valley live oak

Semantic Field
flora-fauna
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
Meaning Portuguese

Languages

Language Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
Bankalachi Toloim Quercus agrifolia missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone Quercus agrifolia missing inheritance missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
Cahuilla Quercus agrifolia wíʔasilʸ ˈwiʔasiʎ coast live oak, Quercus agrifolia inheritance *wiʔaN-si Northern Uto-Aztecan S1507b (Stubbs 2009:224). Cupeno also has this -si increment. broader (also used for the acorn) derived ˈwiʔa-si-ʎ ˈwiʔa-t is Q. chrysolepsis. -si may be frozen diminutive (it is not a productive element) -ki7iw7a "waiting, claim" possessive classifier -ki7iw7a "grove of trees growing wild that is assigned to a lineage" (literally, "waiting", "claim" (Seiler and Hioki 1979:300)). Acorns are -chi-7a "gathering". Seiler&Hioki 1979:243 Oak groves were lineage properties. Individual trees belonged to families within the lineage. 2 A “first crop” ceremony held by net; one could not eat the new acorns before this event, on pain of death or sickness. Myths hold acorns were not always bitter, but were poisoned by a shaman, or perhaps by creator when he got angry at people. 1 Very elaborate steps in preparation yields bread (sawish), mush (wiwish), and soup (B&S give no name). Q. agrifolia was a “secondary source” with Q. kelloggii and Q. chrysolepsis preferred. 1 ashes of wood and bark in antiseptic wash Gathered (wild but closely managed) All acorns dried, ground, flour prepared through several stages of leaching, grinding in diverse utensils (see Bean & Saubel 1972:127) 0 1 Desert Cahuilla traded for acorns with Wanikik and Mountain Cahuilla groups, although they did have their own groves in upper Murray Canyon California west of Sierra Nevada from Mendocino County to Baja California; only coastal live oak Concentrated in valleys and on lower hills below 3000 feet no
Central Sierra Miwok Quercus agrifolia sá:sa- live oak (Q. agrifolia) inheritance *sa:Ta Miwokan Callaghan 1997:19 reduplicated Freeland & Broadbent 1960 2 1 2 0 1 no
Chemehuevi Quercus agrifolia we'-am'-pe Valley live oak (Quercus agrifolia) inheritance *wi'aN, *wiyaN Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1507b (2008:224) probably a Kiowa-Tanoan loan into PNUA same other complex has -pɨ ABS Merriam 59:539 2 1 2 0 1 no
Chumash Barbareno Quercus agrifolia ku'w Q. agrifolia inheritance *kuwu(') Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:102 underived Timbrook 2007:160 2 1 2 0 1 no
Chumash Ineseno Quercus agrifolia ku'w Valley live oak (Note, Merriam has these reversed) inheritance *kuwu(') Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:102 underived Timbrook 2007:160 2 1 2 0 1 no
Chumash Obispeno Quercus agrifolia tʸuwu' Klar) Q. agrifolia, coast live oak inheritance *kuwu(') Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:102 underived Timbrook 2007:160 2 1 2 0 1 no
Chumash Ventureno Quercus agrifolia kuw Quercus agrifolia, Coast live oak inheritance *kuwu(') Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:102 underived Timbrook 2007:160 2 1 2 0 1 no
Cocopa Quercus agrifolia snya· oak, acorn inheritance Delta-California Iipay Aa ɂesnyaaw broader (includes acorn) underived Crawford 1989 2 1 2 0 1 no
Comanche Quercus agrifolia pa?sa ponii huupi oak unique same phrase pa?sa ponii “acorn”, huupi “tree Robinson & Armagost 1990:165 2 1 2 0 1 no
Cupeño Quercus agrifolia wi'awlat wiˈʔawlat Live Oak sp. (see species notes) inheritance *wi'aN- Northern Uto-Aztecan S1507b (Stubbs 2009:224); one of diverse derivations on this base for “oak” broader (includes tree and acorns) derived wiˈʔa-wala-t Q.agrifolia-base/greatgrandparent-npn Hill & Nolasquez 1973:179 groves owned by lineages 2 Ceremonial couplet wi'at, wi'awlet (H&N p. 80 1 no info gathered (wild but closely managed) all acorns hulled, ground, leached, made into cakes, mush, soup 0 1 California west of Sierra Nevada from Mendocino County to Baja California; only coastal live oak Concentrated in valleys and on lower hills below 3000 feet no
Esselen Quercus agrifolia missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
Gabrielino Quercus agrifolia wi:y wi:y bellota inheritance *wi'aN- Northern Uto-Aztecan S1507b (Stubbs 2009:224); one of diverse derivations on this base for “oak” broader (includes tree and acorns) other complex wi:-y live.oak-npn -hi:n classifier for worthwhile possessions Harrington 559 no info 2 were once human 1 acorns 1 oak bark as general all-purpose antiseptic wash (McC p. 102) gathered (wild but closely managed) all acorns ground, flour leached, made into mush, soup, bread 0 1 California west of Sierra Nevada from Mendocino County to Baja California; only coastal live oak Concentrated in valleys and on lower hills below 3000 feet no
Iipay 'Aa Quercus agrifolia ɂesnyaaw Live oak (Merriam confirms Q. agrifolia) unique Delta-California Cocopa snya. same underived Couro & Hutcheson 1973 2 1 2 0 1 no
Kawaiisu Quercus agrifolia kwiiyavɨ Quercus kelloggii inheritance *kwiya Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1507a (2008:224); a Kiowa-Tanoan loan into PNUA same other complex kwiiya-vɨ oak-ABS bɨ, pɨ bɨ, pɨ seem to classify for plants, trees 1981 Zigmond 2 1 2 0 1 no
Kiliwa Quercus agrifolia ?+?aal live oak unique same other complex ? dummy.nominal.element + live.oak Mixco 1985 2 1 2 0 1 no
Kitanemuk Quercus agrifolia wiʔaht ˈwiʔaht oak sp. , a mountain variety with edible acorn inheritance *wi'aN- Northern Uto-Aztecan S1507b (Stubbs 2009:224) broader (tree and acorns) other complex ˈwiʔah-t live.oak-npn (probably a loan into Northern UA from Proto-Kiowa-Tanoan) -niw possessive classifier for things Anderton 1988:568 no info 2 1 no info gathered (wild but closely managed all acorns ground, leached, used in diverse preparations 0 1 California west of Sierra Nevada from Mendocino County to Baja California; only coastal live oak Concentrated in valleys and on lower hills below 3000 feet no
Lake Miwok Quercus agrifolia şáaTa live oak (Q. wislizeni CHM57:533) inheritance *sa:Ta Miwokan Callaghan 1997:19 underived Callaghan 1965 2 1 2 0 1 no
Luiseño Quercus agrifolia wi'áa$al wiʹɁa:şal kind of live oak; Harrington, Quercus agrifolia inheritance *wiʔaN-si Northern Uto-Aztecan S1507b (Stubbs 2009:224). Cupeno, Cahuilla have -si increment. broader (includes tree and acorns) other complex wiʹɁa:şa-l coast.live.oak-non.possessed.noun (root is derived etymologically but not synchronically) Elliott 1999:1046 no info 2 plural forms refer to time when humans were trees 1 next to Black Oak, the most esteemed acorn (Sparkman 1908:193) no info gathered (wild but closely managed) all acorns ground into flour, which is leached, then cooked into bread, mush, soup 0 1 California west of Sierra Nevada from Mendocino County to Baja California; only coastal live oak Concentrated in valleys and on lower hills below 3000 feet no
Maidu Quercus agrifolia hámsin c'á black oak unique phrase X tree Shipley 1963 2 1 2 0 1 no
Mojave Quercus agrifolia missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
Mutsun Quercus agrifolia you-kish (u-kish) Q. agrifolia inheritance Costanoan Pinart has in Co II, III, IV as “live oak” underived Merriam 55:419 2 1 2 0 1 no
Nisenan Quercus agrifolia bah'-bahk Q. agrifolia unique reduplicated Merriam 57:245 2 1 2 0 1 no
Northern Paiute Quercus agrifolia missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
Northern Sierra Miwok Quercus agrifolia sa:sa- live oak (CHM's Q. wislizeni) inheritance *sa:Ta Miwokan Callaghan 1997:19 reduplicated Callaghan 1987 2 1 2 0 1 no
Plains Miwok Quercus agrifolia sa:sa- live oak inheritance *sa:Ta- Miwokan Callaghan 1997:19 reduplicated Callaghan 1984 2 1 2 0 1 no
Salinan A Quercus agrifolia s'ow'-wut Valley Live Oak unique Salinan underived Merriam 55:385 2 1 2 0 1 no
Salinan M Quercus agrifolia s'ow'-wut Valley live oak unique Salinan underived Merriam 55:385 2 1 2 0 1 no
Seri (Comcaac) Quercus agrifolia missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
Serrano Quercus agrifolia wi7aht mountain Live Oak (Merriam def.) inheritance *wi7aN- Northern Uto-Aztecan S1507b (Stubbs 2009:224) other complex -t NPN KCHill ms 2001: 2 1 2 0 1 no
Southern Paiute Quercus agrifolia qwiyavɨ scrub oak inheritance *kwiN/*kwi- Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1507a (2008:224) probably a Kiowa-Tanoan loan into PNUA same other complex has -pɨ ABS Sapir 1930:651 2 1 2 0 1 no
Southern Sierra Miwok Quercus agrifolia sa:sa- scrub or interior live oak inheritance *sa:Ta- Miwokan Callaghan 1997:19 reduplicated Broadbent 1964: 2 1 2 0 1 no
Southern Ute Quercus agrifolia missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
Tübatulabal Quercus agrifolia wa'anul waʔaˈnul Canyon live oak, Quercus chrysolepsis inheritance *wi7a(N) Northern Uto-Aztecan S2507b (Stubbs 2009:224); vocalism bad but first /a/ could just be harmony across the glottal stop. Surely it is this etymon. same other complex waʔaˈnu-l q.chrysolepsis-npn (really has -u- deriv. suffix but perhaps not synchronic) Hill 2010:115 no info 2 1 no info gathered (wild but closely managed) all acorns shelled, ground into flour, leached, prepared in diverse ways 0 1 Southwestern U.S. to Sierra Nevada up to 2700 meters, likes north-facing slopes in hot areas, tolerant of steep slopes, rocky soil no
Tümpisa Shoshone Quercus agrifolia wiyampippüh oak (Merriam's Q. kelloggii “Black Oak” inheritance *wiya Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1507b (2008:224) same other complex wiyam-pi-ppüh ppüh wiyampi “acorn”, wiyampi-ppüh “acorn-tree” Dayley 1989:387 2 1 2 0 1 no
Wappo Quercus agrifolia híšo live oak (Q. wislizeni CHM 52:581) inheritance Yukian-Wappo Yuki ha:s, hah”-sĕ; note Yokutsan forms like “esin” for Black Oak; Sawyer 1991:33 says -i:š- is “oak” other complex -o for tree Sawyer 1965 2 1 2 0 1 no
Washo Quercus agrifolia missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
Western Mono Quercus agrifolia wiyapɨ California black oak tree (Quercus kelloggii) inheritance *wiya Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1507b (2008:224) same derived -pɨ Bethel et al.285 no info 2 1 makes the best mush (Gayton 2:224) no info Gathered (wild but closely managed) all acorns ground, leached, cooked in diverse preparations 0 1 “acorns moved eastward” to E. Mono (Spier 1978:427) no
Wintu Quercus agrifolia ta:sal live oak (Q. chrysolepis CHM 56:51) unique underived Schlichter 1981 2 1 2 0 1 no
Yavapai Quercus agrifolia missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
Yokuts Palewyami Quercus agrifolia e'-sen-ne Black oak (Q. californica (= kelloggii?) inheritance Yokutsan Kroeber lists similar forms (he has Pal isen) widespread same underived Merriam 58:533 2 1 2 0 1 no
Yokuts Yawdanchi Quercus agrifolia öcün black oak; Merriam confirms Q. californica Black Oak 58:375 inheritance Yokutsan Kroeber and Merriam both have the cognate form for Palewyami (es-sen-ne in Merriam, esin in Kroeber); note Eappo -i:š- “oak” (Sawyer 1991:33) same underived Kroeber 1961:211 (#165) 2 1 2 0 1 no
Yokuts Yowlumne Quercus agrifolia ?e:şin' black oak (Newman 1944:160 confirms transcription and gloss; Newman 1964:9 to:wixit “white oak” inheritance Yokutsan Kroeber and Merriam both have the cognate form for Palewyami (es-sen-ne in Merriam, esin in Kroeber) same underived Kroeber 1961:211 (#212) 2 1 2 0 1 no
Yuki Quercus agrifolia hah''-sĕ MWO, ha:s U Q. chrysolepis, Mountain live oak inheritance Yukian-Wappo Note Yokutsan forms like “esin” ?? for Black Oak Q. Californica; Wappo híšo underived Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 1 2 0 1 no
Yuma Quercus agrifolia missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no