lightning

Semantic Field
environment
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
rayo, relámpago
Meaning Portuguese
relampago

Languages

Language Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By General Notes
Bankalachi Toloim wah'-lahm we'-ah 209 loan Jane Hill
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone kwo-7ainkah-kwicai-caih “lightning” unique Jane Hill
Cahuilla tawva-l te7ayaw7a “thunder power” unique S&H 1979 Jane Hill
Central Sierra Miwok wile:p- inheritance Jane Hill
Chumash Barbareno s-qunt'aw inheritance Ono 1996:27 Jane Hill
Chumash Cruzeno squnt'aw inheritance JPH Jane Hill
Chumash Ineseno s-qun-t'aw “lightning flashes” inheritance A 62 Jane Hill
Chumash Ventureno tsqunqunt'aw “esta relampagueando” unknown JPH Jane Hill
Cocopa cu:la/m, su:la/m “lightning to flash” inheritance Jane Hill
Comanche ekakwitse7e inheritance Jane Hill
Cupeño taw$henve'et pewaq'a [tawşənvəɁət pəˈwaqɁə] inheritance Jane Hill
Gabrielino kwa:rkwarayemuk “es blitzt” loan into protolanguage Jane Hill
Iipay 'Aa shuuluk [şuˑ˅ˈlʊk] inheritance Jane Hill
Kawaiisu 7aga-zin7o-ry “lightning flash” inheritance Jane Hill
Kiliwa h-nyam unknown Jane Hill
Kitanemuk 7a-naka7 taoch “thunder's stick” unique Jane Hill
Lake Miwok ke/lip unique Jane Hill
Luiseño Siwa/ri- “to flash of lightning” inheritance Jane Hill
Maidu wip'i/li inheritance Jane Hill
Mojave huulas, huurav inheritance Jane Hill
Mutsun willep (N), wilpe (V) inheritance NW (JPH) Jane Hill
Nisenan wisp'il inheritance Jane Hill
Northern Sierra Miwok wil:ep-y- inheritance Jane Hill
Plains Miwok wil:ep, wul:ep inheritance Jane Hill
Salinan A sokAnto (A only); (ke)mi/ltop (S) vb loan Jane Hill
Salinan M missing missing Jane Hill
Seri (Comcaac) iza/ahox inoftj unknown Jane Hill
Serrano tikaltikalq loan Jane Hill
Southern Paiute angqa-xwicapry7 “red flashing obj, lightning” inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Sierra Miwok wi:le:p-aH inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Ute panakosarY unique Jane Hill
Tübatulabal washakwashaakat “be lightning” loan Jane Hill
Tümpisa Shoshone kongojoppo7e(nna)m, kongojopoppa7en unique Jane Hill
Washo dewp'ilélek, déʔpilelek unknown Washo Project Jane Hill
Western Mono aqakwitsi7i inheritance Jane Hill
Wintu walu:qi inheritance Jane Hill
Yavapai vrav 7ica (vrav ... 7i-ca (ca=Nom) inheritance Jane Hill
Yokuts Palewyami we-we/-ah unique CHM Berman 2002 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yowlumne walam'-wiyi inheritance N1964 Jane Hill
Yuki p'ah inheritance S1985 Jane Hill
Yuma uravteva “there will be lightning” H6:148 inheritance Jane Hill
Carijona mana (SM) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
Cubeo yaroino jaɾoino unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
Dâw pẽy  pæ̃j semantic shift thunder See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Desano similar: bupu mia-ri ('to lighten') bupu mia-ɾi unique cf. thunder See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Eñepa t-učeɲama-k (IDS) t-utʃeɲama-k (IDS) semantic shift; unknown thunder See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Hodï choa bulewe / choburewe unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
Waorani dãĩ-pa unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
Hup cə́p cə́p inheritance Hup-Yuhup See Language page Pattie Epps
Makushi waraʔnapi esensiʔma (IDS) waraʔnapi esensiʔma (IDS) semantic shift thunder See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Nheengatu werá wera inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
Maihiki mɨja yebejɨ mɨxa jebexɨ̃ inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Pemon waranapi (A1981) waɾanapi (A1981) semantic shift thunder See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Resígaro phédo?vakhoótsí pʰédoʔvakʰoótsí unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
Tariana énu diperitá (thunder=?) énu diperitá (thunder=?) unique from thunder See Language page Ana Paula B.
Tukano bɨpô jaʔbarí daa bɨpô jaʔbarí daa inheritance cf. thunder See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
Kotiria oroca sitero (Waltz) oɾoka siteɾo (Waltz) unique See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Yanomami yamira, tãhimɨ jamiɾa, tãhimɨ unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yukuna pichaní pitʃaní unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yuhup cǝ́p cǝ́p inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Arabana piljpa inheritance Claire Bowern
Bardi birdbag XXgl sheet lightning birdbak inheritance Claire Bowern
Bunuba malngirri thunder.lightning doubtful loan Claire Bowern
Burarra maykarran loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
Dhangu yarraḏa unknown Claire Bowern
Dhuwal maykarraṉ(') loan Claire Bowern
Dhuwala maykarraṉ(') loan Claire Bowern
Diyari 44 inheritance Claire Bowern
DiyariREU pildripildri inheritance Claire Bowern
Djambarrpuyngu 2268 loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
Djapu maykarraṉ(') loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
Djinang milnytjigi inheritance Claire Bowern
Gajirrabeng jimilwiring inheritance Claire Bowern
Gooniyandi jimirlooroo loan Claire Bowern
Gupapuyngu maykarraṉ(') loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
Gurindji janginyina loan Wardaman Claire Bowern
Jaru malngirri unique Claire Bowern
Karajarri 3926 inheritance Claire Bowern
Kija X inheritance Claire Bowern
Malyangapa Mal: pirndi loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
Mangala linku wirri nganjurring (T) unknown Claire Bowern
Miriwung jimilwiring inheritance Claire Bowern
Mithaka wajinina unique Claire Bowern
Mudburra 379 Claire Bowern
Mudburra janginyina loan Claire Bowern
Ngamini 57 inheritance Claire Bowern
Ngandi mirnim-dhu inheritance Claire Bowern
Ngarluma warlibirdi Claire Bowern
Ngumbarl wal-ng?ree <wal-ng?ree> unique Claire Bowern
Nhirrpi [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Nimanburru binmag binmak inheritance Claire Bowern
Northern Mangarla jitama Claire Bowern
Northern Nyangumarta pilart karramanarra inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyangumarta marrji-marrji inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyikina gabarlawurru kabarlawurru inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyulnyul binmag binmak inheritance Claire Bowern
Paakantyi bindi loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
Pirriya [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Pitta-Pitta pirlpa unique Claire Bowern
Rirratjingu [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Ritharrngu banayama' unique Claire Bowern
Walmajarri pirtpirt doubtful loan Claire Bowern
Wangkayutyuru pirlpa unique Claire Bowern
Warrwa ganyingana kanyingana unique Claire Bowern
Wubuy mindha inheritance Claire Bowern
Yan-nhangu 2260 inheritance Claire Bowern
Yandruwandha 57 unique Claire Bowern
Yarluyandi paRu-kala inheritance Claire Bowern
Yawarrawarrka 57 inheritance Claire Bowern
Yawuru binjmag binymak inheritance Claire Bowern
Achagua é:nu é:nu semantic shift thunder See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Piapoco énu (lightning, thunder, gun) énu (lightning, thunder, gun) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yavitero mélika(mélimelika) énu, íye énu (íye 'angry' + énu 'sky') mélika(mélimelika) énu, íye énu (íye 'angry' + énu 'sky') See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Wapishana tʰuruwanarɨ pʰiẓuwa-n tʰuruwanarɨ pʰiẓuwa-n semantic shift thunder See Language page Ana Paula B.
Paresi kahihiye kahihije unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Waurá yamiruka jamiruka inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
Bora roríʔkʰʸo roríʔkʰʲo unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Muinane náme-ba, námé-ba-no (verb) námɛ-ba, námέ-ba-no (vɛrb) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Akawaio kamiiriik ka'mirik inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
Apalai konomeru konomeru semantic shift thunder See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Wayana kana nai kana nai inheritance See Language page PLE
Tiriyó manan manan inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
Mapoyo ka'tawai (same as thunder) ka'tawai (same as thunder) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Wai Wai ΦeΦe ka-ɲe ΦeΦe ka-ɲe unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Waimiri Atroari tarara (thunder/lightning) tarara (thunder/lightning) See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
Yukpa tapana, tükara See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
Muisca pquahaza pkuahatʂa See Language page Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá bha eraadrʉ́, nnagá númʉa bha eraːdrʉ́, nnagá númʉa See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, PLE
Cofán tsanda veyaen tsanda βɛʒãɛ̡ See Language page Daniel Valle phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS
Candoshi-Shapra mamaaro mamaaɾo doubtful loan, direction unknown Zaparo See Language page Daniel Valle
Taushiro canante' canandɨʔ See Language page Daniel Valle
Páez cuene kuene See Language page Daniel Valle
Tikuna na3-5xü3 (A58) naʔɨ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Urarina hianaa hianaa unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Camsa tkuínje tkuínje See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
Pumé bɛrɛpamẽ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
Tinigua tiɣa See Language page Zach Burnett
Puinave wadi-yu wadi-ju unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
Ashuar cháarim, cháarimp tʃa:rim, tʃa:rimp See Language page Daniel Valle
Huambisa peem pɨ:m See Language page Daniel Valle
Aguaruna péem pɨ:m inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Matses bed-bedquequid bed-bedkekid unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Chácobo kanapa; βara- kanapa; βara- inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
Yagua radurya (Spanish loan?) rãdurja unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Southern Pastaza Quechua rayu (Spanish loan) ɾaju See Language page Daniel Valle
Ingá rilampa (Spanish loan) rilampa (Spaniʃ loan) See Language page Daniel Valle
Napo Lowland Quichua rayu (Spanish loan) ɾaju See Language page Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano llipya, illapa ʎipya, iʎapa See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Piaroa ku'u'pakua'a' kuɁuɁpakuaɁaɁ unique cf. thunder See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
Sáliva leliga leliga unique See Language page Becky Walker
Barasano bɨhó jabe-se bɨhó jabe-se See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Baeuerlein
Carapana bɨ'pó 'kɨ̃ ka-ja'bé-rí-je bɨ'pó 'kɨ̃ ka-ja'bé-rí-je See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
Makuna semantically similar: yi-re (to flash); bʉjo (for 'thunderstorm'; cf. Thunder) ji-ɾe; bɨxo inheritance cf. thunder See Language page Amanda Novak, D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Yuruti wããjooro wããjooro See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Waikhana ɨ'po bĩ'ãjẽ (ɨ'po means 'thunder') ɨ'po bĩ'ãjẽ (ɨ'po means 'thunder') See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Siriano bu'pú bĩ'ã́-rĩ bu'pú bĩ'ã́-rĩ See Language page Ana Paula, Kelsey Neely
Tanimuca bɨ'pó ja'bé-rí-he bɨ'pó ja'bé-rí-he inheritance cf. thunder See Language page Kelsey Neely
Tatuyo bɨ'pó ja'bé-rí-he bɨ'pó ja'bé-rí-he See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
Tuyuka bɨpó 'wãã-jo-re bɨpó 'wãã-jo-re See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
Waimaja bɨpó yabɛ́mì bɨpó jabɛ́mì See Language page Kelsey Neely
Koreguaje fe'nemʉ (verb) feʔnemʉ inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Siona jue'neji (to make lightning) weʔnehi (to make lightning) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Secoya cue'neñe kwæʔnæñɛ See Language page Amanda N
Karitiana pãmpi haryhary pãmpi haɾɨhaɾɨ unknown See Language page Daniel Valle
Kokama tsentsene tsentsene unique See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
Wayampi wɛla wɛla inheritance See Language page PLE
Sirionó pi̯ri̯rã pi̯ri̯rã i̯ pi̯ri̯rã pi̯ri̯rã i̯ unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Ocaina uuváhyo (relámpago) ɯɯβáʔjo unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Nɨpode Witoto amé.o, borí-de amέ.o, borí-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Minica Witoto amé.o, borí-de amέ.o, borí-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Murui Witoto ameo, bori-de amɛo, bori-dɛ inheritance; unknown cf. Ocaina 'thunder' See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Iquito nɨsínɨɨna nɨsínɨɨna unique See Language page Cynthia Hansen
Záparo maharu mahaɾu See Language page Becky Walker
Wari jam (E&K97) jam (E&K97) See Language page PLE
Ese Ejja/Huarayo poxexe; po-xexi (Girard 1971) poxexe; po-xexi (Girard 1971) See Language page Joyce McCormick
Cavineña tahita tahita unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Central Aymara llijulliju ḳˀixu-ḳˀixu See Language page PLE
Kwazá wɛro- wɛro- See Language page Joyce McCormick
Movima yam-pa jam-pa See Language page Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker
Trumai ameʃ (G99) ameʃ (G99) unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
Kaingang mrãrn ke (IDS) mrãrn ke See Language page PLE
Djeoromitxi mĩmĩ mĩmĩ See Language page PLE