chicken

Semantic Field
acculturation
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
gallina
Meaning Portuguese
galinha

Languages

Language Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
Cahuilla xanemúu chicken loan unknown Mojave is kwaloyaw, what could source be? Surely Yuman simplex Seiler & Hioli 1979 Jane Hill
Cupeño pooyu chicken loan Spanish WW %pollo simplex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
Luiseño qaxaavaywut chicken semantic shift *kakaC Northern Uto-Aztecan Hill/Miller ka-15; this is an embellishment of the "quail" word; Stubbs 2011 1749a derived, other complex Eliott 1999 Jane Hill
Gabrielino missing missing Jane Hill
Serrano gajīna7 chicken, hen loan Spanish WW %gallina simplex K. Hill Dict. Jane Hill
Kitanemuk kakawaït chicken semantic shift *kaka- Northern Uto-Aztecan the quail word other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
Tübatulabal ōywal chicken loan unknown note Mins 7awa7:awle-, awa7:awli- 'chicken'. Source??? other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
Bankalachi Toloim missing missing Jane Hill
Kawaiisu kakawuty chicken semantic shift other complex Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
Chemehuevi kwarojawI chicken loan Mojave simplex Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
Southern Paiute chikkinnA-S chicken loan English WW %chicken simplex Sapir Jane Hill
Southern Ute qAqxaary-cI chicken semantic shift the 'quail' word other complex "runner" Givon Jane Hill
Tümpisa Shoshone tsikkinni(ttsi), tsikkyna chicken loan English WW %chicken simplex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone cikkinah chicken loan English WW %chicken simplex Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
Comanche kokorá7a chicken loan unknown simplex Robinson & Armagost 1990 Jane Hill
Western Mono qainA7, qaiinA7 chicken loan Spanish WW %gallina simplex Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
Northern Paiute kene chicken, red hawk, chicken hawk semantic shift from a hawk word simplex Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
Southern Sierra Miwok kaji:na- chicken loan Spanish WW %gallina simplex Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
Central Sierra Miwok missing missing Jane Hill
Northern Sierra Miwok 7awa7:awle-, awa7:awli- chicken loan unknown Note Tubatulabal oywal; what is source?? reduplicated Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
Plains Miwok haj(:)i:na-, kaji:na- chicken loan Spanish simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
Lake Miwok kajíina chicken loan Spanish WW %gallina simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
Maidu cikín chicken loan English WW %chicken simplex Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
Nisenan totojka grouse, chicken semantic shift reduplicated Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawelmani 7O:we:7ic' chicken, rooster semantic shift must be name for some other bird, shifted derived one who is crowing' (modern 7O:7o:we:(7)-ic') with agentive -ic' Newman 1944 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawdanchi missing missing Jane Hill
Yokuts Palewyami missing missing Jane Hill
Washo zí:gen chicken loan English WW %chicken simplex Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
Wintu čikin chicken loan English WW %chicken simplex Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
Yuki han č'i:mit chicken (lit. house bird) unique also čik phrase Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 Jane Hill
Wappo káyi:na7 chicken loan Spanish WW %gallina simplex Sawyer 1965 Jane Hill
Mutsun kayi:na chicken loan Spanish WW %gallina simplex Okrand 1977 Jane Hill
Esselen kaiyina-p-ca chicken loan Spanish Henshaw WW %gallina other complex the extra stuff not in Shaul 1995 list of ncs suffixes Kroeber 1902 Jane Hill
Salinan A missing missing Jane Hill
Salinan M missing missing Jane Hill
Chumash Obispeno ktakaka gallina, rooster loan into protolanguage, semantic shift Proto-Chumashan Northern Uto-Aztecan widespread 'quail' word WW %kaka simplex Harrington Jane Hill
Chumash Ineseno takak chicken (literally 'quail') loan into protolanguage, semantic shift Northern Uto-Aztecan from 'quail' word WW %kaka simplex Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
Chumash Barbareno kayi:na chicken loan Spanish WW %gallina simplex Wash 2001 Jane Hill
Chumash Ventureno ka7ataxač male chicken semantic shift quail word simplex Applegate 1973 ms Jane Hill
Iipay 'Aa gayeen chicken loan Spanish WW %gallina simplex Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
Cocopa xma chicken semantic shift Proto-Yuman probably from Gambel's Quail; note Kiliwa has same shift (with a marking reversal) simplex Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
Mojave kwaloyaw chicken semantic shift a 'bird' word derived kw- Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
Yavapai qoloyáwa chicken loan Mojave this is NOT from gallina, contra Shaterian -- probably semantic shift on another bird, maybe caracara?? simplex Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
Kiliwa xma7 poultry, hen semantic shift Proto-Yuman marking reversal from Gamble's Quail, now 'wilderness hen"; note Cocopa has same shift simplex Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
Seri (Comcaac) tootar chicken loan Mayo ultimately Nahuatl totolli 'young turkey' simplex Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
Kakua mɨh-baj mɨh-baj semantic shift from 'tinamou' Phrase river/arm-small See Language page Katherine Bolaños
Nheengatu sapukaya (Casas2000) sapukaja (Casas2000) semantic shift from 'cry, call' (Nordenskiold 1922:28) Similar term 'sapukana' means 'hawk' in Surui do Tocantins (Mello 2000); compare also 'kakara' terms for 'hawk' in another TG language (Auwá?) that resemble other 'chicken' Wanderwörter; nordenskiold 1922, citing rodriguez, says this comes from verb 'call See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
Waorani tawadija (IDS) unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
Hodï walalu walalu hen unique Spanish? Simplex See Language page Brittany Weinstein
Yanomami kakara (MM07) kakara (MM07) loan - WW %karaka Loan + metathesis; Probably Arawak origin (see Nordenskiold 1922). Tukanoan, e.g. Wanano karaka; Arawak, e.g. Baniwa kaláka; Yanomamo, Nadeb; Macaguan takra, Sikuani wakara WW %karaka Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yanomam poyo pojo loan Spanish Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
Ninam kalaka kalaka loan - WW %karaka Could be loan into protolanguage, but unlikely since chickens are apparently recent. Probably Arawak origin (see Nordenskiold 1922). Tukanoan, e.g. Wanano karaka; Arawak, e.g. Baniwa kaláka; Yanomamo, Nadeb; Macaguan takra, Sikuani wakara WW %karaka Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
Kotiria karaka karaka loan - WW %karaka Probably Arawak origin (see Nordenskiold 1922). Tukanoan, e.g. Wanano karaka; Arawak, e.g. Baniwa kaláka; Yanomamo, Nadeb; Macaguan takra, Sikuani wakara WW %karaka Simplex See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
Cubeo cáyucore kájukore unknown cf. %kara See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
Tukano kãrêkẽ' kãɾêkẽʔ loan - WW %karaka Probably Arawak origin (see Nordenskiold 1922). Tukanoan, e.g. Wanano karaka; Arawak, e.g. Baniwa kaláka; Yanomamo, Nadeb; Macaguan takra, Sikuani wakara WW %karaka Simplex separate terms for male and female chickens See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
Desano kãreña kãreña loan - WW %kara Probably Arawak origin (see Nordenskiold 1922). Tukanoan, e.g. Wanano karaka; Arawak, e.g. Baniwa kaláka; Yanomamo, Nadeb; Macaguan takra, Sikuani wakara WW %karaka Simplex See Language page Addison M; Tanja Baeuerlein
Maihiki cuda ago kuda ago loan - WW %kara Simplex agɨ/ago M/F animate CL See Language page Daniel Valle
Hup cadakaʔ cadakaʔ loan - WW %karaka, via Tukano Probably Arawak origin (see Nordenskiold 1922). Tukanoan, e.g. Wanano karaka; Arawak, e.g. Baniwa kaláka; Yanomamo, Nadeb; Macaguan takra WW %karaka Simplex See Language page Pattie Epps
Dâw lakaár lakâh loan - WW %karaka Port source? Arawak/Carib kariwina and variants WW %kariwina Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Sikuani wakara wakará loan from 'egret', via Carib? Probably Arawak origin (see Nordenskiold 1922). Tukanoan, e.g. Wanano karaka; Arawak, e.g. Baniwa kaláka; Yanomamo, Nadeb; Macaguan takra, Sikuani wakara WW %karaka See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
Macaguan takrá takrá loan - WW %takara WW %karaka Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
Pemon supara, karivina, karataka (A1981); iimɨkararuu (with featherless neck) (E1980) supara, karivina, karataka unknown, loan, loan - WW Span/Port 'gallina' (cf. Nordenskiold 1922:29); %kara Compare Nheengatu sapukaja. Alternate: karivina, karataka, iʔmɨkararu (with featherless neck) See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
Akawaio iimɨgararuu imɨgararu chicken with featherless neck unknown maybe %kara Shared form in Pemon; inheritance or shared innovation/diffusion? See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Makushi kariwana kariwana loan Span/Port 'gallina' (cf. Nordenskiold 1922:29) See Language page Melody Ann Ross; Alyssa Wadley
Eñepa paraaru wïnkï' (MM); paraaru (IDS) paraaru wïnkïʔ (MM); paraaru (IDS) unknown Alternate: paraaru wïnkïʔ See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
Yukuna kapére kapéɾe unknown Alternate: kapéɾeɾu (specifically female chicken) Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Tariana kaláka kaláka loan - WW Proto North Arawak %karaka Probably Arawak origin (see Nordenskiold 1922). Tukanoan, e.g. Wanano karaka; Arawak, e.g. Baniwa kaláka; Yanomamo, Nadeb; Macaguan takra, Sikuani wakara WW %karaka Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
Wapishana kʰɨrɨkʰɨ kʰɨrɨkʰɨ loan - WW %karaka Probably Arawak origin (see Nordenskiold 1922). Tukanoan, e.g. Wanano karaka; Arawak, e.g. Baniwa kaláka; Yanomamo, Nadeb; Macaguan takra, Sikuani wakara WW %karaka Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
Baniwa kaláka, kóama (R01) kaláka, kóama (R01) loan - WW; unknown %karaka; shared Achagua, Piapoco, Baniwa, Yavitero, Warekena Probably Arawak origin (see Nordenskiold 1922). Tukanoan, e.g. Wanano karaka; Arawak, e.g. Baniwa kaláka; Yanomamo, Nadeb; Macaguan takra, Sikuani wakara WW %karaka Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
Resígaro kádatú kádatú loan - WW %kara Probably Arawak origin (see Nordenskiold 1922). Tukanoan, e.g. Wanano karaka; Arawak, e.g. Baniwa kaláka; Yanomamo, Nadeb; Macaguan takra, Sikuani wakara WW %karaka Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
Gupapuyngu dyilhawurr semantic shift Claire Bowern
Gumatj dyikin loan English WW chicken Claire Bowern
Dhuwal dyikin loan English WW chicken Claire Bowern
Dhay’yi dyukutyiki loan Makassar WW %djorra Claire Bowern
Nyangumarta marraka semantic shift ‘little bird’ Claire Bowern
Yulparija pawurl loan English ‘fowl’ Claire Bowern
Mangala pawurl loan English Claire Bowern
Yawuru purnturaparri semantic shift Claire Bowern
Bardi tyuktyuk loan English WW chicken Claire Bowern
Gurindji kukkuk unknown onomatapoeic coining Patrick McConvell
Djapu dyikin loan English WW chicken Claire Bowern
Jaminjung bawurlu loan English fowl' Patrick McConvell
Achagua kawáamai kawáamai unknown shared Achagua, Piapoco, Baniwa, Yavitero, Warekena See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Piapoco cawámai kawámai See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Warekena karáka (Natterer); witʃiri kwame karáka (Natterer); witʃiri kwame See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yavitero ku'ame kuʔame See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Paresi takoira takoira loan - WW %takara See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Baure 'tipoṛ̌ek tipoṛ̌ek unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
Bora caracá kʰarakʰá loan - WW %karaka See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Muinane cátáva (W97) kátáβa See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Apalai kuratiri kuratiri loan - WW %kara See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Wayana kulasi kulasi loan - WW %kara See Language page PLE
Carijona cageli (M2000), kapri/kaheri, korotoro (Nordenskiold1922) loan - WW %kara See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
Tiriyó kurairu kurairu loan - WW %kara See Language page Becky Walker
Makiritare wamēdi (IDS) wame:di unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
Wai Wai kapikara kapikara loan - WW %kara See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Waimiri Atroari karyka karɨka See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
Yukpa karén, orisa, tókropa karén, orisa, tókropa See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
Northern Emberá ete'r̃e (IDS) ete'r̃e (IDS) See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, PLE
Cofán arapa arapa phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
Candoshi-Shapra ktáshó ktáʃó unknown possibly %kara + -ʃo, cf. Jivaroan ataʃ See Language page Daniel Valle
Taushiro a'tuva aʔtuwa See Language page Daniel Valle
Páez [atalʸ] (Quechua loan) [atalʸ] (Quechua loan) See Language page Daniel Valle
Tikuna o-tá (Alv44) oʔtá doubtful loan - WW Nordenskiold considers derivative of %atawalpa See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Urarina atauari atauari loan - WW %atawalpa See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Andoke ta'táfa taʔtáɸa loan - WW %atawalpa See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
Pumé okararo pua See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
Puinave kawa kawa doubtful loan Arawak, e.g. Achagua kawáamai See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Ashuar atásh atáʃ See Language page Daniel Valle
Huambisa shiam, atash ʃiam, ataʃ See Language page Daniel Valle
Aguaruna ataš ataʃ unknown diffused throughout family; possibly from %kara + -ʃo; cf. Candoshi ktáʃó See Language page Daniel Valle
Matses cachina katʃina unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Chácobo patiari patiari unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
Yagua tuváryi tuwárji unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Ingá atawalpa atawalpa See Language page Daniel Valle
Napo Lowland Quichua atallpa ataʎpa See Language page Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano wallpa (CP94) waʎpa See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Piaroa ahkE'ra' ahkæɁraɁ loan - WW %takara See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
Sáliva acala akala loan - WW %takara See Language page Becky Walker
Carapana ãbocʉ ãbocʉ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
Makuna cara kara loan - WW %kara See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
Tanimuca kãrã kãrã loan - WW %kara See Language page Kelsey Neely
Tuyuka cãrãquãa kãrãkãa See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
Koreguaje kurao khurao loan - WW %kara See Language page Daniel Valle
Siona kutˀa kutˀa loan - WW %kara See Language page Kelsey Neely
Secoya cura kura See Language page Amanda Novak
Karitiana opogako opogako unknown See Language page Daniel Valle
Kokama atawari atawari loan - WW %atawalpa See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
Wayampi masakala-l-aʔɨ masakala-l-aʔɨ loan - WW %kara See Language page PLE
Sirionó nɡuira (P85) nɡuira unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Kamayurá karakarako karakarako loan - WW %kara (karakarako) See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Ocaina átyava átjaβa loan - WW %atawalpa See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Nɨpode Witoto aɗá-βa aɗá-βa See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Minica Witoto atá-βa atá-βa See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Murui Witoto katá-βa katá-βa loan - WW %kara, but looks like possible merge with %atawalpa; shared Muinane See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Sanumá kalaka kalaka loan - WW %karaka See Language page Kelsey Neely
Iquito cacáraaja kakáraaha loan - WW %karaka See Language page Cynthia Hansen
Záparo atawari atawari See Language page Becky Walker
Wari kok taraho (Sousa2009) kok taraho (Sousa2009) See Language page PLE
Ese Ejja/Huarayo dexa hao; kačina (Girard 1971) dexa hao; kačina (Girard 1971) See Language page Joyce McCormick
Cavineña takore takore loan - WW %takara See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Central Aymara wallpa, atawallpa (P04) čʰiwčʰi See Language page PLE
Kwazá kurakura kurakura See Language page Joyce McCormick
Movima hoʔme xoʔme See Language page Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker
Trumai karakarako karakarako loan - WW %kara (karakarako) See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
Kaingang ŋarĩɲ (loan galinha?) (IDS) [ŋarĩɲ] krɛ̃ See Language page PLE
Suyá kárakarakó (same term for both) kárakarakó (same term for both) See Language page Rebekah Evans
Djeoromitxi paro paro See Language page PLE