Southern Sierra Miwok

Family
Penutian
Region
North America
ISO 639-3
skd
Location
38.24°, -120.51°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (185)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location li:leH-to- (nt) inheritance Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar missing Jane Hill
all todo todos other to:koH-, inheritance Jane Hill
and y e grammar ho7 (suf) unknown Jane Hill
ankle tobillo tornozelo body kat:ak:atal- inheritance Jane Hill
armpit axila, sobaco axila body katmyl- unknown Jane Hill
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment sik:e inheritance Jane Hill
at en, a em, a location -m- p. 53 inheritance? Jane Hill
back espalda costas body ke:wy- inheritance Jane Hill
bad mal mal quality 7yh:yTy- loan direction unknown Jane Hill
belly barriga barriga body 7oceH- unknown Jane Hill
below abajo, debajo abaixo location wal:i- inheritance Jane Hill
big grande grande quality 7oja-:ni unknown Jane Hill
bite morder morder body jyl:-, jytm- inheritance Jane Hill
black negro preto colour tu:hi-, tuhuh-:i loan Jane Hill
blood sangre sangue body kic:aw- inheritance Jane Hill
blow soplar soprar body puhe:l- inheritance Jane Hill
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body sapaT- inheritance Jane Hill
bone hueso osso body kyc:yc- inheritance Jane Hill
breast pecho, seno peito body mu:su- inheritance Jane Hill
breathe respirar respirar body hen-si inheritance Jane Hill
burn quemar queimar environment wyleng-; wyHl-ngHe (intr), unknown Jane Hill
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body 7awa:l- unknown Jane Hill
child niño, niña criança human 7esel:y- inheritance Jane Hill
climb subir subir motion cy:m- inheritance Jane Hill
cloud nube nuvem environment 7o:pa- inheritance Jane Hill
cold frío frio quality hityHp- (thing, weather) inheritance Jane Hill
come venir vir motion 7yn:- inheritance Jane Hill
cook cocinar cozinhar impact kose:-nY, loan Jane Hill
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality cytyH- loan direction unknown Jane Hill
count contar contar mental ne:n- unknown Jane Hill
cry llorar chorar mental nocuH- inheritance Jane Hill
cut/hack cortar cortar impact te:p- inheritance Jane Hill
day día dia time hi7e”m-aH- inheritance Jane Hill
die/be dead morir morrer state cam-h- inheritance Jane Hill
dig cavar cavar impact 7ol:- inheritance Jane Hill
dingo/wolf fauna 7o:nup- inheritance Jane Hill
dirty sucio sujo quality jo:tok- inheritance Jane Hill
dream soñar sonhar mental 7ukuHc-ngHe- inheritance Jane Hill
drink beber, tomar beber body 7uhuH- (irreg) inheritance Jane Hill
dry seco seco quality hew:e- (vt), inheritance Jane Hill
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality lej:uk- (edge) unknown Jane Hill
dust polvo poeira environment ni:peti- unknown Jane Hill
ear oreja orelha body Tolkoh- inheritance Jane Hill
earth/soil tierra terra environment tol:e- unknown Jane Hill
eat comer comer body 7yw:y- inheritance Jane Hill
egg huevo ovo fauna hong:u- inheritance Jane Hill
eye ojo olho body hynty- inheritance Jane Hill
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body kyna:-t- “defecate” inheritance Jane Hill
fall caer cair motion peT:a-ngHe- inheritance Jane Hill
far lejos longe quality kot-to- inheritance Jane Hill
fat/grease grasa gordura body sym:it- inheritance Jane Hill
father padre, papá pai kinship 7ypyH- inheritance Jane Hill
fear miedo medo mental helaHj-ngHe- inheritance Jane Hill
feather pluma pena fauna halaH- inheritance Jane Hill
fire fuego fogo environment huj:u-, inheritance Jane Hill
fish xx xx fauna lapi:s-aj- inheritance Jane Hill
flow fluir fluir motion wakha- inheritance Jane Hill
flower flor flor environment lo:je- inheritance Jane Hill
fly volar voar motion hyle:-t- inheritance Jane Hill
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment hungeH- inheritance Jane Hill
foot pie body haT:e- inheritance Jane Hill
fruit fruta fruta flora missing Jane Hill
good bueno bom quality cytyH- loan direction unknown Jane Hill
grow crecer crescer state 7ypeHl-ngHe- “to grow up” inheritance Jane Hill
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body hi:sok (head), unknown Jane Hill
hand mano mão body Tis:y- inheritance Jane Hill
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar 7is:ak- inheritance Jane Hill
head cabeza cabeça body han:a (Yosemite dialect) inheritance Jane Hill
hear oír ouvir mental 7al:- inheritance Jane Hill
heavy pesado pesado quality lewe:t-aH- inheritance Jane Hill
hide esconder esconder motion pet:y-c: (vi) inheritance Jane Hill
hit golpear, pegar bater impact To:p- (w/ fist) inheritance Jane Hill
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other lotu-ksY “hold down” inheritance Jane Hill
how? como como grammar micyk-na-tho-j (na2) inheritance Jane Hill
1sg yo eu grammar kan:i, kan: inheritance Jane Hill
if si se grammar missing Jane Hill
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location 7e:caH- inheritance? Jane Hill
intestines intestinos intestinos body putkal- inheritance Jane Hill
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body 7uT:a- inheritance Jane Hill
kill matar matar impact jo:h- inheritance Jane Hill
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental hyj7y-ksY (know something) inheritance Jane Hill
lake lago lago environment 7awa:ja- unknown Jane Hill
laugh reír rir mental hyja:k- inheritance Jane Hill
leaf hoja folha environment tat:a- inheritance Jane Hill
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body caj:aH-, inheritance Jane Hill
leg/foot pierna perna body ho:con- inheritance Jane Hill
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion jaHn-ngHe- (intr) inheritance Jane Hill
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment wi:le:p-aH inheritance Jane Hill
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body ky:li- “alive” unknown Jane Hill
liver hígado figado body kyl:a- inheritance Jane Hill
long largo comprido, longo quality wila:toH-, wil:at- inheritance Jane Hill
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna sypsi- (body), loan direction unknown Jane Hill
lung pulmón pulmão body pohkal- inheritance Jane Hill
man/male hombre homem human nang:aH- inheritance Jane Hill
meat/flesh carne carne fauna mice:ma inheritance Jane Hill
moon luna lua environment kome- inheritance Jane Hill
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship 7ami- unknown Jane Hill
mouth boca boca body 7aw:o-, 7ow:o- inheritance Jane Hill
name nombre nome human 7oja:he- inheritance Jane Hill
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body hyp:yT- inheritance Jane Hill
near/close cerca de perto quality haj:e- inheritance Jane Hill
neck cuello pescoço body hyp:yt-:a- inheritance Jane Hill
new nuevo novo quality 7iwin-nY-meH- inheritance Jane Hill
night noche noite time kawyHl- inheritance Jane Hill
no/not no não grammar ken inheritance Jane Hill
nose nariz nariz body niToH- loan into protolanguage Jane Hill
old viejo velho quality pana:h-aH- unknown Jane Hill
one uno um number keng:eH- inheritance Jane Hill
open/uncover abrir abrir other 7eTu:l unknown Jane Hill
other otro outro grammar kenge:-jak- “another kind” inheritance Jane Hill
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body sike:-nY- “to be sick” inheritance Jane Hill
person/human being persona pessoa human miw:yH- inheritance Jane Hill
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact lop:a- inheritance Jane Hill
rain lluvia chuva environment nyk:a- inheritance Jane Hill
red rojo vermelho colour jococ-:i unknown Jane Hill
right/right hand derecha direita location/body hot:oH- unknown Jane Hill
road/path camino caminho manufacture muk:u- inheritance Jane Hill
root raíz raiz flora wi:meja- loan Jane Hill
rotten podrido podre quality Toke-:muH- inheritance Jane Hill
sand arena areia environment wiskala- inheritance Jane Hill
say decir dizer mental kac:- inheritance Jane Hill
scratch rascar rasgar impact we:T- (a person), inheritance Jane Hill
see ver ver mental hyj:- inheritance Jane Hill
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality kyt:e- (edge) inheritance Jane Hill
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact Tyk:- inheritance Jane Hill
short corto curto quality hul:iwi- inheritance Jane Hill
shoulder hombro ombro body mej:elki- inheritance Jane Hill
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental muc:a-, mus:a- “ashamed” unknown Jane Hill
sit sentar(se) sentar state To7:u-c: inheritance Jane Hill
skin piel pele body Tol:a- inheritance Jane Hill
sky cielo céu environment helaHk- unknown Jane Hill
sleep dormir dormir body Tyj:e-, inheritance Jane Hill
small pequeño pequeno quality cin:ipi, cin:imi, cinti- loan Jane Hill
smoke humo fumaça environment hak:is-aH- inheritance Jane Hill
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body huka:-j- inheritance Jane Hill
spit escupir cuspir body tukse- inheritance Jane Hill
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact 7a:T- inheritance Jane Hill
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact ci:n- unknown Jane Hill
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact hyl:a- inheritance Jane Hill
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state haHc-ngHe- “stand up” inheritance Jane Hill
star estrella estrela environment cala:tu- loan Jane Hill
steal robar roubar other jele:-j- unknown Jane Hill
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora hyh:y-tki- loan into protolanguage, direction unknown Jane Hill
stone piedra pedra environment hawa- inheritance Jane Hill
suck chupar chupar body jymo:-t- unknown Jane Hill
sweat sudar suor, suar body missing Jane Hill
swell hincharse inchar body makt- inheritance Jane Hill
swim nadar nadar motion 7yp-h- “swim around” inheritance Jane Hill
tail cola, rabo rabo body hu:ki- inheritance Jane Hill
that ese/esa esse grammar 7i- inheritance Jane Hill
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar 7is:ak-koH- inheritance Jane Hill
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality lew:ap- inheritance Jane Hill
thin delgado fino quality Tasyw-meH-; unknown Jane Hill
think pensar pensar mental TynTyn-nY- unknown Jane Hill
this este/esta este grammar neH- inheritance Jane Hill
2sg xx xx grammar mi-, mi:n, mi:ni- inheritance Jane Hill
three tres tres number tolo:kot- inheritance Jane Hill
throat garganta garganta body Tok:o7-la- inheritance Jane Hill
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact so:p- unknown Jane Hill
thunder truenos trovão environment tim:ele-:li- inheritance Jane Hill
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact tyja:n, inheritance Jane Hill
tongue lengua lingua body nep:it- inheritance Jane Hill
tooth diente dente body kyt:y- inheritance Jane Hill
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other 7im:yt-wi-j:- (turn that way); unknown Jane Hill
two dos dois number 7oTiH- inheritance Jane Hill
vomit vomitar vomitar body ho:ne- inheritance Jane Hill
walk caminar, andar andar motion wy:n- inheritance Jane Hill
water agua agua environment kik:y- inheritance Jane Hill
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar mah:i- inheritance Jane Hill
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar 7oTic:i-, 7oTiT:i inheritance Jane Hill
wet mojado molhado quality jyte-- inheritance Jane Hill
what? que, qué que grammar mi-, tin:y- inheritance Jane Hill
when? cuando quando grammar mi-taH- inheritance Jane Hill
where? donde onde grammar mi-n:i- inheritance Jane Hill
white blanco branco colour pasas-:i- unknown Jane Hill
who? quien, quién quem grammar manaX- inheritance Jane Hill
wife esposa esposa kinship 7oh:a- inheritance Jane Hill
wind viento vento environment kan:ymaH, unknown Jane Hill
wing ala asa body missing Jane Hill
woman/female mujer mulher human 7oh:a- inheritance Jane Hill
work trabajar trabalhar other tawhal-nY, tawhan-nY loan Jane Hill
yawn bostezar bocejar body haw-h- inheritance Jane Hill
yellow amarillo amarelo colour pukuk-:i- unknown Jane Hill
2pl ustedes vocês grammar mi-ko (plur) inheritance Jane Hill


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (130)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
abalone flora-fauna Haliotis spp. has:yn- abalone shell loan Costanoan Also in Mics; Mutsun haşʸşʸan WW %kys underived Broadbent 1964: 2 1 0 0 1 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae te-ze'-ni-u small black ant (used by inf in “ant's nest) inheritance Eastern Miwokan Also in Mics, Mip other complex -aj suffix, probably -y nominalizer Merriam 57:469 0 0 2 0 0 no
antelope flora-fauna Antilocapra americana hahl'-lo-soo; hah'-loo-sŭ antelope inheritance Eastern Miwokan In all Mis, MIP underived has the -y suffix which Callaghan knocks off in “skunk”. What to do??? Merriam 57:449 2 1 0 0 0 no
badger flora-fauna Taxidea taxus tĕ'-we-gah; tĕ-we-gŭ badger inheritance Sierra Miwokan only This form from Merriam's Tuolumne so same as Mics data base, in Mins underived Merriam 57:449 2 1 0 0 0 yes
bald eagle flora-fauna Haliaeetus leucocephalus missing missing missing 1 2 0 0 1 no
band-tail pigeon flora-fauna Patagioenas fasciata lyng:y:ti- band-tail pigeon inheritance *lyng:y:ti- Sierra Miwokan only Callaghan 1971 underived Broadbent 1964: 0 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp tipi:sisi- bat inheritance Sierra Miwokan only Also in Mics reduplicated Broadbent 1964: 0 1 0 0 0 no
beaver flora-fauna Castor me:sy- beaver unique underived Broadbent 1964: 2 1 0 0 0 no
beetle flora-fauna Coleoptera spp kyn:yhtali stinkbug inheritance Eastern Miwokan Also in Mins, Mip phrase meaning of elements unknown Broadbent 1964: 2 0 0 0 0 no
big round tule flora-fauna Schoenoplectus acutus hoho:loj; kohjah-/kojhah (which is the typo?); mo:ngi- reed Merriam has ling'-ah 57:473 unique Note Mil ko:l “round tule”, Palewyami kolòlis; Callaghan 1962:106 has Utian *xo:l, bringing in Mu xale, Mib kole “hay” underived Broadbent 1964: 2 1 2 0 0 no
big skunk flora-fauna Mephitis mephitis his:ik- skunk inheritance Eastern Miwokan In all Mis, MIP underived Broadbent 1964: 2 2 0 0 0 no
big wolf (gray wolf) flora-fauna Canis lupus 7o:nup- wolf unique Probably “the chaser”, cf. Mins 7onpu- “to chase” underived Broadbent 1964: 1 2 0 0 0 yes
bighorn sheep flora-fauna Ovis canadensis wan'-he; wahn'-he bighorn inheritance Sierra Miwokan only In Mics; could this be a Numic loan??? underived Merriam 57:451 2 1 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna cicka bird inheritance Sierra Miwokan only Also in Mics; Mip chikchik “brownbird” might show an unreduplicated form underived Broadbent 1964: 0 0 0 0 0 no
black ant flora-fauna Camponotus pennsylvanicus/Lasius niger paTa:ka- small black ant unique Probably same root as Misn pa:Tymy “ant underived Broadbent 1964: 2 0 0 0 0 no
black bear flora-fauna Ursus americanus 7yhy:maTi bear inheritance *7y$y-maTi7 Eastern Miwokan Callaghan 1971 bad-creature phrase bad creature Broadbent 1964: Bear moiety:7yhy:mati- 1 2 0 0 0 yes
black-tail Jackrabbit flora-fauna Lepus californicus 7epla-:liH- jack rabbit (Merriam confirms blacktail 57:451) inheritance *7epla:-li Eastern Miwokan Callaghan 2001:325 other complex -:liH- theme Broadbent 1964: 2 1 0 0 0 no
blackberry flora-fauna Rubus ursinus mamla- blackberry loan Yokuts Yowlumne mah-me, mah'-mil “blackberry” (also in Yawdanchi, Chukchansi) WW %mam underived Broadbent 1964: 2 1 2 0 0 no
blue grouse flora-fauna Dendrogapus? muc:amaHh- Sierra grouse inheritance Sierra Miwokan only In all Mis underived must be complex etymologically Broadbent 1964: 0 1 0 0 0 no
bobcat, lynx flora-fauna Lynx rufus tol:om:a- wildcat inheritance *tol:om:a- Miwokan Costanoan forms “probably a loan from Miwok” (Callaghan 1997:33); if not, Utian. Note Yokutsan **t'ol'an WW %talom underived Broadbent 1964: 1 2 0 0 0 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera walap:u- butterfly inheritance Sierra Miwokan only Note W. Mono wa'napusa', Chukchansi wal-lup-soo, in Mics as “moth” underived Broadbent 1964: 2 0 0 0 0 no
California condor flora-fauna Gymnogyps californianus mol:ok- condor inheritance Miwokan This form is also Proto-Wintun; Whistler (1977) thought it was of Miwokan origin. Word is in Mil and Mip, Misn, etc. WW %moloko underived Broadbent 1964: 1 2 0 0 1 no
California jay flora-fauna Aphelocoma californica? tajic:u- California bluejay loan into protolanguage *Tajich Sierra Miwokan only unknown Callaghan 1997:58; Proto-General Yokuts *T'ayT'ay WW %chaj underived I think etymologically there's a -c:u here Broadbent 1964: 2 1 0 0 0 no
California woodpecker flora-fauna Melanerpes formicivorus? palaT:aTa- woodpecker loan into protolanguage *pala:T:a- ? Miwokan unknown Callaghan 1997:61 “There are peculiar developments in both Miwok and Yokuts” C1997:61; Pynim *pHala:tatH; see Troike ms on this widespread arealism WW %palaka ~ %pana(k) reduplicated Broadbent 1964: 2 1 0 0 1 no
chia flora-fauna Salvia columbariae missing missing missing 1 1 1 0 0 no
chipmunk flora-fauna Tamias spp. pisu- Tahoe chipmunk inheritance Sierra Miwokan only In all Mis underived Broadbent 1964: 2 1 0 0 0 no
cliff swallow flora-fauna Petrochelidon pyrrhonota sal'-le-pe'-pe barn swallow, cliff-swallow inheritance Eastern Miwokan In all Mis, MIP reduplicated Merriam 57:457 2 1 0 0 0 no
coot flora-fauna Fulica americana chool-chool'-lah coot inheritance Eastern Miwokan Mip culcul “teal duck” reduplicated Merriam 57:461 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottontail rabbit flora-fauna Sylvilagus audobonii ti:we- cottontail rabbit (Merriam has tōs'sā'-wā loan Yokuts ti:we is Yokutsan loan (*thiw Golla 1964:61) underived Broadbent 1964: 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottonwood flora-fauna Populus spp. tat:ak:ala- cottonwood inheritance Eastern Miwokan Also in Mics, Mip reduplicated Broadbent 1964: 2 0 2 0 0 no
coyote flora-fauna Canis latrans 7ahe-:liH coyote inheritance *7a$e:-li- Sierra Miwokan only “Pmis *7a$e:-li- 'coyote' is probably a loanword from Pyn *ho:shu- < **hu:si- “coyote” or some similar word” (Callaghan 2001:325) other complex -:liH theme Broadbent 1964: Coyote Moiety 7ahle-j:a- 1 2 0 0 0 no
crow flora-fauna Corvus brachyrhynchos 7a7:yt- Crow unique This is an areal form, but what is it most like?It's missing the /w/ that's in Mics, Mins. underived Broadbent 1964: 2 1 0 0 0 no
datura flora-fauna Datura wrightii mo:nuj- belladonna (Merriamhas yaw'-che-tah “datura” “not used” 57:473 loan Salinan This is Jimsonweed in Mics, probably a mistranslation. Ultimately Takic WW %moji ~ %moni underived Broadbent 1964: 1 1 1 1 0 yes
deer, mule flora-fauna Odocoileus hemionus hikaHh-, 7ywy:-j-aH- (Yosemite) deer unique Callaghan 1971 has Yosemite form as cognate, note resemblance to Chumashan word underived Broadbent 1964: 2 1 0 0 0 no
digger pine flora-fauna Pinus sabiniana sak:y- digger or bull pine inheritance *sa:k, *sak:y- Utian Callaghan 1997:18 underived Broadbent 1964: 2 1 2 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris cukuH-; haju- (Yos) dog inheritance *chuku- Sierra Miwokan only cukuH in Mins, widespread form; See Bodega Dic, Callaghan 2001:325 (haju- is Pmi and its presence is really interesting since it's loaned around in Clear Lake languages) WW %kaju, %suku underived Broadbent 1964: 0 0 0 0 0 no
dogbane flora-fauna Apocynum cannabinum missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna Zenaida macrocoura hul:u:wi- dove inheritance Eastern Miwokan In all Mis, MIP underived Broadbent 1964: 2 1 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae haT-ha:Ta-, duck inheritance Sierra Miwokan only Also in Mics reduplicated Broadbent 1964: 0 1 0 0 0 no
elder flora-fauna Sambucus 7angt-aj- elder, Mountain blueberry inheritance *7anTaj Miwokan Callaghan 1971; Callaghan 1997;19 other complex -aj theme Broadbent 1964: 2 1 1 0 0 no
elk flora-fauna Cervas elaphus hah'-ki-yah elk inheritance *hak:a:ja- Miwokan Callaghan 1977:59; in Mip; may be cognate wi th Pyokuts *sohkoy ??? WW %sok underived Merriam 57:449 2 1 0 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna lapi:s-aj- fish inheritance *lapi:s-aj Sierra Miwokan only Probably Yok-Utian given Yokutsan lopit, etc. WW %lvp other complex -aj theme Broadbent 1964: 0 1 0 0 0 no
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna Siphonaptera ky:kyh- flea inheritance *ky:ky$ Miwokan Callaghan 1971 underived Broadbent 1964: 2 0 0 0 0 no
flicker flora-fauna Colaptes sp. tiw:-aj- yellowhammer, red-shafted flicker inheritance *Tiw(:)a- Utian Callaghan 1986:62 other complex -aj- theme Broadbent 1964: 2 1 0 0 1 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera 7uc:um- fly inheritance Sierra Miwokan only See Mics 7uc:umu 'worm' underived Broadbent 1964: 0 0 0 0 0 no
foothills yucca flora-fauna Yucca whipplei missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
fox flora-fauna Vulpes, Urocyon juw:el- fox inheritance *juw:el Eastern Miwokan Callaghan 1971 underived Broadbent 1964: 2 2 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna waTak-Hna- frog inheritance *waTa:k Miwokan Callaghan 2001:326; note Pwintu *wataq “frog”. “These words are onomatopoeic and susceptible to borrowing “ Callaghan 2001:326 WW %wakat other complex -Hna Broadbent 1964: 2 2 0 0 0 no
golden eagle flora-fauna Aquila chrysaetos wip:ajaHk- eagle inheritance Eastern Miwokan In all Mis, MIP underived Broadbent 1964: 1 2 0 0 1 no
gooseberry flora-fauna Ribes spp. cumuk-ha-; ki:li- wild currant; Sierra gooseberry (Merriam confirms ke'le as Ribes bracteosum) inheritance *kil:i- “horn, antler” Utian Bodega Dic; Mib has a cognate verb meaning “be hard, sharp” so Pmi may have included “thorn”. Note Misn kle'-de-de' “wild rose”, presumably from the same root. Utian: Callagha 1997:33 other complex -ha Broadbent 1964: 2 1 1 0 0 no
gopher snake, bull snake flora-fauna Pituophis catenifer hik:a7-jaH- gopher snake unique other complex -jaH theme 2 2 0 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) cit:ak- grass inheritance Sierra Miwokan only Also in Mics, related to Pmie “green” underived Broadbent 1964: 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Caelifera paTa:ti-, 7ang:ut- grasshopper unique underived Broadbent 1964: 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray ground squirrel flora-fauna Sphermophilus sp. hac:i-c:Y-meH; TicaHn-, Yicik-Hna-, Ticici-, wuje-t-7ucaH; 7upuksi- ground squirrel (Merriam has te-chah'-sŏ 57:551) inheritance Eastern Miwokan Merriam form also in Mics; 7up form also in Mins, Mip underived Broadbent 1964: 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray tree squirrel flora-fauna Sciurus spp. me:we- California gray tree squirrel inheritance Eastern Miwokan In all Mis, MIP underived Broadbent 1964: 2 1 0 0 0 no
great horned owl flora-fauna Bubo virginianus hoh:oho- horned owl (?) M. has soo'-koo'-me 57:453 unique Note Palewyami Yokuts ho'ho'-wŏ-let' reduplicated Broadbent 1964: 1 2 2 0 1 no
grizzly bear flora-fauna Ursus arctos horribilis hus7o- grizzly bear unique underived Broadbent 1964: 1 2 0 0 0 yes
horned toad flora-fauna Phrynosomatidae cotpo:po- horned toad loan Yokuts Note Yokutsan chichpaapu in all Merriam lists reduplicated Broadbent 1964: 2 2 2 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus cymy7-jaH-; kawa:ju- horse unique underived Broadbent 1964: 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae li:ci:-ci- hummingbird inheritance Sierra Miwokan only In all Mis and Nisenan reduplicated this dictionary counts -ci as suffix, but it's not counted that way in other Mis languages. I'm dubious and have coded as reduplication Broadbent 1964: 0 0 0 0 0 no
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana spp. ka:hy- wild tobacco inheritance Miwokan Pmiw *kajew, Pmie *ka:sy probably related, but how? underived Broadbent 1964: 1 1 1 1 0 yes
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing missing missing 0 0 2 0 0 variable
junco flora-fauna Junco sppp pusu:kulut; To:ni- Junco (Merriam has too-moo-no-no 57:457 inheritance Sierra Miwokan only For pu..., CHM has Mins poo-soo'-kal-loo; re To:i, cf. W. Mono toho'no “snowbird”) underived Broadbent 1964: 0 1 0 0 0 no
juniper flora-fauna Juniperus californica pylyw- Juniper unique underived Broadbent 1964: 2 1 1 0 0 no
louse flora-fauna order Phtiraptera ket:u- head louse inheritance *KeT:- Miwokan Callaghan 1971 underived the -:u comes off etymologically Broadbent 1964: 2 0 0 0 0 no
mallard flora-fauna Anas platyrhynchos haT-ha:Ta- mallard inheritance Sierra Miwokan only Also in Mics reduplicated Merriam 57:459 2 1 0 0 0 no
manzanita flora-fauna Arctostaphylos spp. 7e:je- manzanita (Merriam's A. viscida; patula is pal-lah'-pah-lah 57:467) inheritance Miwokan Form in Mil, Mip, Mis JHH underived Broadbent 1964: 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, broad leaf flora-fauna Asclepias eriocarpa huken- milkweed unique Yawdanchi hox “dogbane”? underived Broadbent 1964: 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, narrow leaf flora-fauna Asclepias fascicularis missing missing missing 0 1 1 0 0 no
mission tule flora-fauna Juncus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
mockingbird flora-fauna Mimus polyglottos Towin:-aj- mockingbird loan Yokuts Note Yowlumne Towinits “goldfinch” other complex -aj theme Broadbent 1964: 2 1 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera cy:ly- mosquito unique underived Broadbent 1964: 0 0 0 0 0 no
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna Heterocera walap:u- moth inheritance Sierra Miwokan only In Mics underived Broadbent 1964: 2 0 0 0 0 no
mountain lion flora-fauna Puma concolor hi:li:ca- mountain lion inheritance Eastern Miwokan In all Mis, MIP underived Broadbent 1964: 1 2 0 0 0 yes
mountain quail flora-fauna Oreortyx pictus kuj:ak-:a; Mountain quail inheritance Eastern Miwokan In all Mis, MIP other complex -:a theme Broadbent 1964: 2 1 0 0 0 no
mussel flora-fauna Mytilus spp. hopon:-aj- mussel unique cognate in Mics other complex -aj theme Broadbent 1964: 2 1 0 0 1 no
olivella (olive snail) flora-fauna Callianax biplicata luk:u- (and see note) olive shell, rope of whole olive shell beads inheritance Sierra Miwokan only In all Mis underived Broadbent 1964: 2 2 0 0 1 no
pinyon jay flora-fauna Cyanocitta stelleri? kajka7-jaH- Steller's bluejay loan into protolanguage Eastern Miwokan unknown In Mip; Proto-Yokutsan *xay WW %kaj other complex -jaH theme Broadbent 1964: 2 1 0 0 0 no
pinyon pine flora-fauna Pinus monophylla sak:y- pinyon inheritance *sa:k, *sak:y- Utian Callaghan 1997:18 underived Broadbent 1964: 2 1 2 0 1 no
pismo clam flora-fauna Tivella stultorum ky:cyp-, lacah:ana- long shell bead, long narrow shell bead (Dentalium?) (more likely Tivella hinge JHH) unique underived Broadbent 1964: 2 1 0 0 1 no
pocket gopher flora-fauna Thomomys syw:yt- gopher inheritance *sykw:ot Utian Callaghan 1986:57 underived Broadbent 1964: 2 1 0 0 0 no
poison oak flora-fauna Toxicodendron diversilobum nykys- poison oak inheritance *nykys Utian Callaghan 1986:57 underived Broadbent 1964: 2 2 2 0 0 yes
rattlesnake flora-fauna Crotalus spp. law:ati- rattlesnake inheritance Sierra Miwokan only In Mics underived Broadbent 1964: 1 2 0 0 0 yes
red ant flora-fauna Solenopsis spp missing missing missing 1 0 1 0 0 no
red-shouldered blackbird flora-fauna Agelaius phoeniceus capuk-”a Brewer's blackbird (Merriam confirms ch... for Red-wing; inheritance *chakup-:a- Eastern Miwokan Callaghan 1997:58 fails to note Mip cikup:ati- other complex suffix -”a Broadbent 1964: 2 1 0 0 0 no
red-tailed hawk flora-fauna Buteo jamaicensis suj:u- chicken hawk (Merriam confirms red-tailed hawk 57:453 inheritance *suj:u- Miwokan Callaghan 1971 underived Broadbent 1964: 2 2 0 0 0 no
roadrunner flora-fauna Geococcyx californianus hujuh:uj-, 7ujuj:u- roadrunner inheritance *7uj:uj:u- Eastern Miwokan Callaghan 1997:60 and note Pyokutsan *7oj7uj from 7u:j7uj reduplicated Broadbent 1964: 2 1 0 0 0 no
ruddy duck flora-fauna Oxyura jamaicensis missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
sage herb flora-fauna Artemisia californica kitch-ing'-ŭ extrapolating, water damage sage herb (A. ludoviciana) inheritance Miwokan Pmie *kyčin, Pmiw *kičin (Callaghan 1971) other complex -y Merriam 57:471 2 2 1 used for medicine as amulet to protect from disease. Keeps off ghosts of dead 0 0 no
salmon/steelhead flora-fauna Oncorhynchus mykiss ko:sum- salmon inheritance Miwokan Pmis *ko:sum must be related to Pmiw *kas:i, *ka:si; Callaghan 1997:42 underived Broadbent 1964: 2 1 0 0 0 no
scaly lizard flora-fauna Pygopus lepidopodus? sok'-kah-de' Scaly lizard (Sceloporus) inheritance Eastern Miwokan In all Mis and Mip other complex -ti (Ti?) Merriam 57:463 2 2 0 0 0 no
small bird flora-fauna cheech'-kah-te little bird unique Sierra Miwokan only From Merriam's “Tuolumne” list so same source as Mics base, but clearly dimin. of chichka- “bird” other complex -ti diminutive Merriam 57:457 2 1 0 0 0 no
small brown lizard flora-fauna pe-chuk'-kah (pe-tā'-le in tale) small brown lizard (Uta) inheritance Sierra Miwokan only Also in Mics WW %petel underived Merriam 57:463 2 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna 7ici- snake (Merriam has law:ati- 57:463 unique underived Broadbent 1964: 0 1 0 0 0 no
soaproot flora-fauna Chlorogalum saka-:ni- soaproot inheritance *saka-:ni- Miwokan Callaghan 1971 WW %svkv other complex -:ni Broadbent 1964: 2 1 1 0 0 no
sour berry flora-fauna Rhus trilobata Tama- sourberry unique underived Broadbent 1964: 2 1 1 0 0 no
sparrow hawk flora-fauna Falco kil-lik'-si-e; kil-lik'-kik-kŭ Sparrow hawk loan into protolanguage Eastern Miwokan unknown first form also in Mins, Mip WW %kili other complex kilik' -saji Merriam 55:453 2 2 0 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae pok:um- spider inheritance *pok:um Miwokan Bodega Dic, Callaghan 1971 underived Broadbent 1964: 0 0 2 0 0 variable
spotted skunk flora-fauna Spilogale gracilis his'-sig-gŭ Little spotted skunk inheritance Eastern Miwokan In all Mis, Mip (for “skunk” underived has the -y suffix which Callaghan knocks off in “skunk”. What to do??? Merriam 57:449 2 2 0 0 0 no
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna Bufonidae 7ol:oco7-ma- toad inheritance Sierra Miwokan only Also in Mics other complex -ma theme Broadbent 1964: 2 2 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) la:ma- tree inheritance Sierra Miwokan only Also in Mics underived Broadbent 1964: 0 0 2 0 0 no
tree yucca flora-fauna Yucca schidegera missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
turkey buzzard flora-fauna Cathartes aura huhu-, hu:tawe- buzzard inheritance *hu:$u- Sierra Miwokan only Note Pmis *hu:$u- and Pmie *chy:$y-;PW *hu:s, PM *hy:s, *hu:s Callaghan 2001:326; an areal word also in Yukian JHH CHECK WW %hus reduplicated Broadbent 1964: 2 2 0 0 0 no
turtle (generic) flora-fauna Testudines 7aw:anta- turtle inheritance *7awan:a-, *7aw:an(a)- Callaghan 1997:60 WW %awan underived etymologically the -ta comes off Broadbent 1964: 2 2 0 0 1 no
valley live oak flora-fauna Quercus agrifolia sa:sa- scrub or interior live oak inheritance *sa:Ta- Miwokan Callaghan 1997:19 reduplicated Broadbent 1964: 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley oak flora-fauna Quercus lobata tele-:liH-; le:ka- black oak; white or scrub oak inheritance *tele-:li- Eastern Miwokan Callaghan 1971:25 underived Broadbent 1964: 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley quail flora-fauna Callipepla californica hek:e:ke-, California quail inheritance Utian In all Mis; Perhaps Utian, see Mutsun heksen reduplicated Broadbent 1964: 2 1 0 0 0 no
Washington clam flora-fauna Saxidomus nuttalli missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
Western Canada goose flora-fauna Branta canadensis low:ot- goose (Merriam confirms 57:459) inheritance Sierra Miwokan only In all Mis underived Broadbent 1964: 0 1 0 0 0 no
whale flora-fauna Eschrichtius robustus wejl- whale loan English underived Broadbent 1964: 2 1 2 0 1 no
white pelican flora-fauna Pelicanus erythrorhynchos missing missing missing 0 2 0 0 0 no
wild grapevine flora-fauna Vitis californica kim:is- grapevine unique underived Broadbent 1964: 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild oats flora-fauna Avena (introduction) ho:nosme- wild oats doubtful loan Spanish but looks just like Mutsun oon-oosh-min so might be Utian??? WW %arroz underived Broadbent 1964: 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild rose flora-fauna Rosa californica mV'-moo-dah; mVm'-me'-tah vowel invisible due to water damage, probably /a/ based on related forms wild rose unique Note Mil wild rose fruit is moo-mah so possibly a Miwokan form underived Merriam 57:469 0 1 2 0 0 no
wild sunflower flora-fauna Helianthus (and other genera) missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
willow flora-fauna Salix spp. sakaHl- small willow used for making baskets (Merriam has S. lasiolepis) loan Mono or Takic CHECK Same loan is into Proto-Nim-Yokuts from Takic WW %saka underived Broadbent 1964: 2 2 1 0 0 no
wood rat, round-tail flora-fauna Neotoma spp. lol:ok- wood rat inheritance Eastern Miwokan In Mins, Mip reduplicated Broadbent 1964: 2 1 0 0 0 no
worm, hairy caterpillar flora-fauna Arctiidae (many species) ut'-tas loo'-loo-mah “mother of army worm” hairy caterpillar unique phrase Merriam 57:469 2 2 0 0 0 no
worm, smooth caterpillar flora-fauna Trichoplusia ni (?) cabbage looper lah'-pe-too (good roasted) smooth caterpillar unique underived Merriam 57:469 2 2 0 0 0 no
yellow jacket flora-fauna Vespula spp., Dolichovespula spp. melngaj- yellowjacket inheritance Miwokan Pmiw meenani, and Pmi Bodega Dic underived Broadbent 1964: 2 0 0 0 0 no
yellowbird flora-fauna Dendroica petechia loo-too'-loo-te yellowbird (Astragalinus) unique From Merriam's “Tuolumne” list so same source as Mics base reduplicated -ti diminutive Merriam 57:457 0 1 0 0 0 no
yerba santa flora-fauna Eriodictyon californicum ??-sahl-le water damage obscures first syllable; should be pah- (as in Mins) Yerba Santa ( inheritance Sierra Miwokan only Also in Mins underived 2 1 1 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna hu:ji- “large brown” unknown Jane Hill
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna cicka- inheritance Jane Hill
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna pat:akal-ma- inheritance Jane Hill
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna cukuH-, loan direction unknown Jane Hill
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna cit:ak- inheritance Jane Hill
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna hikaHh- loan Jane Hill
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna 7ici- unknown Jane Hill
spider araña aranha flora-fauna pok:um- inheritance Jane Hill


Cultural Vocabulary (115)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
acorn mush food nyp:a acorn mush inheritance *nyp:a- Proto-Sierra Miwok simplex nt (Note: this dictionary lists noun themes, not full words) Callaghan 1971 Jane Hill
ball game food wiTo:p play football unique also tawi:l- simplex st.1 Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology wale:ti-tHo- hell unknown see wali in other lgs; probably Pmi *wal:i- 'world' other complex nt Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
feather headband dress tamak:i7-la- flicker-feather headband inheritance %tamak Proto-Eastern Miwok see Mie form other complex nt Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool muckul- arrow unique also paj:uk- Yosemite simplex nt Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
arrow straightener other hiwa7-:a- arrow straightener unique other complex nt Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool 7ywyn-:a- bait unique construction from 7ywy 'to eat' with caus. other complex 7yw:y- st.1 'to eat' Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
school escuela escola acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
stone bowl culture-material wik:utu- oval vegetable bowl unique pu:kej-aH- nt 'soapstone' B. p 343 simplex Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material 7alym-:a- basket inheritance Proto-Sierra Miwok JHH other complex nt Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material 7o:sa- trinket basket loan Yokuts looks like Yokutsan 'urn, bottle-neck' word, and Numic 'bottle' word %osa; also 7uhu7-:a- 'small basket for drinking soup" simplex Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
basketry hat culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material kumsul- whole Olivella shell bead unique also lacah:ana- long narrow shell bead (dentalium?), ky:cyp- long shell bead); ho:wok, ho:wos-, ho:wot- "beads" simplex Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
ochre culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
bow arco arco subsistence tool jaw:e bow (for shooting) unique 7ungli- Yosemite simplex nt Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
canoe canoa canoa transport missing missing Jane Hill
carrying net subsistence tool waja:ka- net unique simplex nt Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
bottle botella garrafa acculturation lem:eta- bottle loan Spanish WW %limida simplex Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
paper papel papel acculturation pape:l-aH- paper loan Spanish also pop:il 'papers' WW %papel other complex nt Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology ti7jaH- chief loan Yokuts also haja:puH, kaptan- (most consultants) simplex Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress missing missing Jane Hill
cook food food kosen-peH cook loan Spanish also kuk-nY- WW %cocinar other complex st.1 Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
corpse food camy7-aH- corpse inheritance *CE:m- (?) Proto-Miwok-Mutsun Callaghan 1962:103 other complex cam-h- 'to die' st. 1 Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
dance (generic) culture-mythology kala:-ng- to dance inheritance *kala(?) Proto-Utian Callaghan 1997:50 other complex ka:l 'to kick with heel" Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology te:pani- creator loan Yokuts simplex Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool sype- digging stick inheritance Proto-Sierra Miwok also in Mins sype- 'digging stick'; maybe from "wood" (sy…_) simplex Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
dipper subsistence tool polis-:a- dipper basket inheritance Proto-Eastern Miwok part of the *pulu 'basket' set, and this form specifically is Pmis other complex Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology 7ukuHc-ngHe- to dream inheritance *7ek:uc/ Proto-Utian Callaghan 1988:59 other complex vb Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
drone pipe culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology tampo- drum loan Spanish also toma7-:a- WW %tambor simplex nt Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
chicken gallina galinha acculturation kaji:na- chicken loan Spanish WW %gallina simplex Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
earring other missing missing Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology jamlo- devil loan Spanish also tijawlo-; jamlo- probably an earlier loan WW %diablo simplex Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
fire drill subsistence tool kajan-:a- fire drill inheritance Proto-Sierra Miwok Mins kajan:a 'matches' other complex nt Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
fire-tender culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
fireplace hogar lareira other wyky7-:a- fireplace inheritance *wyké- Proto-Miwok Callaghan 1970:84 other complex wy:k- st. 1 'to light a fire' Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
firewood leña lenha other hyh:y- wood inheritance *şyş:-y- Proto-Sierra Miwok Callaghan 1971:31; maybe Yok-Utian Callaghan 1997:59 simplex Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing missing Jane Hill
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food hune:m- to fish inheritance Proto-Sierra Miwok JHH; see Maidu simplex st. 1 Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fish hook subsistence tool hunem-:a- fishhook inheritance Proto-Sierra Miwok JHH other complex nt Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
acorn bread food 7yl:e- coarse acorn mush, acorn bread inheritance Proto-Sierra Miwok JHH simplex nt Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
wheat food tili:ko wheat loan Spanish WW %trigo simplex Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology lul:a- flute inheritance Proto-Sierra Miwok but very widespread form;note PW *lul 'cylinder'; Maidu, Wappo, Mutsun --perhaps onomatopoeia so I'm not counting as WW simplex Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
gambling sticks other hil:o- tally sticks for handgame loan Northern Sierra Miwok and note PM *hela!! ha:na- handgame bone simplex Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food missing missing Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology hu:leh- ghost inheritance *şu:les- Proto-Sierra Miwok Callaghan 1971:19 simplex Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
glue subsistence tool juta7-:a glue inheritance *jut:e- Proto-Miwok JHH other complex jut:a 'to glue, to stick to" st. 1 Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology ha:me-, hame:j-aH grave unique jam:eH- Yosemite simplex Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
alcohol food wiski- whiskey loan English WW %whiskey simplex Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
Datura wrightii narcotics missing missing Jane Hill
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology tuj:uk- shaman inheritance Yok-Utian Callaghan 1997:58 simplex Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
honey miel mel food hani- honey loan English WW %honey simplex Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
house other 7en:i- house unknown Has a 'penutian' look, cf. Sahaptian 7ini:-t; cf. koca- Yosemite, also 7u:cuH- simplex Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
hunt cazar caçar food hal-ki- to hunt unique maybe has Pmie *hal 'to sneak up on" other complex Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
initiate boy culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
initiate girl culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
knife cuchillo faca culture-material hope- knife inheritance %hop Proto-Miwok Callaghan 1970 Bodega hopa 'to stab' 'from Proto-Miwok' (no form given) p. 25 simplex nt Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
mat culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool lopa7-:a- small mortar unique this has the %pa element and looks suspiciously like a UA *topa??? But it's from Pmis lopa- 'to mash' other complex lop:a- 'to pound, smash' Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
necklace other po:ko necklace inheritance Proto-Sierra Miwok JHH simplex Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
needle/awl subsistence tool cyl:a- awl inheritance *Cy1la1s (1 subscript) Proto-Utian Callaghan 1962:102 simplex nt Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
paddle/oar remo remo transport missing missing Jane Hill
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool kawa:-ci- pestle inheritance Proto-Sierra Miwok JHH other complex nt Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
pinole food missing missing Jane Hill
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other to7is-:a- pipe inheritance loan might be other direction but probably not WW %to7i other complex Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
pitch food missing missing Jane Hill
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
quiver subsistence tool hut:a quiver for arrows inheritance Proto-Sierra Miwok cognate with shuta in Mics simplex Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology hokoh-:-a- cocoon rattle inheritance *şokoş:a- Proto-Miwok Callaghan 1971:18 WW %soko other complex Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
red paint culture-mythology moke- red paint unique simplex Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
salt sal sal food koj:o- salt inheritance *koj:o- (pMi) Proto-Utian Callaghan 1997:33 siplex Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
seed beater subsistence tool camy7-:a- seed beater basket inheritance Proto-Sierra Miwok JHH; see Mics; also cingku- 'sifter basket' loan from T. Shoshone other complex nt Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology 7yhty-j:a- clothes unique other complex Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
sinew-backed bow subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material hute- dance skirt unique simplex Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
snare subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology 7yy:te- song inheritance Proto-Eastern Miwok also 7ymt-7aX- simplex 7ymt- 'to sing' st. 1 Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool hoca- spear unknown note Pmil hócci 'spear' that Callaghan notes with Pomo word simplex Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
stirring stick food missing missing Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture hi:loH- string loan Spanish WW %hilo simplex Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
bag, sack culture-material kustal- bag loan Spanish WW %costal simplex Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
string of shell money other ke:ha- money loan Yokuts also pila:ta < Spanish plata 'silver' WW %kys simplex Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation 7asu:ka- sugar loan Spanish WW %azúcar simplex Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
sweathouse other capy- sweathouse inheritance Proto-Sierra Miwok JHH simplex Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
tell history culture-mythology 7ute:-nY to tell stories at night inheritance Proto-Sierra Miwok JHH; also 7use:-nY, other complex vb Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
cremate culture-mythology hujpu- to cremate unique simplex st.1 Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
tobacco (native) narcotics ka:hy- wild tobacco inheritance Proto-Miwokan Callaghan suggests in Bodega Dic that Pmiw *kajaw and Pmie *ka:sy- do go together somehow but gives no reconstruction; Note Pmiw *kajaw; this may be Pmi (Callaghan 1970:33) simplex Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
tule boat transport wo:te- boat loan Spanish WW %bote simplex Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
white paint culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
winnowing basket culture-material kamta7ji- flat oval basket for winnowing or parching seeds unique also het:al- for winnowing or sifting acorn meal simplex Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
wood tray subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
shoes zapatos sapatos dress sapa:to- shoes loan Spanish momko moccasin 327 WW %zapato simplex Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
medicine narcotics loh:a- medicine unique simplex Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
cradleboard culture-material hik:iH- cradle basket inheritance Sierra Miwok JHH simplex nt Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
policeman polícia policía acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
soldier soldado soldado acculturation sulta:to- soldier loan Spanish WW %soldado simplex Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
corn food ma:jis- corn loan Spanish WW %maiz simplex Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
beans food hiho:le-, pih:o:le- beans loan Spanish WW %frijol simplex Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
cat gato gato acculturation ka:to- cat loan Spanish also pu:si WW %gato simplex Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation kupe:ta- gun loan Spanish WW %escopeta simplex Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
hat sombero chapéu dress somle:la-, sumne:no- hat loan Spanish WW %sombrero simplex Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
clapper acculturation kaTat-:a- split-stick rattle inheritance Proto-Eastern Miwok must be a metathesis but why not two /T/??? other complex Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material lil:e-m:-t:Y-7-hY: inheritance Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture ciko:te loan Jane Hill
bottom grinding stone manufacture lopa:7-a “small” inheritance Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool sype- inheritance Jane Hill
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture pik:a “to sift” inheritance Jane Hill
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture kawa:-ci- “pestle” inheritance Jane Hill
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing Jane Hill
spearthrower subsistence tool jaw:e- “bow” unique Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool muckul-, unknown Jane Hill
house other koca- (Yos) inheritance Jane Hill


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
large HG medium seasonal no