father

Semantic Field
kinship
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
padre, papá
Meaning Portuguese
pai

Languages

Language Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By General Notes
Bankalachi Toloim ah'-nahn 171, inheritance Jane Hill
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone appy loan direction unknown Jane Hill
Cahuilla -na inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
Central Sierra Miwok 7ypy:/- inheritance Jane Hill
Chemehuevi mo/(a) inheritance Jane Hill
Chumash Barbareno kok'o inheritance Wash 2001:65 Jane Hill
Chumash Cruzeno qy unknown Klar 1977:51 Jane Hill
Chumash Ineseno -koko7 (I) inheritance A 6 Jane Hill
Chumash Obispeno sapi unknown Klar 1977:49 Jane Hill
Chumash Ventureno k'oko “my fa” unknown JPH Jane Hill
Cocopa ny7a: (female speaking), nyaLy (man speaking) a na- word -- Not in IA inheritance Jane Hill
Comanche ahpy7 loan direction unknown Jane Hill
Cupeño -na [-na] inheritance Jane Hill
Esselen m-a7aT “3-father” unknown Shaul 1995:202 Jane Hill
Gabrielino -na:k inheritance Jane Hill
Iipay 'Aa paataat [paˑt̯aˑt̯] inheritance Jane Hill
Kawaiisu muwa= inheritance Jane Hill
Kiliwa h-s7uu, ny-p-s7uu unknown Jane Hill
Kitanemuk na7 inheritance Jane Hill
Lake Miwok 7appi inheritance Jane Hill
Luiseño na7 (possessed only) inheritance Jane Hill
Maidu be/k'y unknown Jane Hill
Mojave nakut (of a man), na'ay (of a woman inheritance Jane Hill
Mutsun 7appa inheritance O77:61 Jane Hill
Nisenan te unknown Jane Hill
Northern Paiute naa inheritance Thornes 03:91 Jane Hill
Northern Sierra Miwok 7ypy-, 7yp:y- inheritance Jane Hill
Plains Miwok 7ap:a- inheritance Jane Hill
Salinan A ekh (A), unknown Jane Hill
Salinan M pexk unknown Mason 1918:134 Jane Hill
Seri (Comcaac) -am (of female), -ai (of male) unknown Jane Hill
Serrano na7 inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Paiute mowa-S inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Sierra Miwok 7ypyH- inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Ute muA- inheritance Jane Hill
Tübatulabal anaa-n (before death of offspring) inheritance Jane Hill
Tümpisa Shoshone appy loan direction unknown Jane Hill
Wappo 7aya (requires prefix) unknown Jane Hill
Washo digo/y7 unknown J118 Jane Hill
Western Mono nawa inheritance Jane Hill
Wintu -tan inheritance Jane Hill
Yokuts Palewyami nopop inheritance JPH in Gamble 91 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawdanchi natet unknown K07:240 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yowlumne nopHopH inheritance Golla 1964 Jane Hill
Yuki -k'on', -k'unu' inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
Yuma 7anyko/: “my father”; nyako/ H3:212 unknown Jane Hill
Baniwa -hániɹi (hr01) -hániɻi (hr01) inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
Carijona hayre unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
Cubeo báyʉ (vocative), pacʉ bájʉ (vocative), pakʉ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
Desano pagʉ pagɯ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Eñepa yɨm jɨm inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Hodï laj/baba ʰlai; ai unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
Waorani wæ̃po unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
Hup ʔíp ʔíp inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
Makushi paʔpá paʔpá doubtful loan Portuguese See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Nheengatu parú, pai (from POR) paya parú, pai (from POR), paja unknown; doubtful loan Portuguese See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
Ninam papa, ~he (gom), papa- (EM72) papa, ~he (gom), papa- (EM72) loan; inheritance Portuguese See Language page Kelsey Neely
Maihiki jaquɨ aguɨ xakɨ agɨ inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Pemon yun, potori (A1981); yeepootoori (E1980); yun (M2000) dʒun, potoɾi (A1981); ʎepotorɪ (E1980) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Resígaro [-han]ígí (dp91) [-han]ígí (dp91) inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
Sanumá -ha, '-a -ha, '-a inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Sikuani axa (2) áxa inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
Tariana ha-niɾi ha-niɾi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
Tukano pakɨ pakɨ inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
Kotiria pɨ'kɨ, bãĩ́ pɨ'kɨ, bãĩ́ inheritance See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Yanomam fa fa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yanomami hayë, ha- (EM72) hajə, ha- inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yukuna hara'apaji -haɾaʔ [pá] (hr01), haɾaʔapahi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Arabana apitji inheritance Claire Bowern
Bardi gōl kōl inheritance Claire Bowern
Bunuba ngawungu unknown Claire Bowern
Burarra nyinya unknown Claire Bowern
Dhangu djawuḻpa inheritance Claire Bowern
Dhuwal djawuḻpa Claire Bowern
Dhuwala djawuḻpa unknown Claire Bowern
Diyari ngapiṛi inheritance Claire Bowern
DiyariREU ngapitji unique Claire Bowern
Djambarrpuyngu 1444 unknown Claire Bowern
Djapu mäḻu(') unknown Claire Bowern
Djinang djirrping unknown Claire Bowern
Gajirrabeng ngabang inheritance Claire Bowern
Gooniyandi ngaaboo loan Claire Bowern
Gupapuyngu djawuḻpa inheritance Claire Bowern
Gurindji ngaji loan Claire Bowern
Jabirr-Jabirr ibal ibal inheritance Claire Bowern
Jaru ngawi inheritance Claire Bowern
Jawi koola kula inheritance Claire Bowern
Karajarri japulu loan Nyulnyulan Claire Bowern
Kija ngapu- inheritance Claire Bowern
Malyangapa kumbidgi inheritance Claire Bowern
Mangala ngarrjiyanu unknown Claire Bowern
Miriwung ngabang inheritance Claire Bowern
Mithaka ngapri inheritance Claire Bowern
Mudburra kirda Claire Bowern
Mudburra kirda inheritance Claire Bowern
Ngamini ngaRpi inheritance Claire Bowern
Ngandi nyarr inheritance Claire Bowern
Ngarluma jabu Claire Bowern
Ngumbarl eebala ibala inheritance Claire Bowern
Nhirrpi ngapiRi inheritance Claire Bowern
Nimanburru gupul kupul inheritance Claire Bowern
Northern Mangarla wulu Claire Bowern
Northern Nyangumarta japartu inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyangumarta japartu inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyikina ibala ibala inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyulnyul gobol kobol inheritance Claire Bowern
Paakantyi kombitha, gambiji inheritance Claire Bowern
Pirriya thatha(nya) Claire Bowern
Pitta-Pitta yapiri inheritance Claire Bowern
Rirratjingu [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Ritharrngu baapa loan Claire Bowern
Walmajarri ngarpu inheritance Claire Bowern
Wangkayutyuru ngapiri inheritance Claire Bowern
Warrwa yibala, yibarra yibarra, yibala inheritance Claire Bowern
Wubuy baba doubtful loan Claire Bowern
Yan-nhangu gunharrkuḻi unique Claire Bowern
Yandruwandha ngapiri inheritance Claire Bowern
Yarluyandi ngapiri inheritance Claire Bowern
Yawarrawarrka ngapati inheritance Claire Bowern
Yawuru kuku kuku inheritance Claire Bowern
Achagua sálihina sálihina unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Piapoco [-án]iri (dp91) [-án]iɾi (dp91) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Kabiyari -ha nírí (hr01) -ha níɾí (hɾ01) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Warekena -há nili (hr01), iɺuami -há nili (hr01), iɺuami See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yavitero ihi (dp91) ihi (dp91) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Bare yaka-ɻi jaka-ɻi See Language page Ana Paula B.
Wapishana -ˀdarɨ -ˀdarɨ loan, direction unknown Warao dani See Language page Ana Paula B.
Paresi baba baba doubtful loan Portuguese See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Baure -i'a; čač i'a; tʃatʃ unknown; doubtful loan Quechua See Language page Anissa Capuccino
Waurá pa'pa; -žɨ pa'pa; -žɨ doubtful loan Portuguese See Language page Joyce McCormick
Bora čiʔí-yo, čiʔí-ï tʃiʔí-jo, tʃiʔí-ɯ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Muinane gíʔí(rubi) {vocative}, kááni gíʔí(rubi) {vocative}, kááni See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Akawaio kɨɨbɨnɨ kɨɨbɨnɨ unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
Apalai papa papa doubtful loan Portuguese See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Wayana ïjum ɨjum inheritance See Language page PLE
Tiriyó jum-me, pa: (vocative; spanish loan), pahko jum-me, pa: (vocative; spanish loan), pahko inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
Makiritare haha (IDS); ha:ha (KH) haha (IDS); ha:ha (KH) doubtful loan Portuguese See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Mapoyo yumu jumu See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Wai Wai yɨɨm; aa-mo yɨɨm; aa-mo inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Waimiri Atroari papa papa See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
Yukpa epmo dʒi'mo See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
Kalapalo apa apa doubtful loan Portuguese See Language page Joyce McCormick
Muisca paba, pabi paβa, paβi See Language page Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá zézaa zéza: See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, PLE
Macaguan até(i), áit, áti até(i), áit, áti unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
Cofán quitsa kitsa See Language page Daniel Valle phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS
Candoshi-Shapra apaapa apaapa doubtful loan Spanish See Language page Daniel Valle
Taushiro iya´ iyaʔ See Language page Daniel Valle
Páez eye eye See Language page Daniel Valle
Urarina ufwa ufwa unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Camsa taitá (Quechua loan) taitá (Quechua loan) See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
Andoke -pʌ -pʌ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
Pumé amãĩ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
Puinave i i unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
Warao ɾima, dani (pg 44) rima, dani (pg 44) See Language page John Blaha
Ashuar apár (my father) apár See Language page Daniel Valle
Huambisa apa apa See Language page Daniel Valle
Aguaruna ápa ápa inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Matses amë, papa amɨ, papa unique; inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Chácobo papa; ɨpa; ʔɨpa (the latter is used only in direct address) papa; ɨpa; ʔɨpa (the latter is used only in direct address) inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
Yagua jay xãj loan; unique Quechua See Language page Daniel Valle
Southern Pastaza Quechua yaya jaja See Language page Daniel Valle
Ingá taita taita See Language page Daniel Valle
Napo Lowland Quichua yaya jaja See Language page Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano tayta tajta See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Piaroa čá'oh tʃá'oh unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
Sáliva bahwa bahʷa unique See Language page Becky Walker
Barasano kakʉ; hak-ɨ, kak-ɨ kakʉ; hak-ɨ, kak-ɨ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Baeuerlein
Carapana caacʉ (voc.), pacʉ (pos.); -pa-kɨ́, 'ká-a-kɨ (Huber & Reed) kaacʉ, pakʉ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
Makuna cʉ̃na (Papí), jacʉ kɨ̃na (Papí), xakɨ inheritance See Language page Amanda Novak, D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Yuruti pa'kɨ́ pa'kɨ́ See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Waikhana pa'kɨ pa'kɨ See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Siriano pagʉ́ pagɨ́ See Language page Ana Paula, Kelsey Neely
Tanimuca aʔ'bi; 'paki 're aʔ'bi; 'paki 're unique; inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Tatuyo pa-'kɨ, 'ká-a-kɨ pa-'kɨ, 'ká-a-kɨ See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
Tuyuka pa'kɨ pa'kɨ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
Waimaja kʰáàkʰɨ kʰáàkʰɨ See Language page Kelsey Neely
Koreguaje ja'kʉ xaʔkhʉ inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Siona taita (Quechua loan), pë'caguë taita, pɨʔkaguɨ loan; inheritance Quechua See Language page Kelsey Neely
Secoya ja'quë haʔkɨ See Language page Amanda N
Karitiana ´it (masculine ego), syp (feminine ego) ʔit, sɨp unknown See Language page Daniel Valle
Kokama papa papa doubtful loan Spanish See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
Wayampi -l-u; papa (VOC) -l-u; papa (VOC) unknown; doubtful loan See Language page PLE
Sirionó paba; e-ru paba; e-ru doubtful loan Portuguese See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Ocaina mõõ(hõ) mõõ(hõ) inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Nɨpode Witoto mó.o mó.o See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Minica Witoto mó.o mó.o See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Murui Witoto mo.o mo.o inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Iquito caqu'ɨja (originally vocative, reanalyzed as referential term); -áquɨ (archaic form, not commonly used, always possessed) kak'ɨha (originally vocative, reanalyzed as referential term); -ákɨ (archaic form, not commonly used, always possessed) unknown; doubtful loan West Tukanoan See Language page Cynthia Hansen
Záparo kumanu kumanu See Language page Becky Walker
Wari te te See Language page PLE Possessed form.
Ese Ejja/Huarayo kaka; iča kaka; iča See Language page Joyce McCormick
Cavineña tata; baki-ke; pae (G71) (Girard states that the latter, pae, is borrowed from the Spanish "padre") tata; baki-ke; pae (G71) doubtful loan (into protolanguage?) similar forms all over region See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Central Aymara ch´oqe awki; tata See Language page PLE
Kwazá aha aha See Language page Joyce McCormick
Movima paʔa paʔa See Language page Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker
Trumai (ha)-ao (ha)-ao unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
Kaingang panh -yɔŋ; paɲ See Language page PLE
Suyá peme peme See Language page Rebekah Evans
Djeoromitxi hotxi hotʃi See Language page PLE