Northern Sierra Miwok

Family
Penutian
Region
North America
ISO 639-3
nsq
Location
38.42°, -120.59°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (185)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location li”le-, lil:e- inheritance Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar 7eca7 inheritance Jane Hill
all todo todos other sok:et.i- inheritance Jane Hill
and y e grammar si unknown Jane Hill
ankle tobillo tornozelo body saj:awTi- inheritance Jane Hill
armpit axila, sobaco axila body ka:pus-u- inheritance Jane Hill
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment sik:e- inheritance Jane Hill
at en, a em, a location missing Jane Hill
back espalda costas body 7ec:a- inheritance Jane Hill
bad mal mal quality saj:e- inheritance Jane Hill
belly barriga barriga body loto- inheritance Jane Hill
below abajo, debajo abaixo location 7olow:it inheritance Jane Hill
big grande grande quality 7yt:y- loan into protolanguage Jane Hill
bite morder morder body jyl:y- inheritance Jane Hill
black negro preto colour kulul:i- inheritance Jane Hill
blood sangre sangue body kic:aw-y- inheritance Jane Hill
blow soplar soprar body pu:ce- inheritance Jane Hill
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body lohpo-, lop:o- inheritance Jane Hill
bone hueso osso body kyc:yc-y- inheritance Jane Hill
breast pecho, seno peito body mu:su- inheritance Jane Hill
breathe respirar respirar body hen:a- inheritance Jane Hill
burn quemar queimar environment wykty-, wy:ky- inheritance Jane Hill
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body ciwa:T-y- inheritance Jane Hill
child niño, niña criança human 7ehe:l-y- inheritance Jane Hill
climb subir subir motion cy:my- inheritance Jane Hill
cloud nube nuvem environment 7o:pa- inheritance Jane Hill
cold frío frio quality TuT:uTu- unknown Jane Hill
come venir vir motion 7y:ny- inheritance Jane Hill
cook cocinar cozinhar impact 7okje- inheritance Jane Hill
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality ny:ma:tu- inheritance Jane Hill
count contar contar mental ne:ty- unknown Jane Hill
cry llorar chorar mental nocu- inheritance Jane Hill
cut/hack cortar cortar impact te:py- inheritance Jane Hill
day día dia time hi7e:ma- inheritance Jane Hill
die/be dead morir morrer state camsy- inheritance Jane Hill
dig cavar cavar impact 7ol:u- inheritance Jane Hill
dingo/wolf fauna hung:u- loan into protolanguage Jane Hill
dirty sucio sujo quality wali:t-y- inheritance Jane Hill
dream soñar sonhar mental 7ukcu- inheritance Jane Hill
drink beber, tomar beber body 7uhu inheritance Jane Hill
dry seco seco quality hewe- inheritance Jane Hill
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality nik:iTi- inheritance Jane Hill
dust polvo poeira environment joli- inheritance Jane Hill
ear oreja orelha body To:kos-u inheritance Jane Hill
earth/soil tierra terra environment wal:i- inheritance Jane Hill
eat comer comer body 7ywy- inheritance Jane Hill
egg huevo ovo fauna hang:y- inheritance Jane Hill
eye ojo olho body syt:y- inheritance Jane Hill
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body kyna:T-y- inheritance Jane Hill
fall caer cair motion ly:mehny- unknown Jane Hill
far lejos longe quality tot:o7, inheritance Jane Hill
fat/grease grasa gordura body sym:it-y- inheritance Jane Hill
father padre, papá pai kinship 7ypy-, 7yp:y- inheritance Jane Hill
fear miedo medo mental jalymnge- inheritance Jane Hill
feather pluma pena fauna po:sesa loan into protolanguage Jane Hill
fire fuego fogo environment wyke- inheritance Jane Hill
fish xx xx fauna lapi:saj-y- inheritance Jane Hill
flow fluir fluir motion hu:ju- loan Jane Hill
flower flor flor environment lo:jem(:)a-, lo:je:ma- inheritance Jane Hill
fly volar voar motion syle:t-y- inheritance Jane Hill
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment hunge- inheritance Jane Hill
foot pie body kolo- inheritance Jane Hill
fruit fruta fruta flora missing Jane Hill
good bueno bom quality 7ensy- inheritance Jane Hill
grow crecer crescer state 7ypelnge- inheritance Jane Hill
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body han:a- inheritance Jane Hill
hand mano mão body 7uk:us-u- inheritance Jane Hill
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar 7is:ak-y inheritance Jane Hill
head cabeza cabeça body han:a- inheritance Jane Hill
hear oír ouvir mental Tolo:j-u- inheritance Jane Hill
heavy pesado pesado quality lewTeTy-, lew:ywy- inheritance Jane Hill
hide esconder esconder motion 7ono:m-u- (intr) unknown Jane Hill
hit golpear, pegar bater impact Tokla- (w/ fist) inheritance Jane Hill
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other 7eteksy- unknown Jane Hill
how? como como grammar minto inheritance Jane Hill
1sg yo eu grammar kan:i- (etc.) inheritance Jane Hill
if si se grammar -ka- unique Jane Hill
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location hojkim:aTy- inheritance Jane Hill
intestines intestinos intestinos body puTkaly- inheritance Jane Hill
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body 7uTajny- inheritance Jane Hill
kill matar matar impact jin:a-, jyn:a- inheritance Jane Hill
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental hyj7yksy-, inheritance Jane Hill
lake lago lago environment pol:aj-y- inheritance Jane Hill
laugh reír rir mental hyja:k-y- inheritance Jane Hill
leaf hoja folha environment tat:a- inheritance Jane Hill
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body caj:a- inheritance Jane Hill
leg/foot pierna perna body kaw:ali- inheritance Jane Hill
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion jang:ac:y- inheritance Jane Hill
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment wil:ep-y- inheritance Jane Hill
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body cope- “alive” inheritance Jane Hill
liver hígado figado body kyl:a- inheritance Jane Hill
long largo comprido, longo quality hylaw:a unknown Jane Hill
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna cypsi- loan direction unknown Jane Hill
lung pulmón pulmão body pohkal-y- inheritance Jane Hill
man/male hombre homem human nang:a- inheritance Jane Hill
meat/flesh carne carne fauna ci:ci- loan Jane Hill
moon luna lua environment kome- inheritance Jane Hill
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship yta- inheritance Jane Hill
mouth boca boca body 7aw:o- inheritance Jane Hill
name nombre nome human 7oja:se- inheritance Jane Hill
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body to:pa- inheritance Jane Hill
near/close cerca de perto quality haj:e- inheritance Jane Hill
neck cuello pescoço body tok:olo:la- (front part of neck) inheritance Jane Hill
new nuevo novo quality wenmemi-, wen:emi- inheritance Jane Hill
night noche noite time kawy:l-y- inheritance Jane Hill
no/not no não grammar -7angky- “not” inheritance Jane Hill
nose nariz nariz body huk:u- inheritance Jane Hill
old viejo velho quality hoj:a-; inheritance Jane Hill
one uno um number lut:i inheritance Jane Hill
open/uncover abrir abrir other jowu:t-u- unknown Jane Hill
other otro outro grammar nak:e unknown Jane Hill
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body sike:n-y- inheritance Jane Hill
person/human being persona pessoa human miw:y- inheritance Jane Hill
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact mac:a- unknown Jane Hill
rain lluvia chuva environment nyk:a- inheritance Jane Hill
red rojo vermelho colour weTeT:i- inheritance Jane Hill
right/right hand derecha direita location/body wej:a- inheritance Jane Hill
road/path camino caminho manufacture muk:u- inheritance Jane Hill
root raíz raiz flora jo:meca- unknown Jane Hill
rotten podrido podre quality jepe-, inheritance Jane Hill
sand arena areia environment wiskala- inheritance Jane Hill
say decir dizer mental kac:yksy- inheritance Jane Hill
scratch rascar rasgar impact Tisy:j-y- inheritance Jane Hill
see ver ver mental heTe:j-y- inheritance Jane Hill
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality kyt:e- inheritance Jane Hill
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact Toj:a- loan Jane Hill
short corto curto quality haj:et:i- inheritance Jane Hill
shoulder hombro ombro body mej:el-y- inheritance Jane Hill
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental 7opajme- inheritance Jane Hill
sit sentar(se) sentar state hung:e- unknown Jane Hill
skin piel pele body pyc:eTa- unknown Jane Hill
sky cielo céu environment wy:ce- inheritance Jane Hill
sleep dormir dormir body jange:m-y inheritance Jane Hill
small pequeño pequeno quality 7ic:ipit:i- inheritance Jane Hill
smoke humo fumaça environment haksi- inheritance Jane Hill
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body huka- inheritance Jane Hill
spit escupir cuspir body tukja-, to:ka-, tu:ke- inheritance Jane Hill
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact pa7wa-, po7wa- unknown Jane Hill
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact ci:ny- unknown Jane Hill
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact hyl:a- inheritance Jane Hill
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state hac:icyksy-, inheritance Jane Hill
star estrella estrela environment hos:ok:ona- inheritance Jane Hill
steal robar roubar other wyla:ng-y- inheritance Jane Hill
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora le:ka- unknown Jane Hill
stone piedra pedra environment sawa- inheritance Jane Hill
suck chupar chupar body cu:tu-, inheritance Jane Hill
sweat sudar suor, suar body hela:k-y- inheritance Jane Hill
swell hincharse inchar body makty- inheritance Jane Hill
swim nadar nadar motion 7ypsy- inheritance Jane Hill
tail cola, rabo rabo body su:ki- inheritance Jane Hill
that ese/esa esse grammar no:- inheritance Jane Hill
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar 7is:ak:o inheritance Jane Hill
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality me7:it-y- inheritance Jane Hill
thin delgado fino quality tyt:ela- (material) unknown Jane Hill
think pensar pensar mental Ton:i- inheritance Jane Hill
this este/esta este grammar ne:- inheritance Jane Hill
2sg xx xx grammar mi:- inheritance Jane Hill
three tres tres number tolo:kos-u- inheritance Jane Hill
throat garganta garganta body tok:olo:la- (front part of neck) inheritance Jane Hill
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact Takwa- unknown Jane Hill
thunder truenos trovão environment tim:e:le- inheritance Jane Hill
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact ty:jy- inheritance Jane Hill
tongue lengua lingua body nep:it-y- inheritance Jane Hill
tooth diente dente body kyt:y- “teeth” inheritance Jane Hill
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other jo:wu- unknown Jane Hill
two dos dois number 7oTi:ko- inheritance Jane Hill
vomit vomitar vomitar body ho:ne- unknown Jane Hill
walk caminar, andar andar motion wy:ny- inheritance Jane Hill
water agua agua environment kik:y- inheritance Jane Hill
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar mas:i- inheritance Jane Hill
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar 7ic:i- (thou and I) inheritance Jane Hill
wet mojado molhado quality jyte:mu, jyte- inheritance Jane Hill
what? que, qué que grammar ha: inheritance? Jane Hill
when? cuando quando grammar mitan inheritance Jane Hill
where? donde onde grammar min:i- inheritance Jane Hill
white blanco branco colour kelel:i- inheritance Jane Hill
who? quien, quién quem grammar mana inheritance Jane Hill
wife esposa esposa kinship 7os:a- inheritance Jane Hill
wind viento vento environment he:nisa- inheritance Jane Hill
wing ala asa body sala- inheritance Jane Hill
woman/female mujer mulher human 7os:a- inheritance Jane Hill
work trabajar trabalhar other tawhan-y-, tawhal-y- loan Jane Hill
yawn bostezar bocejar body hawsy- inheritance Jane Hill
yellow amarillo amarelo colour ciwi:Ty- inheritance Jane Hill
2pl ustedes vocês grammar miko- inheritance Jane Hill


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (130)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
abalone flora-fauna Haliotis spp. ci:tepa- abalone shell,clam shell, abalone shell ornament loan Plains Miwok Also in Mip, C says is some doubt as to whether it is Mip word underived Callaghan 1987 2 1 0 0 1 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae pa:Tym-y-; ant (Merriam's generic, “very small ant”) unique perhaps same root as Miss paTa:ka- other complex -y nominalizer Callaghan 1987 0 0 2 0 0 no
antelope flora-fauna Antilocapra americana ha:lus-u- (?) antelope (long-necked) (Merriam confirms) inheritance Eastern Miwokan In all Mis, MIP other complex -u nominalizer Callaghan 1987 2 1 0 0 0 no
badger flora-fauna Taxidea taxus te'-wik-kah badger inheritance Sierra Miwokan only In Merriam's Tuolume and here underived Merriam 57:387 2 1 0 0 0 yes
bald eagle flora-fauna Haliaeetus leucocephalus missing missing missing 1 2 0 0 1 no
band-tail pigeon flora-fauna Patagioenas fasciata lŭng'-a”h-te; oo-mah'-wil-loo band-tail pigeon inheritance *lyng:y:ti- Sierra Miwokan only Callaghan 1971; oo-mah'-wil-loo is also in Mip other complex -Ti Merriam 57:423 0 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp 7ul:el:e- bat loan Yokutsan Direction unknown; Note Nisenan o'-le-lā reduplicated Callaghan 1987 0 1 0 0 0 no
beaver flora-fauna Castor hen:it-y- beaver inheritance Eastern Miwokan In Mip other complex -y nominalizer Callaghan 1987 2 1 0 0 0 no
beetle flora-fauna Coleoptera spp kyn:ysta:li- type of beetle inheritance Eastern Miwokan Also in Miss, Mip phrase meaning of elements unknown but too long for root Callaghan 1987 2 0 0 0 0 no
big round tule flora-fauna Schoenoplectus acutus ling:y- round tule inheritance *lin: ... Eastern Miwokan source? underived Callaghan 1987 2 1 2 0 0 no
big skunk flora-fauna Mephitis mephitis his:ik-y- skunk inheritance Eastern Miwokan In all Mis, MIP other complex -y nominalizer Callaghan 1987 2 2 0 0 0 no
big wolf (gray wolf) flora-fauna Canis lupus hung:u- wolf inheritance *hu:n Miwokan “Note Ceb xu:n 'wolf' (Callaghan 1971:30); Pwintu *hul (Callaghan 2001:325) other complex -u nominalizer Callaghan 1987 1 2 0 0 0 yes
bighorn sheep flora-fauna Ovis canadensis che'-wo bighorn (used for all sheep) loan Spanish Spanish chivo “goat” underived Merriam 57:307 2 1 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna tolo:ci- bird inheritance Eastern Miwokan In Mip underived -ci may be diminutive Callaghan 1987 0 0 0 0 0 no
black ant flora-fauna Camponotus pennsylvanicus/Lasius niger oo-moo'-goo-loo black ant inheritance Sierra Miwokan only Also in Mics; this is the homo:- element compound looks compound with the /homo/ element like in Mics Merriam 57:433 2 0 0 0 0 no
black bear flora-fauna Ursus americanus 7ysy:maTi- bear inheritance *7y$y-maTi7 Eastern Miwokan Callaghan 1971 (means “bad - creature” phrase bad-creature Callaghan 1987 1 2 0 0 0 yes
black-tail Jackrabbit flora-fauna Lepus californicus 7epla:li- jackrabbit inheritance *7epla:-li- Eastern Miwokan Callaghan 2001:325 other complex -:li thematic suffix Callaghan 1987 2 1 0 0 0 no
blackberry flora-fauna Rubus ursinus 7in:ani- blackberry CHM nuk-koo-mi-u, luk-kum-mi-e 57:407) inheritance Eastern Miwokan In Mip underived Callaghan 1987 2 1 2 0 0 no
blue grouse flora-fauna Dendrogapus? muc:uma:s-y- blue grouse inheritance Sierra Miwokan only In all Mis other complex -y nominalizer Callaghan 1987 0 1 0 0 0 no
bobcat, lynx flora-fauna Lynx rufus tol:om:a- wildcat inheritance *tol: ... Miwokan WW %talom underived Callaghan 1987 1 2 0 0 0 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera hol:ok:iTiw:a- butterfly inheritance Sierra Miwokan only Also in Mics; holo part shared with Mip phrase parts unanalyzable Callaghan 1987 2 0 0 0 0 no
California condor flora-fauna Gymnogyps californianus mol:ok-u- eagle (this is obviously the “condor” word JHH) inheritance Miwokan This form is also Proto-Wintun; Whistler (1977) thought it was of Miwokan origin. Word is in Mil and Mip, Misn, and in Maidu WW %moloko underived Callaghan 1987 1 2 0 0 1 no
California jay flora-fauna Aphelocoma californica? TajTi- bluejay loan into protolanguage *Tajich Sierra Miwokan only unknown Callaghan 1997;58 WW %chaj other complex -Ti probably thematic Callaghan 1987 2 1 0 0 0 no
California woodpecker flora-fauna Melanerpes formicivorus? palat:ata- woodpecker loan into protolanguage *palaT:a- ? Miwokan unknown Note Pynim *pHala:tah “There are peculiar developments in both Miwok and Yokuts” (Callaghan 1997:61); see Troike ms. on this widespread areal form WW %palaka ~ %pana(k) reduplicated Callaghan 1987 2 1 0 0 1 no
chia flora-fauna Salvia columbariae missing missing missing 1 1 1 0 0 no
chipmunk flora-fauna Tamias spp. pe-soo chipmunk inheritance Sierra Miwokan only In all Mis underived Merriam 57:421 2 1 0 0 0 no
cliff swallow flora-fauna Petrochelidon pyrrhonota sa:lipsali:p-y- swallow inheritance Eastern Miwokan In all Mis, MIP other complex -y nominalizer Callaghan 1987 2 1 0 0 0 no
coot flora-fauna Fulica americana o-to'-kā-e, o-to'-koi coot inheritance Eastern Miwokan In Mip other complex -aj (and probably -y) Merriam 57:399 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottontail rabbit flora-fauna Sylvilagus audobonii hika:k-y cottontail/blue brushrabbit (Merriam confirms cottontail) inheritance Eastern Miwokan In Mip other complex -y nominalizer Callaghan 1987 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottonwood flora-fauna Populus spp. sus:u cottonwood unique reduplicated Callaghan 1987 2 0 2 0 0 no
coyote flora-fauna Canis latrans 7ole7cu- coyote inheritance *7ole- Miwokan Callaghan 1971, 1997:58 other complex -cu? -c-u? Callaghan 1987 1 2 0 0 0 no
crow flora-fauna Corvus brachyrhynchos 7a:wyc-y- crow inheritance *a:wy(ch) Miwokan Callaghan 1997:28 WW %alwut other complex -y nominalizer Callaghan 1987 2 1 0 0 0 no
datura flora-fauna Datura wrightii kim-me'-zoo; moo-tah Datura loan Central Numic WW %moji ~ %moni other complex -y nominalizer (kimis-y?) Merriam 57:413 1 1 1 1 0 yes
deer, mule flora-fauna Odocoileus hemionus 7ywy:ja- deer inheritance *7ywy-ja- Eastern Miwokan Callaghan 1971 other complex -ja Callaghan 1987 2 1 0 0 0 no
digger pine flora-fauna Pinus sabiniana sak:y- CHM's digger pine inheritance *sa:k, *sak:y- Utian Callaghan 1997:18 underived here /y/ is not nominalizer Callaghan 1987 2 1 2 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris cuku- dog inheritance *chuku- Sierra Miwokan only Callaghan 2001:325 WW %suku underived Callaghan 1987 0 0 0 0 0 no
dogbane flora-fauna Apocynum cannabinum missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna Zenaida macrocoura hul:u:wi- dove inheritance Eastern Miwokan In all Mis, In Mip underived Callaghan 1987 2 1 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae hik:as-y- duck (Merriam oo-lahk'-se “ducks of all kinds” 57:429) inheritance Eastern Miwokan In Mip other complex -y nominalizer Callaghan 1987 0 1 0 0 0 no
elder flora-fauna Sambucus 7angtaj-y- elderberry inheritance *7anTaj Miwokan Callaghan 1971; Callaghan 1997:19 other complex -y nominalizer Callaghan 1987 2 1 1 0 0 no
elk flora-fauna Cervas elaphus hak:a:ja- elk inheritance *hak:a:ja- Eastern Miwokan Callaghan 1997:59, may be cognate with Proto-Yokutsan *sohkoy??? in which case Yok-Utian WW %sok other complex -ja Callaghan 1987 2 1 0 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna lapi:saj-y- fish inheritance Sierra Miwokan only Probably Yok-Utian if cognate with Yokutsan lopit words (Callaghan 1997:32, 2001:326) WW %lvp other complex -y nominalizer Callaghan 1987 0 1 0 0 0 no
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna Siphonaptera ky:kys-y- flea inheritance *ky:ky$ Miwokan Callaghan 1971 other complex -y nominalizer Callaghan 1987 2 0 0 0 0 no
flicker flora-fauna Colaptes sp. Tiw:aj-y- yellowhammer inheritance *Tiw(:)a- Utian Callaghan 1986:62 other complex -aj-y THEME-NOM Callaghan 1987 2 1 0 0 1 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera homo:maj-y-; homom:aj-y-? fly inheritance Eastern Miwokan In Mip compound, other complex homo-, -y nominalizer Callaghan 1987 0 0 0 0 0 no
foothills yucca flora-fauna Yucca whipplei missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
fox flora-fauna Vulpes, Urocyon wac:ih:a- fox (Merriam confirms gray fox 57:417) loan Central Numic S557a NUA *wanci7a “fox” ; Proto-Numic *woci'a; looks like loan from a variety with *wa, but N. Paiute has a different word from S562 *waCni; W. Mono has a Yokuts loan ha'wutsa'. Suggests that Numic recon should be *waci'a, with *a>o recent. underived Callaghan 1987 2 2 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna waTaksaji- frogs (little, not bullfrog) inheritance *waTa:k Miwokan Bodega Dic, Callaghan 2001:326, note ProtoWintu *wataq “frog”. “These words are onomatopoeic and susceptible to borrowing” (Callaghan 2001:326) other complex -sa-ji Callaghan 1987 2 2 0 0 0 no
golden eagle flora-fauna Aquila chrysaetos wip:aja:k-y- eagle inheritance Eastern Miwokan In all Mis, MIP other complex -y nominalizer Callaghan 1987 1 2 0 0 1 no
gooseberry flora-fauna Ribes spp. 7in:ani- gooseberry inheritance Eastern Miwokan In Mip underived Callaghan 1987 2 1 1 0 0 no
gopher snake, bull snake flora-fauna Pituophis catenifer lo:pa:Ti- gopher snake inheritance Sierra Miwokan only In Mics other complex -Ti 2 2 0 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) po:ca- grass unique Note Mil puTa- ??, Nisenan potto underived Callaghan 1987 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Caelifera ko:co- grasshopper inheritance *ko:To- ? Miwokan Callaghan 1971 underived Callaghan 1987 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray ground squirrel flora-fauna Sphermophilus sp. 7upuksu-, 7opuksu- ground squirrel (Merriam confirms gray ground squirrel 57:419 inheritance Eastern Miwokan This is a “critter” word -- also in this meaning in Miss, Mip underived Callaghan 1987 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray tree squirrel flora-fauna Sciurus spp. me:w- gray tree squirrel inheritance Eastern Miwokan In all Mis, MIP; note Yokutsan *mawe (CHECK) underived Callaghan 1987 2 1 0 0 0 no
great horned owl flora-fauna Bubo virginianus tuk:u:li- owl (Merriam confirms great horned owl 57:423) inheritance *tuk:ú:li Miwokan Bodega Dic WW %(hu)tukul underived Callaghan 1987 1 2 2 0 1 no
grizzly bear flora-fauna Ursus arctos horribilis 7ysy:maTi- grizzly bear inheritance *7y$y-maTi7 Eastern Miwokan Callaghan 1971 (means “bad - creature” phrase Callaghan 1987 1 2 0 0 0 yes
horned toad flora-fauna Phrynosomatidae 7et:ek:iliw:a-, 7et:ekilim:a- horned toad inheritance Eastern Miwokan Also in Mics, Mip underived must be etymologically complex Callaghan 1987 2 2 2 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus kawa:ju- horse loan Spanish WW %caballo underived Callaghan 1987 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae li:ci:ci-, li:cici- hummingbird inheritance Sierra Miwokan only In all Mis and Nisenan reduplicated Callaghan 1987 0 0 0 0 0 no
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana spp. ka:sy- tobacco inheritance Miwokan Callaghan suggests in Bodega Dic that Pmiw *kajaw and Pmie *ka:sy- do go together somehow but gives no reconstruction underived here /y/ is not nominalizer Callaghan 1987 1 1 1 1 0 yes
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing missing missing 0 0 2 0 0 variable
junco flora-fauna Junco sppp ci:po:ne- snow bird (Merriamhas poo-soo'-kal-loo “Junco” 57:427, 395) unique underived Callaghan 1987 0 1 0 0 0 no
juniper flora-fauna Juniperus californica missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
louse flora-fauna order Phtiraptera ket:y- head louse inheritance *ket:- Miwokan Callaghan 1971:24 other complex -y nominalizer (based on reconstruction) Callaghan 1987 2 0 0 0 0 no
mallard flora-fauna Anas platyrhynchos oo-lahk'-se mallard unique phrase meaning of elements unknown but too long for root Merriam 57:397 2 1 0 0 0 no
manzanita flora-fauna Arctostaphylos spp. 7e:je- manzanita, manzanita berries inheritance Miwokan JHH underived Callaghan 1987 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, broad leaf flora-fauna Asclepias eriocarpa pop:o- milkweed unique Compare Maiduan *pu:; might be *po: (it's CHM) reduplicated Callaghan 1987 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, narrow leaf flora-fauna Asclepias fascicularis missing missing missing 0 1 1 0 0 no
mission tule flora-fauna Juncus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
mockingbird flora-fauna Mimus polyglottos cimit:olo- mockingbird inheritance Eastern Miwokan In Mip phrase X-bird Callaghan 1987 2 1 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera 7yju:kys-y- mosquito inheritance *7yjy:ky$ Eastern Miwokan Callaghan 1971 other complex -y nominalizer Callaghan 1987 0 0 0 0 0 no
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna Heterocera pele7me- moth unique underived must be etymologically complex 2 0 0 0 0 no
mountain lion flora-fauna Puma concolor hi:li:ca- mountain lion (Merriam has p- form 57:417) inheritance Eastern Miwokan In all Mis (hi:li:ca- form) and Mip; p- form also in Mip underived Callaghan 1987 1 2 0 0 0 yes
mountain quail flora-fauna Oreortyx pictus kuj:ak:a- mountain quail inheritance Eastern Miwokan In all Mis, MIP underived Callaghan 1987 2 1 0 0 0 no
mussel flora-fauna Mytilus spp. 7atkal-y- fresh water clams (CHM fresh-water mussels) inheritance Eastern Miwokan In Mip other complex -y nominalizer Callaghan 1987 2 1 0 0 1 no
olivella (olive snail) flora-fauna Callianax biplicata look'-koo snail (CC's luk:u 'piece of abalone shell”) inheritance Sierra Miwokan only In all Mis underived Merriam 57:401 2 2 0 0 1 no
pinyon jay flora-fauna Cyanocitta stelleri? kajka7ja- crested jay (as per Merriam) loan into protolanguage Eastern Miwokan unknown In Mip WW %kaj reduplicated Callaghan 1987 2 1 0 0 0 no
pinyon pine flora-fauna Pinus monophylla missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
pismo clam flora-fauna Tivella stultorum 7atkal-y- clam, freshwater (shell is ci:tepa); Merriam has as “fresh water mussels” inheritance Eastern Miwokan In Mip other complex -y nominalizer 2 1 0 0 1 no
pocket gopher flora-fauna Thomomys syw:yt-y- gopher (Merriam es'-met-tă 57:421) inheritance *sykw:ot Utian Callaghan 1986:57 other complex -y nominalizer Callaghan 1987 2 1 0 0 0 no
poison oak flora-fauna Toxicodendron diversilobum nyky:s-y- poison oak inheritance *nykys Utian Callaghan 1986:57 other complex -y nominalizer Callaghan 1987 2 2 2 0 0 yes
rattlesnake flora-fauna Crotalus spp. wak:a:li- rattlesnake inheritance Miwokan Bodega Dic (no reconstruction given) other complex -:li Callaghan 1987 1 2 0 0 0 yes
red ant flora-fauna Solenopsis spp pah'-tĕ-mah same as #89 red ant (bites) (same as “Ant” generic?) unique perhaps same root as Miss paTa:ka- other complex -y nominalizer Merriam 57:403 1 0 1 0 0 no
red-shouldered blackbird flora-fauna Agelaius phoeniceus cakup:aTi-, copuk:aTi- blackbird loan into protolanguage Eastern Miwokan unknown Callaghan 1997:58 fails to note Mip cikup:ati- WW %chak other complex -Ti probably thematic Callaghan 1987 2 1 0 0 0 no
red-tailed hawk flora-fauna Buteo jamaicensis suj:u- chicken hawk inheritance *suj:u- Miwokan Callaghan 1971 underived Callaghan 1987 2 2 0 0 0 no
roadrunner flora-fauna Geococcyx californianus 7u:juju- roadrunner inheritance *7uj:uj:u- Eastern Miwokan Callaghan 1997:60, and note Pyokutsan *7oj7uj from 7u:j7uj, so possibly Utian WW %uji reduplicated Callaghan 1987 2 1 0 0 0 no
ruddy duck flora-fauna Oxyura jamaicensis missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
sage herb flora-fauna Artemisia californica kici:ng-y- wormwood, A. vulgaris (CHM: sage herb (A. ludoviciana) inheritance Miwokan Pmie *kyčin; Pmiw *kičin (Callaghan 1971) other complex -y nominalizer Callaghan 1987 2 2 1 0 0 no
salmon/steelhead flora-fauna Oncorhynchus mykiss Tuku:n-u- salmon inheritance Eastern Miwokan In Mip other complex -u nominalizer Callaghan 1987 2 1 0 0 0 no
scaly lizard flora-fauna Pygopus lepidopodus? sak:iTi- Ordinary dark gray lizard (Merriam Sceloporus, Gerrhonotus”) inheritance Eastern Miwokan In all Mis and Mip other complex -Ti Callaghan 1987 2 2 0 0 0 no
small bird flora-fauna mice:maTi small bird (Merriam; Callaghan's transc) inheritance *mi(:)Te- Utian Callaghan 1986:63 phrase mice-maTi bird-creature, or perhas micema-Ti wild.meat-THEME Merriam 57:431 2 1 0 0 0 no
small brown lizard flora-fauna , pit:e:le- small lizard “Uta CHM” inheritance Miwokan Pmiw *pet:el:l, iMip pit:e:le-, etc. (Callaghan 1971:24 and Bodega Dic give no Mi reconstruction) WW %petel underived Callaghan 1987 2 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna lo:pa:Ti- snake inheritance Sierra Miwokan only In Mics other complex -To 0 1 0 0 0 no
soaproot flora-fauna Chlorogalum sak:isa comb plant inheritance *saka:ni- Eastern Miwokan Callaghan 1971 WW %svkv other complex -sa ??? Callaghan 1987 2 1 1 0 0 no
sour berry flora-fauna Rhus trilobata sija:ma- sourberry unique other complex -ma is unproductive suffix on plant names Callaghan 1987 2 1 1 0 0 no
sparrow hawk flora-fauna Falco kiliksaje- sparrow hawk loan into protolanguage Eastern Miwokan unknown Also in Miss, Mip; areal form, is in PUA,Salinan,Maidu, etc. imitates bird's cry WW %kili compound kilik-saje; saje untralsatable Callaghan 1987 2 2 0 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae 7ac:ak:uTum:a spider unique Similar in Mics compound elements unanalyzable Callaghan 1987 0 0 2 0 0 variable
spotted skunk flora-fauna Spilogale gracilis tun'-no-go little spotted skunk inheritance Eastern Miwokan In Mics, Mip other complex -y or -u nominalizer on tunuk-I115 Merriam 57:419 2 2 0 0 0 no
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna Bufonidae pot'-pat'-tah toad (Callaghan's “bullfrog”) inheritance Eastern Miwokan Mip potpoto- “frog, bullfrog” reduplicated Merriam 57:431 2 2 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) le:ka- tree, young tree unique underived Callaghan 1987 0 0 2 0 0 no
tree yucca flora-fauna Yucca schidegera missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
turkey buzzard flora-fauna Cathartes aura hu7:us-u- buzzard inheritance *hu:$u- Sierra Miwokan only But - Note Pmis hu:$u- and Pmie *chy:$y-;PW *hu:s, PM *hy:s, *hu:s Callaghan 2001:326; an areal word also in Yukian JHH CHECK WW %hus other complex -u nominalizer Callaghan 1987 2 2 0 0 0 no
turtle (generic) flora-fauna Testudines 7awan:aTa- turtle inheritance *7awan:a-, *7aw:an(a)- Eastern Miwokan Bodega Dic, Callaghan 1997:60 WW %awan other complex -Ta Callaghan 1987 2 2 0 0 1 no
valley live oak flora-fauna Quercus agrifolia sa:sa- live oak (CHM's Q. wislizeni) inheritance *sa:Ta Miwokan Callaghan 1997:19 reduplicated Callaghan 1987 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley oak flora-fauna Quercus lobata wil:is-y- water oak inheritance Sierra Miwokan only Also in Mics other complex -y nominalizer Callaghan 1987 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley quail flora-fauna Callipepla californica hek:ek:e- California quail inheritance Utian In all Mis and see Mutsun heksen reduplicated Callaghan 1987 2 1 0 0 0 no
Washington clam flora-fauna Saxidomus nuttalli missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
Western Canada goose flora-fauna Branta canadensis low:ot-u- migratory geese inheritance Sierra Miwokan only In all Mis; Compare Maiduan lo: other complex -u nominalizer Callaghan 1987 0 1 0 0 0 no
whale flora-fauna Eschrichtius robustus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
white pelican flora-fauna Pelicanus erythrorhynchos I'-am -mah-loo Brown pelican unique phrase looks like phrase, but untranslatable Merriam 57:397 0 2 0 0 0 no
wild grapevine flora-fauna Vitis californica mute- wild grapes, grapevine inheritance Miwokan Note Mil mutte-, Mip mute- JHH underived Callaghan 1987 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild oats flora-fauna Avena (introduction) 7aTo:s-u- wild oats loan Spanish Spanish arroz WW %arroz other complex -u nominalizer Callaghan 1987 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild rose flora-fauna Rosa californica kle'-de-de' Wild rose inheritance *kil:i- “horn, antler” Utian Bodega Dic; Mib has a cognate verb meaning “be hard, sharp” so Pmi may have included “thorn”. Note Misn kle'-de-de' “wild rose”, presumably from the same root. Utian: Callaghan 1997:33; also note PW *k'il-i “horn”, *kHi:l “thorn” other complex kili “thorn” with suffixes, probably NOT reduplication Merriam 57:307 0 1 2 0 0 no
wild sunflower flora-fauna Helianthus (and other genera) missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
willow flora-fauna Salix spp. sos:o- Merriam S. lasiolepis (CC) inheritance Eastern Miwokan In Mip reduplicated Callaghan 1987 2 2 1 0 0 no
wood rat, round-tail flora-fauna Neotoma spp. lol:ok-u- long-tailed rat, woodrat inheritance Eastern Miwokan In Miss, Mip other complex -u nominalizer Callaghan 1987 2 1 0 0 0 no
worm, hairy caterpillar flora-fauna Arctiidae (many species) hu:sulum:a:Ti- hairy caterpillar unique phrase same as “bear”: bad-creature Callaghan 1987 2 2 0 0 0 no
worm, smooth caterpillar flora-fauna Trichoplusia ni (?) cabbage looper ke:su-, ke:sy- fishhook worm inheritance *ke:$u- Eastern Miwokan Callaghan 1997:35; note Wintun *k'es “worm” WW %kes underived here /y/ is not nominalizer Callaghan 1987 2 2 0 0 0 no
yellow jacket flora-fauna Vespula spp., Dolichovespula spp. melngaj-y- bee (yellowjacket?) inheritance Miwokan Pmiw meenani (Bodega Dic) other complex -y nominalizer Callaghan 1987 2 0 0 0 0 no
yellowbird flora-fauna Dendroica petechia sak:asaka- goldfinch, yellow warbler (Merriam has ken-noo'-le 57:427, loo-too'-lă-te 57:395 and glosses C's word as “oriole” for one variety, yellow warbler (Dendroica) for another)) unique Cognate with some words for “oriole” that I can't find! reduplicated Callaghan 1987 0 1 0 0 0 no
yerba santa flora-fauna Eriodictyon californicum pas:a:le- Yerba santa inheritance Eastern Miwokan Also in Miss, may be in Mip (form unclear in Merriam); looks like the chia words but not similar plant underived Callaghan 1987 2 1 1 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Tisi:naj-y- inheritance Jane Hill
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna tolo:ci- inheritance Jane Hill
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna homo:maj-y-, homom:aj-y- (?) loan direction unknown Jane Hill
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna cuku- loan direction unknown Jane Hill
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna po:ca- unknown Jane Hill
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna 7ywy:ja- inheritance Jane Hill
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna lo:pa:Ti- inheritance Jane Hill
spider araña aranha flora-fauna 7ac:ak:uTum:a inheritance Jane Hill


Cultural Vocabulary (115)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
acorn mush food nyp:a- to make acorn mush; to make something into acorn mush; acorn mush, acorn soup inheritance *nyp:a- Proto-Sierra Miwok Callaghan 1971:15 simplex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
ball game food 7amTa- ball game (Indian football) inheritance Proto-Eastern Miwok Mip 7amta-, 7ama:ty (v.) simplex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology kuci7:aci7 wal:i7 the Good Place, heaven unique is the wal:i7 related to the SSM 'hell' word??? phrase Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
feather headband dress helel:a- headband made of beads or feathers unique Tamek:ele-, Temak:yle- 'flicker stick headdress, headband' 227 other complex suffix -:a Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool jac:i- arrow, arrow shaft, arrowhead, flint unique simplex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
arrow straightener other missing missing Jane Hill
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool lapis:a7 holo:meTy7 fish bait inheritance Proto-eastern Miwok holo:meTy7 'worm' = in Mip phrase fish worm/bait Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
school escuela escola acculturation 7elelte7:a- school loan Spanish WW %escuela other complex 7elelte 'to read' < leer Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
stone bowl culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material pulak:a-, pylak:a- basket made from dark willow; Indian basket (generic) inheritance Proto-Eastern Miwok JHH other complex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material pulis:a- little basket; water-tight drinking basket inheritance Proto-Eastern Miwok JHH; also sot:on-u/o- small baskets for money, beads, etc., often feathered 201 other complex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
basketry hat culture-material cyla:ny- basket hat unique contains Pmis *cyl- 'to make baskets' other complex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material how:oT-u-, ho:woT-u- beads loan into protolanguage Yok-Utian unknown Callaghan 1997:58 WW %waku other complex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
ochre culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
bow arco arco subsistence tool kyc:a- bow inheritance Proto-Eastern Miwok JHH simplex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
canoe canoa canoa transport missing missing Jane Hill
carrying net subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
bottle botella garrafa acculturation wot:e:ja- bottle loan Spanish WW %botella simplex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
paper papel papel acculturation papel:y- paper, page loan Spanish WW %papel simplex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology haja:po chief, mayor inheritance Proto-Miwok While Callaghan 1971:18 does not propose a Pmi reconstruction, note Pmiw hójpuş 'chief' (Callaghan 1970:24), perhaps from *hoj 'first'?? JHH); má:jyngy- woman chief, chief's wife or daughter; this also in Nisenan simplex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool Takaj:a- switch; whip; bat; swatter (derived vb means 'to club') inheritance Proto-Sierra Miwok Mics Tak-ja 'to club' other complex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress missing missing Jane Hill
cook food food 7okje- to do, make, build, prepare, fix, cook inheritance Proto-Eastern Miwok see Mip simplex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
corpse food camy:sy- corpse, dead person inheritance *CE:m- (?) Proto-Miwok-Mutsun Callaghan 1962:103 other complex camsy- to die Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
dance (generic) culture-mythology kalty- to dance, to tramp inheritance *kala(?) Proto-Utian Callaghan 1997:50 other complex kala:ŋ-y- to kick with heel Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology kuksuj-u- a one-legged man with feathers, fear of him can cause stupor and drowsiness (kuksu JHH) loan unknown %kuksu, widespread in California other complex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool 7olu7:a digging, something to dig with, digging stick inheritance *?Vra- 'dig' Proto-Miwok-Mutsun Callaghan 1962:103; also sype- other complex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
dipper subsistence tool pulut:a- dipper; bowl for dipping loan into protolanguage l Proto-Eastern Miwok Yokutsan the %polwa set JHH WW %polwa other complex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology 7ukcu- to dream inheritance *7ektu Proto-Utian Callaghan 1997:48 simplex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
drone pipe culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology Tum:a- to drum with feet, foot drum, sound of drum inheritance *Tum:a- Proto-Eastern Miwok Callaghan 1971:19; note Nisenan dul, Wintu tHudi simplex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
chicken gallina galinha acculturation 7awa7:awle-, awa7:awli- chicken loan unknown Note Tubatulabal oywal; what is source?? reduplicated Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
earring other Tyka- hole in nose or ear; earring; any ornament put through pierced ear unique note Miss Ty:k- 'to thread a needle, sew' simplex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology jalmycyT:i- monster, big scary thing loan Spanish WW %diablo other complex jalmycy- dangerous, scary Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
fire drill subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fire-tender culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
fireplace hogar lareira other cimni- fireplace loan English WW %chimney simplex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
firewood leña lenha other sys:y- wood; firewood inheritance *şyş:-y- Proto-Sierra Miwok Callaghan 1971:31; maybe Yok-Utian Callaghan 1997:59 simplex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing missing Jane Hill
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food hune:m-y- to fish (with a pole) inheritance Proto-Sierra Miwok See Miss other complex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fish hook subsistence tool huŋme7 lapis:a7 fish hook unique also huŋme7 lamis:a7 p. 129 phrase hook(n) fish(n) Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
acorn bread food maskala- acorn bread; thick or hard acorn mush unknown same as Mie, funny-looking word. Must be loan from somewhere. simplex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
wheat food tili:ku- wheat loan Spanish WW %trigo simplex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology sulep:a- elderberry flute inheritance *şule:p Proto-Sierra Miwok Callaghan 1971:30 other complex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
gambling sticks other hinow:a- gambling bone (for the handgame) inheritance Proto-Eastern Miwok Same in Miss other complex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food missing missing Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology su:lehko-, su:lesko- ghost (of a dead person); devil; will-o'-the-wsp inheritance *şu:les- Proto-Sierra Miwok Callaghan 1971:19 other complex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
glue subsistence tool jutik:a glue inheritance *jut:e- Proto-Miwok JHH other complex ju:tu- pitch Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology peTa:ja- cemetery, grave unique possible Miss cognates mean 'to drop', 'to lose' -- semantics??? simplex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
alcohol food wanjente- whiskey loan Spanish WW %aguardiente simplex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
Datura wrightii narcotics missing missing Jane Hill
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology huni:sa- magic man, sorceror inheritance *hu:niş- Proto-Miwok-Mutsun Callaghan 1962:105; Callaghan 1971:26; kojap:e:nu sucking doctor 114 < kojpa- other complex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
honey miel mel food cu7cuj-u- sweet; jelly; honey; sugar; anything sweet semantic shift Proto-Eastern Miwok also hane- 'bee, honey' 58 other complex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
house other koca- house, lumber house, home inheritance *koč(:)a- Proto-Miwok Callaghan 1971:23 simplex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
hunt cazar caçar food wynty- to hunt inheritance *wy:ny- 'to walk' Proto-Utian Utian: Callaghan 1997:27 (showing the pMis reconstruction only) simplex wy:ny- 'to walk' Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
initiate boy culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
initiate girl culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
knife cuchillo faca culture-material kuc:i- knife loan Spanish WW %cuchillo simplex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
mat culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool co:se- mortar (originally, bedrock mortar) inheritance *čo:se- Proto-Eastern Miwok Callaghan 1971:25 simplex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
necklace other po:ko- necklace inheritance Proto-Sierra Miwok JHH simplex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
needle/awl subsistence tool cyl:a- awl (for basket making) inheritance *Cy1la1s (1 subscript) Proto-Utian Callaghan 1962:102 simplex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
paddle/oar remo remo transport missing missing Jane Hill
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool kawa:ci long pointed pestle for acorns inheritance Proto-Sierra Miwok simplex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
pinole food tuju- pinole inheritance Proto-Sierra Miwok simplex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other la pi:pa- pipe loan Spanish WW %la pipa simplex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
pitch food ju:tu- pitch, pine pitch, gum inheritance *jut:e- Proto-Miwok JHH simplex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool lo:ja- pot, bucket loan Spanish WW %la olla simplex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
quiver subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology sokos:a- cocoon rattle inheritance *şokoş:a- Proto-Miwok Callaghan 1971:18 WW %soko simplex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
red paint culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
salt sal sal food koj:o- salt inheritance *koj:o- Utian Callaghan 1997:33 simplex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
seed beater subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology sok:e:7a- clothes unique shok:e 'all' in Mics??? simplex sok:e- things, everything Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
sinew-backed bow subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material na:wa(:)s-y-, naw:as-y- dress, skirt loan Spanish WW %enaguas other complex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
snare subsistence tool kaTampa- to trap, trap loan Spanish WW %trampa simplex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology my:li- song inheritance Proto-Sierra Miwok simplex myl:i- to sing Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
stirring stick food Tolow:a- cooking stick *used to take out hot rocks -- but vb means 'stir' other complex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture hi:lo- string loan Spanish WW %hilo simplex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
bag, sack culture-material kustal-y-, kustan-y- sack loan Spanish also wolso- 'bag' WW %costal other complex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
string of shell money other ci:tepa- abalone shell, clam shell, clam, abalone shell ornaments inheritance Proto-Eastern Miwok Mip ci:tepa 'there is some doubt as to whether this is Plains Miwok' (Callaghan 1984) simplex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation cu7cuj-u- sweet; jelly; honey; sugar; anything sweet semantic shift Proto-Eastern Miwok also 7as:u:ka- p. 266 other complex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
sweathouse other haŋi- sweathouse, roundhouse loan into protolanguage *hang(:)i- Proto-Sierra Miwok Tubatulabal simplex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
tell history culture-mythology 7ute:n-y- to tell a story (like a fairy tale, something not real) (I regard this as accult. Meaning change JHH) inheritance Proto-Sierra Miwok JHH other complex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
cremate culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
tobacco (native) narcotics ka:sy- tobacco inheritance Proto-Miwokan Callaghan suggests in Bodega Dic that Pmiw *kajaw and Pmie *ka:sy- do go together somehow but gives no reconstruction simplex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
tule boat transport missing missing Jane Hill
white paint culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
winnowing basket culture-material het:al-y- winnowing basket…made by the Paiutes inheritance Proto-Sierra Miwok see Mics other complex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
wood tray subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
shoes zapatos sapatos dress sapa:tu- shoe; moccasins loan Spanish solo:me- moccasins, shoes 200; could be loan from Maiduan *solo, or loan might be other direction simplex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
medicine narcotics wene- medicine inheritance Proto-Miwok JHH see Mip, Mil; note Hill Patwin wene, SE Pomo wéne, both 'medicine' WW %wene simplex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
cradleboard culture-material hiki- cradle basket inheritance Proto-Sierra Miwok JHH simplex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
policeman polícia policía acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
soldier soldado soldado acculturation sulta:tu- soldier loan Spanish simplex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
corn food ma:jus-u- corn loan Spanish other omplex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
beans food pihol:u- beans loan Spanish other complex I'm pretty sure this is same -u- suffix as in ma:jus-u- Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
cat gato gato acculturation pu:si- cat loan English also tonci from © only 218 simplex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation kope:Ta- gun, air rifle loan Spanish simplex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
hat sombero chapéu dress somne:nu-, etc. hat loan Spanish simplex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
clapper acculturation TakaT:a- split-stick rattle inheritance Proto-Eastern Miwok Miss may be a metathesis other complex Taka:T-y- to rattle such a rattle Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material missing Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture ciko:te- loan Jane Hill
bottom grinding stone manufacture 7ym:e inheritance Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool sype- inheritance Jane Hill
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture puh:e- inheritance Jane Hill
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture kawa:ci- inheritance Jane Hill
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing Jane Hill
spearthrower subsistence tool kyc:a- “bow” doubtful loan into protolanguage Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool jac:i- “arrow” unknown Jane Hill
house other koca- inheritance Jane Hill


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
large HG medium seasonal no