepias eriocarpa hahCH-im-sahp Broadleaf Milkweed (Asclepias unique same underived a wild guess Merriam 55:223 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, narrow leaf flora-fauna Asclepias fascicularis missing missing missing 0 1 1 0 0 no
mission tule flora-fauna Juncus kwa'naay Juncus textilis, Basket rush (Merriam confirms 55:225) unique same underived http://www.powayusd.com/projects/kumeyaay/Ethnobotany.htm 2 1 2 0 0 no
mockingbird flora-fauna Mimus polyglottos ɂaashaa kwilaaw mockingbird, shrike, butcher bird inheritance *č-sa -kwila Proto-Yuman This combo in Yavapai, Cocopa broader (I doubt it, probably just imprecise identification) phrase bird-? Couro & Hutcheson 1973 2 1 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera mis-kah wahk' mosquito unique same underived mes- a common initial element but meaningless Merriam 55:183 0 0 0 0 0 no
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna Heterocera missing missing missing 2 0 0 0 0 no
mountain lion flora-fauna Puma concolor nyemetaay mountain lion inheritance *nymi-tay Proto-Yuman Langdon 1979:638 LION, Mixco 1978:91 same phrase wildcat-big (although -taay not recorded as “big” for 'Iipay Aa by C&H) Couro & Hutcheson 1973 1 2 0 0 0 yes
mountain quail flora-fauna Oreortyx pictus hamamull mountain quail unique Is hama from ahma (or vice versa?) same underived Couro & Hutcheson 1973 2 1 0 0 0 no
mussel flora-fauna Mytilus spp. missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
olivella (olive snail) flora-fauna Callianax biplicata kwellyhiiw money, silver, coins unique See Cocopa şxkwi.l “seashell”; perhaps not a semantic shift since Olivella WAS money; using this word for the cell is a stretch, though broader (shells and functions) underived probably has some complexity -- kwelly “great, big” in some compound forms??? Couro & Hutcheson 1973 2 2 0 0 1 no
pinyon jay flora-fauna Cyanocitta stelleri? oo-solCH Mesa Grande; Campo has e-shum-mah-tah-ahs “Pinyon Jay” M 55:269 Crested jay (Cyanocitta) unique same underived Merriam 55:205 2 1 0 0 0 no
pinyon pine flora-fauna Pinus monophylla ɂehwiiw pinyon pine, pine nut inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Kiliwa ?+khiiw; ?+xiw “pine nuts”; Yavapai ɂkʰō broader, tree and nuts underived Couro & Hutcheson 1973 2 1 2 0 1 no
pismo clam flora-fauna Tivella stultorum missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
pocket gopher flora-fauna Thomomys kethii, tekhii gopher inheritance Proto-Yuman Langdon 1976:872 Metath same underived Couro & Hutcheson 1973 2 1 0 0 0 no
poison oak flora-fauna Toxicodendron diversilobum kuupaay poison oak unique same underived Couro & Hutcheson 1973 2 2 2 Liquid as eyewash, old Kumeyaay said to be immune to this plant (http://www.powayusd.com/projects/kumeyaay/Ethnobotany.htm) 0 0 yes
rattlesnake flora-fauna Crotalus spp. ɂewii rattlesnake inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Kiliwa ?+wi? same underived Couro & Hutcheson 1973 1 2 0 0 0 yes
red ant flora-fauna Solenopsis spp chemilly ant, red ant inheritance Proto-Yuman Mo. chamaduuly, Co. šmuyúły, Yavapai čmyúl broader (generid for ant) underived Couro & Hutcheson 1973 1 0 1 0 0 no
red-shouldered blackbird flora-fauna Agelaius phoeniceus hah'-se-kwi' Red-shouldered blackbird (Agelaius) inheritance Delta-California Cocopa şqway qlucá·w same underived Merriam 55:207 2 1 0 0 0 no
red-tailed hawk flora-fauna Buteo jamaicensis pā'-kwahlCH; ep'-kwahCH (Mesa Grande) Merriam 55:205) red-tailed hawk inheritance Delta-California Note Cocopa xma pkwya·w; UA *kwa'a “large hawk” should be considered as a source (S716) same underived Merriam 55:171 2 2 0 0 0 no
roadrunner flora-fauna Geococcyx californianus tellypuu roadrunner loan into protolanguage Proto-Yuman Takic Langdon 1976:873 Metath; I think this is older than a Takic loan but the roadrunner %pu: set needs a look and this is how to get it WW %pu: same underived Couro & Hutcheson 1973 2 1 0 0 0 no
ruddy duck flora-fauna Oxyura jamaicensis missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
sage herb flora-fauna Artemisia californica missing missing missing 2 2 1 0 0 no
salmon/steelhead flora-fauna Oncorhynchus mykiss mo-weelk' salmon loan Yok-Utian Yuma mo-we'-ulk; loan direction unknown same underived a wild guess Merriam 55:181 2 1 0 0 0 no
scaly lizard flora-fauna Pygopus lepidopodus? haakwall lizard (Merriam 55:213 confirms Sceloporus) unique same underived Couro & Hutcheson 1973 2 2 0 0 0 no
small bird flora-fauna missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
small brown lizard flora-fauna missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna han-nă-kor' snake (any) unique same underived a wild guess Merriam 55:213 0 1 0 0 0 no
soaproot flora-fauna Chlorogalum ɂehkat bush that looks like sour dock, but with leaves flat on ground, the roots used for soap (Merriam confirms Soaproot (Chlorogalum pomeridianum)) unique could this be from %sVkV??? same underived Merriam 55:225; Couro and Hutcheson 2 1 1 0 0 no
sour berry flora-fauna Rhus trilobata pil'CH-chah Sour berry, Rhus trilobata unique same underived Merriam 55:221 2 1 1 0 0 no
sparrow hawk flora-fauna Falco mespily sparrow hawk inheritance Delta-California Cocopa mspily same underived Couro & Hutcheson 1973 2 2 0 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae hellytutt black widow spider inheritance Proto-Yuman M. halytot, Cocopa C. xłycuc narrower (kind of spider, although black widow is often prototype for generic) underived Couro & Hutcheson 1973 0 0 2 0 0 variable
spotted skunk flora-fauna Spilogale gracilis kallyewhiiw skunk inheritance *xwiw (*kłʸikʷ) Proto-Yuman Mixco 1978:96 (Langdon 1976:873 Metath) same phrase almost certainly “that which smells” Couro & Hutcheson 1973 2 2 0 0 0 no
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna Bufonidae hantak toad, frog unique *xa-nya Proto-Yuman Langdon 1979:637 FROG broader (frogs and toads) underived probably has ha- “water” Couro & Hutcheson 1973 2 2 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) ɂily tree inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Yavapai ɂɂí· same underived Couro & Hutcheson 1973 0 0 2 0 0 no
tree yucca flora-fauna Yucca schidegera shah'-ah' Y. mohavensis (bark used for soap) unique same underived Merriam 55:223 2 1 0 0 0 no
turkey buzzard flora-fauna Cathartes aura shaɂii buzzard inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Mojave ?ase same underived Couro & Hutcheson 1973 2 2 0 0 0 no
turtle (generic) flora-fauna Testudines ɂehnaally turtle, turtle rattle inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Kiliwa xnaal; Yuma axnaraxna/r Halpern 3:207 broader (turtle and shell rattle) underived Couro & Hutcheson 1973 2 2 0 0 1 no
valley live oak flora-fauna Quercus agrifolia ɂesnyaaw Live oak (Merriam confirms Q. agrifolia) unique Delta-California Cocopa snya. same underived Couro & Hutcheson 1973 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley oak flora-fauna Quercus lobata kuphaall Black Oak, Quercus kelloggii; )Merriam confirms) C&H “deciduous oak and its acorns, best for eating” unique same underived http://www.powayusd.com/projects/kumeyaay/Ethnobotany.htm; spelling from Couro & Hutcheson 1973 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley quail flora-fauna Callipepla californica ɂaahmaa quail inheritance Proto-Yuman Langdon 1976:871 Metath same underived Couro & Hutcheson 1973 2 1 0 0 0 no
Washington clam flora-fauna Saxidomus nuttalli missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
Western Canada goose flora-fauna Branta canadensis lă'-lok e-yow' All geese loan into protolanguage unknown WW %lala ~ %lak broader (all geese) phrase duck water.bird Merriam 55:275 0 1 0 0 0 no
whale flora-fauna Eschrichtius robustus ɂehpank whale inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Kiliwa paa=naq same underived etymologically probably contains *paa “swim” Couro & Hutcheson 1973 2 1 2 0 1 no
white pelican flora-fauna Pelicanus erythrorhynchos missing missing missing 0 2 0 0 0 no
wild grapevine flora-fauna Vitis californica kek-kwil'CH Wild grapevine (Vitis californica) unique same underived Merriam 55:225 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild oats flora-fauna Avena (introduction) missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild rose flora-fauna Rosa californica hŏ-toot' Wild rose (Rosa sp.) inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Kiliwa kwstuut same underived Merriam 55:221 0 1 2 0 0 no
wild sunflower flora-fauna Helianthus (and other genera) missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
willow flora-fauna Salix spp. ɂeyaaw willow (var.) inheritance *-yaaw Proto-Yuman JHH mentioned somewhere by Langdon with no recon. narrower (a kind of willow; there are 3 names in 'Iipay Aa, none identified by C&H) underived Couro & Hutcheson 1973 2 2 1 0 0 no
wood rat, round-tail flora-fauna Neotoma spp. ɂemallk woodrat inheritance Proto-Yuman Kiliwa ?+maql, Yavapai (ɂ)mālka, Yuma ah-mi'-ĕk same underived Couro & Hutcheson 1973 2 1 0 0 0 no
worm, hairy caterpillar flora-fauna Arctiidae (many species) missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
worm, smooth caterpillar flora-fauna Trichoplusia ni (?) cabbage looper ɂill worm, caterpillar, maggot inheritance *?-?il Proto-Yuman Langdon 1979:639 WORM broader (smooth squirmy larvae) underived Couro & Hutcheson 1973 2 2 0 0 0 no
yellow jacket flora-fauna Vespula spp., Dolichovespula spp. metpaaw yellow jacket inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Cocopa şxmpa·, Kiliwa cpaaw same underived Couro & Hutcheson 1973 2 0 0 0 0 no
yellowbird flora-fauna Dendroica petechia mut'-tah-kwas Yellowbird (Astragalinus) unique Note Mojave sakuuqwaath same phrase met-ekwas X -is.yellow Merriam 55:175 0 1 0 0 0 no
yerba santa flora-fauna Eriodictyon californicum sa'mall Yerba Santa, Eriodictyon trichocalyx unique Note Kiliwa smiil=xpiil; Cocopa şmal “grass” same underived www.kumeyaay.info 2 1 1 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna chemilly [ʧəˈmɪɫʸ] inheritance Jane Hill
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna 'aashaa [Ɂaˑˈşaˑ] inheritance Jane Hill
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna mechhaapuuly, mes-haapuuly [məʧxaˑˈpuˑ˅ʎ], [məs xaˑˈpuˑ˅ʎ] unknown Jane Hill
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna 'ehatt [Ɂəˈxat] inheritance Jane Hill
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna esemay [Ɂəsəˈmai] inheritance Jane Hill
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna 'ekwak [Ɂəˈkʷaq] inheritance Jane Hill
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna 'ewii [Ɂəˈwiˑ] inheritance Jane Hill
spider araña aranha flora-fauna hellytutt [xəɫʸˈt̯ʊt] inheritance Jane Hill


Cultural Vocabulary (115)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
acorn mush food shawii makes acorn mush; acorn mush inheritance Proto-Yuman note Kiliwa s-wiy 'acorn mush' -- this looks like Takic $awish 'acorn bread' but probably a coincidence, not part of the %saw set deroved this is infix -a- on shwii 'make acorn mush' Couro & Hutcheson Jane Hill
ball game food missing missing Jane Hill
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
feather headband dress sekwiirp headband, is tied around the head unknown Cocopa kpur 'tie around head' simplex Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool 7epal arrow, gun inheritance Proto-Yuman JHH simplex Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
arrow straightener other missing missing Jane Hill
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
school escuela escola acculturation skweel school loan Spanish WW %escuela simplex Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
stone bowl culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material epup woven material, basket inheritance Proto-Yuman Yavapai puvi 'weave', Kiliwa pip, piip 'weave baskets' simplex Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material hatemuly, tehemuly small cap-sized basket used to hold tobacco passed around at gatherings unknown simplex Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
basketry hat culture-material 7empuull tightly-woven cap-sized basket (used to protect the head from the strap of the carrying net) inheritance Proto-Yuman note Kiliwa m+puul 'basketry hat' simplex Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material sho-kōl' beads, necklace inheritance Proto-Yuman see Mojave simplex Merriam 38:209 Jane Hill
ochre culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
bow arco arco subsistence tool 7aatim bow inheritance Proto-Yuman JHH, looks weirdly like the UA word but that is an accident, see Kiliwa -tim simplex Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
canoe canoa canoa transport missing missing Jane Hill
carrying net subsistence tool hallepuu carrying net, sack unknown simplex Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
bottle botella garrafa acculturation sah-ki water bottle, large, of clay unknown simplex Merriam 38:217 Jane Hill
paper papel papel acculturation papeel paper loan Spanish WW %papel simplex Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology kwaaypaay, kway'paay chief, captain, judge unknown derived kw- agentive Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool hahm-po club unknown simplex Merriam 38:213 Jane Hill
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress wi'-mah-kahp breech cloth unknown also tap-pah-row (Spanish JHH?), in-neep' derived no clue as to parts but too long for canonical Merriam 38:207 Jane Hill
cook food food wellyully boils, cooks something inheritance Proto-Yuman see Mojave 7alyuuly simplex Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
corpse food kumlay corpse (lit. the dead one) unknown derived ku- agentive Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
dance (generic) culture-mythology iimaa dances inheritance *ma(7) Proto-Yuman Mixco 1978:84 simplex Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology chawp mythological spirit embodied in fire ball, meteor unknown Maayehaa 'God' (high water) simplex Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool o-hwaht digging stick unknown might be cognate with Mojave usak (x=s is OK, and labialization could come from the /u/) ; also tup-pus simplex Merriam 38:215 Jane Hill
dipper subsistence tool tahCH-wahl gourd cup or dipper, spoon unknown simplex Merriam 38:215 Jane Hill
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology hemach dreams inheritance Proto-Yuman JHH always from 'sleep' simplex Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
drone pipe culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
chicken gallina galinha acculturation gayeen chicken loan Spanish WW %gallina simplex Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
earring other hemaalk earring inheritance *$mal(k) 'ear' Proto-Yuman Mixco 1978:84 derived Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology 7echillich devil, ghost, spirit (lit. bad heart) unique WW %7el derived iichih his chest, heart, lungs Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
fire drill subsistence tool ko-kahtch fire drill inheritance Delta-Californian Cocopa 7u:ka/ 'fire drill' simplex Merriam 38:213 Jane Hill
fire-tender culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
fireplace hogar lareira other oh-har-oh-wah fireplace unknown derived Merriam 38:211 Jane Hill
firewood leña lenha other 7ily wood, stick, tree inheritance Proto-Yuman JHH simplex Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing missing Jane Hill
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food hiiwaa fishes, catches fish, gets a lot of fish unknown simplex Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fish hook subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
acorn bread food 7epap bread unknown me-yesHL 'acorn bread' CHM 38:219 simplex Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
wheat food trriig wheat loan Spanish WW %trigo simplex Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology helul plays the flute; flute inheritance Proto-Yuman Yavapai lulluli (but maybe just onomatopoeia) simplex Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
gambling sticks other koi'-me the counters in hand game unknown simplex Merriam 38:229 Jane Hill
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food missing missing Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology 7echillich devil, ghost, spirit (lit. bad heart) unique Yok-Utian WW %7el derived Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
glue subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology 7epemall graveyard unknown kem-me 'grave' CHM 38:223 derived Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
alcohol food 7awarrdyeent whiskey loan Spanish WW %aguardiente simplex Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
Datura wrightii narcotics tolvaach jimsonweed loan Spanish WW %toloache simplex Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology kuseyaay (pl. kusteyay) medicine man, doctor, witch unknown derived agentive ku- Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
honey miel mel food myeel honey loan Spanish WW %miel simplex Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
house other 7ewaa house inheritance *wa(7) Proto-Yuman JHH simplex Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
hunt cazar caçar food wenyay hunts inheritance Delta-Californian simplex Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
initiate boy culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
initiate girl culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
knife cuchillo faca culture-material kuchii knife loan Spanish CHM mo-roo WW %cuchillo simplex Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
mat culture-material chă-chatch, a-chutch tule mat unknown simplex Merriam 38:211 Jane Hill
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool 7ehmuu bedrock mortar inheritance Proto-Yuman JHH; kalymuu small mortar, portable mortar p. 25 simplex Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
necklace other hah-nahk' necklace (general term) inheritance Proto-Yuman Kiliwa p-naq 'neckerchief' WW simplex Merriam 38:209 Jane Hill
needle/awl subsistence tool pa'yur needle unknown simplex Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
paddle/oar remo remo transport missing missing Jane Hill
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool 7'ehmuu esally pestle (lit. mortar's arm) unique kalymuu esally p 25 phrase Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
pinole food pinool pinole loan Spanish WW %pinole simplex Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other 7emuukwin pipe inheritance Delta-Californian derived Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
pitch food hes-ki-e-mitch resin or pitch unknown simplex Merriam 38:215 Jane Hill
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool 7aaskay pot, olla inheritance Proto-Yuman JHH; see Kiliwa simplex Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
quiver subsistence tool mis-kwah, mis-h>wip quiver unknown simplex Merriam 38:213 Jane Hill
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology 7ehnaally turtle, turtle rattle inheritance Proto-Yuman JHH; see Kiliwa simplex Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
red paint culture-mythology a-hwaht red paint inheritance Proto-Yuman simplex Merriam 38:209 Jane Hill
salt sal sal food 7esily salt inheritance *7iR < s-7iR Proto-Yuman Mixco 1978:95 simplex Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
seed beater subsistence tool mes-kwah' seed paddle unknown looks just like 'quiver' word??? simplex Merriam 38:217 Jane Hill
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology tehiilly clothes, shirt, is dressing, wears unknown simplex Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
sinew-backed bow subsistence tool missing Missing Jane Hill
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material heyuly skirt inheritance Delta-Californian nyiphaly ceremonisal feather skirt p. 36; CHM pahCH-hahl, ěs-sē-yool 38:207 simplex Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
snare subsistence tool oo-kwīp snare unknown simplex Merriam 38:213 Jane Hill
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology 7echaayaaw song inheritance Delta-Californian derived Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool e-kwoolCH spear for war unknown simplex Merriam 38:213 Jane Hill
stirring stick food 7ehyally spoon, paddle unknown CHM hă-pe-es 38:217 simplex Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture missing missing Jane Hill
bag, sack culture-material k'me sack, bag inheritance Proto-Yuman see Kiliwa simplex Merriam 38:211 Jane Hill
string of shell money other kwellyhiiw silver, money, coins unknown oom-pās-klitch Merriam 38:209 simplex Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation kumyulk sugar, sweets (lit. the sweet one) semantic shift Proto-Yuman see Yavapai myû(:)la sugar, sweet derived ku- form Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
sweathouse other ep-pis-ă-wah sweathouse unknown derived Merriam 38:211 Jane Hill
tell history culture-mythology akenaa tells a story inheritance Delta-Californian Cocopa knya; naa root is in Kiliwa, may be Proto-Yuman in this meaning simplex Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
cremate culture-mythology e-pi ar-row person burning unique phrase Merriam 38:225 Jane Hill
tobacco (native) narcotics 7up tobacco loan into protolanguage Proto-Yuman Hokan JHH WW %7u:p simplex Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
tule boat transport kutuuyaalp boat (Lit. that which floats, is carried by the water) unique derived agentive ku- Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
white paint culture-mythology mathwaay white clay (used for ceremonial painting of body) unknown math is 'earth, clay' compound I wonder if waay is source of Cupen`o xway- 'white'?? Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
winnowing basket culture-material hataayily winnowing basket, spleen unknown simplex Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
wood tray subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
shoes zapatos sapatos dress hemenyaaw his shoes, sandals inheritance Proto-Yuman JHH; see Kiliwa simplex Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
medicine narcotics missing missing Jane Hill
cradleboard culture-material 7uukwill cradleboard inheritance Proto-Yuman JHH; see Mojave and Kiliwa khwit simplex Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
policeman polícia policía acculturation kuchutt boss, leader, ruler, chief, policeman unknown also pooliis derived agentive ku- Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
soldier soldado soldado acculturation epal kuhyan soldier (one who carries a gun) unique phrase Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
corn food maays corn loan Spanish WW %maiz simplex Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
beans food frrihool beans loan Spanish WW %frijol simplex Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
cat gato gato acculturation gaat domestic cat loan Spanish also meniis p. 32 WW %gato simplex Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation 7epal arrow, gun semantic shift Proto-Yuman JHH simplex Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
hat sombero chapéu dress nyepuull hat semantic shift Proto-Yuman simplex Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
clapper acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material missing Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture hellytay [xəɬʸˈtai] unknown Jane Hill
bottom grinding stone manufacture 'ehpii [Ɂəxˈpiˑ] inheritance Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool missing Jane Hill
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture missing Jane Hill
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture hapechaa [xapəˈtʃaˑ] inheritance Jane Hill
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool hempuu [xəmˈpuˑ˅] unknown Jane Hill
spearthrower subsistence tool missing Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool missing Jane Hill
house other 'ewaa [Ɂəˈwaˑ] inheritance Jane Hill


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
medium HG medium seasonal no