Tübatulabal

Family
Uto-Aztecan
Region
North America
ISO 639-3
tub
Location
35.33°, -117.16°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (185)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location paanga inheritance Hill 2009 Jane Hill
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar shiiwpa unknown Jane Hill
all todo todos other pinii7-ju, pinni-ju unknown Jane Hill
and y e grammar ti, tiy unknown Jane Hill
ankle tobillo tornozelo body kaawlish-t loan Jane Hill
armpit axila, sobaco axila body kaaluk-t loan Jane Hill
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment toongol inheritance Jane Hill
at en, a em, a location -p inheritance Jane Hill
back espalda costas body oonoo-l unknown Jane Hill
bad mal mal quality tysh, tyshwa-n inheritance Jane Hill
belly barriga barriga body shappush-t inheritance Jane Hill
below abajo, debajo abaixo location omholok, omholokaa-n “under” inheritance Jane Hill
big grande grande quality ekeewa-n loan Jane Hill
bite morder morder body kyy-yt inheritance Jane Hill
black negro preto colour tuukupyy-l inheritance Jane Hill
blood sangre sangue body ykwa-n inheritance Jane Hill
blow soplar soprar body pushk-at (with breath) inheritance Jane Hill
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body pishkishyt “has pus inside, as boil” inheritance Jane Hill
bone hueso osso body oo-n inheritance Jane Hill
breast pecho, seno peito body pii-l inheritance Jane Hill
breathe respirar respirar body ihk-yt inheritance Jane Hill
burn quemar queimar environment tsama-t unknown Jane Hill
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body ahaaych-at inheritance Jane Hill
child niño, niña criança human tuumu-un, tu7mul “baby” inheritance Jane Hill
climb subir subir motion wilaa7la-t unknown Jane Hill
cloud nube nuvem environment paashuumisht unique Jane Hill
cold frío frio quality yytsyy7jyt “be cold” inheritance Jane Hill
come venir vir motion kimma-t inheritance Jane Hill
cook cocinar cozinhar impact tykkikuuj7-at loan Jane Hill
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality ty/wwy “rightly” loan Jane Hill
count contar contar mental missing Jane Hill
cry llorar chorar mental annang-at inheritance Jane Hill
cut/hack cortar cortar impact tyttyy7in-at inheritance Jane Hill
day día dia time taal inheritance Jane Hill
die/be dead morir morrer state muuk-ut (sg) inheritance Jane Hill
dig cavar cavar impact wash-at inheritance Jane Hill
dingo/wolf fauna typajch “wolf” loan Jane Hill
dirty sucio sujo quality tukuupish-yt “be or become -” inheritance Jane Hill
dream soñar sonhar mental untumuuka-t Jane Hill
drink beber, tomar beber body ii7y-t inheritance Jane Hill
dry seco seco quality waak-yt inheritance Jane Hill
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality missing Jane Hill
dust polvo poeira environment tyywyt inheritance Jane Hill
ear oreja orelha body nangha-l inheritance Jane Hill
earth/soil tierra terra environment shuwaal “earth” loan Jane Hill
eat comer comer body tykk-at loan Jane Hill
egg huevo ovo fauna pom-t unique Jane Hill
eye ojo olho body puntsi-l inheritance Jane Hill
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body shaa-n inheritance Jane Hill
fall caer cair motion ujuuk-at unknown Jane Hill
far lejos longe quality wanaang loan Jane Hill
fat/grease grasa gordura body wip-t inheritance Jane Hill
father padre, papá pai kinship anaa-n (before death of offspring) inheritance Jane Hill
fear miedo medo mental tsungkil (N); tsungk-ut (V) unknown Jane Hill
feather pluma pena fauna maashaawisht “ceremonial bunch of eagle feathers” inheritance Jane Hill
fire fuego fogo environment kutt inheritance Jane Hill
fish xx xx fauna kujuul inheritance Jane Hill
flow fluir fluir motion wyy7a-t inheritance Jane Hill
flower flor flor environment ipiil loan Jane Hill
fly volar voar motion ool-yt unknown Jane Hill
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment paashuumishit unique Jane Hill
foot pie body yngky-l inheritance Jane Hill
fruit fruta fruta flora ahnt “berries” (generic) unknown Jane Hill
good bueno bom quality ty/wwy, tywwywa/-n loan Jane Hill
grow crecer crescer state ayaaw-yt inheritance Jane Hill
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body tsomoo-l (head hair) unique Jane Hill
hand mano mão body maa-l inheritance Jane Hill
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar ts, tsa (clitics loan Jane Hill
head cabeza cabeça body ko7ohn unknown Jane Hill
hear oír ouvir mental ha7-yt, haa7-yt inheritance Jane Hill
heavy pesado pesado quality pyllyt inheritance Jane Hill
hide esconder esconder motion uukuuchy-t (vi) inheritance Jane Hill
hit golpear, pegar bater impact paa7kin-at inheritance Jane Hill
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other jyyw-ut, jyww-ut inheritance Jane Hill
how? como como grammar ha7ic V1935:165 Jane Hill
1sg yo eu grammar ki (it's a clitic) loan Jane Hill
if si se grammar tan unknown Jane Hill
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location shuuna-l inheritance Jane Hill
intestines intestinos intestinos body missing Jane Hill
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body missing Jane Hill
kill matar matar impact myyk-at (sg obj) inheritance Jane Hill
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental maak-at inheritance Jane Hill
lake lago lago environment paatsiiwat loan Jane Hill
laugh reír rir mental kytsyy-at unknown Jane Hill
leaf hoja folha environment nanghapyyl inheritance Jane Hill
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body aashinga-n inheritance Jane Hill
leg/foot pierna perna body uukkappyyl loan Jane Hill
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion myhy-at “lie down” unknown Jane Hill
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment washakwashaakat “be lightning” loan Jane Hill
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body missing Jane Hill
liver hígado figado body nyyma-l inheritance Jane Hill
long largo comprido, longo quality uttutu, uttutuuwa-n “tall” loan direction unknown Jane Hill
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna nahaal unknown Jane Hill
lung pulmón pulmão body moshoohat unknown Jane Hill
man/male hombre homem human taatwa-l loan Jane Hill
meat/flesh carne carne fauna tukuwa/-n inheritance Jane Hill
moon luna lua environment myyjal, myyjapisht inheritance Jane Hill
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship aapuu-n (before death of child) loan Jane Hill
mouth boca boca body too7kon-t unknown Jane Hill
name nombre nome human tingwaa-n inheritance Jane Hill
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body missing Jane Hill
near/close cerca de perto quality mii7ppil inheritance Jane Hill
neck cuello pescoço body kulaa-n inheritance Jane Hill
new nuevo novo quality mappittal unknown Jane Hill
night noche noite time tukal, tuukal, tuukit inheritance Jane Hill
no/not no não grammar haa7ish, haaji, hash, ha/jji inheritance Jane Hill
nose nariz nariz body muppi-tt inheritance Jane Hill
old viejo velho quality uulawy-t “get old” unknown Jane Hill
one uno um number chiich unique Jane Hill
open/uncover abrir abrir other lesha-t (vi) loan Jane Hill
other otro outro grammar shyywa inheritance Jane Hill
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body ynnyhy-at “be, become (sg)” unknown Jane Hill
person/human being persona pessoa human anghannil “people” inheritance Jane Hill
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact kohkohwin-at, unique Jane Hill
rain lluvia chuva environment tangil (N) inheritance Jane Hill
red rojo vermelho colour mel7melyppyyl unique Jane Hill
right/right hand derecha direita location/body tey hawwa7an “right side” unknown Jane Hill
road/path camino caminho manufacture poht, pooht inheritance Jane Hill
root raíz raiz flora wiishi-n inheritance Jane Hill
rotten podrido podre quality missing Jane Hill
sand arena areia environment shiihpit inheritance Jane Hill
say decir dizer mental ky-t inheritance Jane Hill
scratch rascar rasgar impact owookin unknown Jane Hill
see ver ver mental taawykyyla-t unknown Jane Hill
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality missing Jane Hill
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact muu-t, uumu7-at inheritance Jane Hill
short corto curto quality tapuu7ppich, and variants loan direction unknown Jane Hill
shoulder hombro ombro body shykky-n inheritance Jane Hill
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental yeew-ut “be ashamed” loan Jane Hill
sit sentar(se) sentar state hall-yt inheritance Jane Hill
skin piel pele body poon-t inheritance Jane Hill
sky cielo céu environment tukumpa/l inheritance Jane Hill
sleep dormir dormir body tahkin-at unknown Jane Hill
small pequeño pequeno quality kuu7chupich loan direction unknown Jane Hill
smoke humo fumaça environment uujit unknown Jane Hill
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body missing Jane Hill
spit escupir cuspir body tuhhu-at loan into protolanguage Jane Hill
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact chilaala-t unknown Jane Hill
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact missing Jane Hill
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact shopshoop-at “be pierced” unknown Jane Hill
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state yywynn-yt, wynn-yt inheritance Jane Hill
star estrella estrela environment shuul inheritance Jane Hill
steal robar roubar other yyj-yt inheritance Jane Hill
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora uu7u-t inheritance Jane Hill
stone piedra pedra environment tynt inheritance Jane Hill
suck chupar chupar body missing Jane Hill
sweat sudar suor, suar body missing Jane Hill
swell hincharse inchar body owook-at “swell up” unknown Jane Hill
swim nadar nadar motion paj7ich-yt unique Jane Hill
tail cola, rabo rabo body wishii-n inheritance Jane Hill
that ese/esa esse grammar wa7 inheritance Jane Hill
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar inta unknown Jane Hill
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality puhm7puhm-at unknown Jane Hill
thin delgado fino quality allalallipich loan direction unknown Jane Hill
think pensar pensar mental tooj-y-t loan Jane Hill
this este/esta este grammar ywynn, wynn unknown Jane Hill
2sg xx xx grammar ympi (subj) inheritance Jane Hill
three tres tres number paay inheritance Jane Hill
throat garganta garganta body missing Jane Hill
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact annap-at unknown Jane Hill
thunder truenos trovão environment missing Jane Hill
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact puun-at inheritance Jane Hill
tongue lengua lingua body lalant inheritance Jane Hill
tooth diente dente body tamant inheritance Jane Hill
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other paj7k-yt “turn around” unknown Jane Hill
two dos dois number woh, woo inheritance Jane Hill
vomit vomitar vomitar body wajuup-at unknown Jane Hill
walk caminar, andar andar motion miy-at “go” inheritance Jane Hill
water agua agua environment paa-l inheritance Jane Hill
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar ingkilla7ang, killa7ang loan Jane Hill
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar kil, loan Jane Hill
wet mojado molhado quality hallaj7-ut (be wet) unknown Jane Hill
what? que, qué que grammar haajn, haajnt inheritance Jane Hill
when? cuando quando grammar missing Jane Hill
where? donde onde grammar maa-l inheritance Jane Hill
white blanco branco colour pooshy-t (be...) unknown Jane Hill
who? quien, quién quem grammar aki inheritance Jane Hill
wife esposa esposa kinship shooji-n inheritance Jane Hill
wind viento vento environment yhkowwaal inheritance Jane Hill
wing ala asa body angaa-n inheritance Jane Hill
woman/female mujer mulher human koojm unknown Jane Hill
work trabajar trabalhar other waahay-jyt (vi) loan Jane Hill
yawn bostezar bocejar body shamngk-yt unknown Jane Hill
yellow amarillo amarelo colour missing Jane Hill
2pl ustedes vocês grammar pum, puumu (subj plur) inheritance Jane Hill


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (130)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
abalone flora-fauna Haliotis spp. missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae pānünt pa:ˈnɨnt ant (generic) inheritance *ʔalɨN- Uto-Aztecan S44 (Stubbs 2009:44); I don't consider the /p/, perhaps from pa:??, to disqualify this item same derived pa:-aˈnɨn-t big(?)-red.ant-npn Hill 2010:65 no info 0 0 Voegelin 1938:12 N/A N/A N/A N/A 0 0 N/A N/A no
antelope flora-fauna Antilocapra americana māshatt ma:ˈʃat antelope inheritance *masaC- Uto-Aztecan S623a (Stubbs 2009:121); Stubbs missed this cognate same other complex ma:ˈʃa-t pronghorn-npn Hill 2010:44 no info 2 1 no info hunted men antelope drives collaboration with Yokuts, Chumash (check) 0 0 Western North America open areas no
badger flora-fauna Taxidea taxus pen'-nē 60-481 pe:ˈni badger loan no information Nobody collected Sierra Miwok “badger” in any of the 3 languages. Not like Plains Miwok. I _know_ I have seen this -- where??? Looks a bit like odd Nisenan /peem/ same underived http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n479/mode/2up; p. 481 no info 2 1 no info no info no info no info 0 0 North America chaparral, woodland yes
bald eagle flora-fauna Haliaeetus leucocephalus missing missing missing 1 2 0 0 1 no
band-tail pigeon flora-fauna Patagioenas fasciata mokkowisht mokoˈwiʃt Band-tailed pigeon, Columba fasciata inheritance *makahVwi Uto-Aztecan S676 (Stubbs 2009:126); vowel /o/ source?? same derived mokoˈwi-ʃ-t dove-?-npn Hill 2010:47 no info 0 1 no info hunted men roasted on coals, bones ground (some consultants denied Tub. ate eggs before Whites) 0 0 Americas Oak and pine forests, feeds on acorns no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp pattsāwal paʦa:ˈwal bat inheritance *paCtsV- Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2009:56-57 *pati7a/*paCti7a “bat” (S124). But Numic and Cora all have pa[c/ch]a, which should reflect *paCtsV. That works for this Tub set too, so I have changed Stubbs' reconstruction/. A problematic set. Note *pata “fly” S902, p. 153. same other complex paʦaˈwa-l bat-non.possessed.non (npn) (root perhaps derived, cf. paʦa- ground pine nuts) Hill 2010:66 no info 0 a story character 1 Voegelin 1938:12 no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Americas Diverse habitats no
beaver flora-fauna Castor missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
beetle flora-fauna Coleoptera spp shitōh ʃiˈdoh beetle unique perhaps from *si- “to piss”, if Stinkbug no info underived Hill 2010:79 no info 2 0 Voegelin 1938:12 no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 global Diverse habitats no
big round tule flora-fauna Schoenoplectus acutus shi'īpül ʃiʔi:ˈbɨl Tule, Scirpus acutus inheritance *siˈʔi:- Californian Cupeno si'ish, Gab. se'-e (Merriam) same derived ʃiʔi:-ˈbɨ-l tule-deriv.suffix-npn Hill 2010:78 no info 2 images of dead for burning made of tule bundles 1 roots peeled, sun-dried, pounded into flour, mixed w/ water and stone-boiled into mush (Voegelin 1938:18) no info gathered (wild) all see food notes; diverse non-food uses in mats, storage devices, roofing, etc. 0 0 California and southern US into Mexico wet areas throughout no
big skunk flora-fauna Mephitis mephitis ponnihw ponˈnihw skunk inheritance *po(C)ni Northern Uto-Aztecan S1983 (Stubbs 2009:275); see discussion of possible UA etymology that I don't care for broader (includes all skunks) underived Hill 2010:73 no info 2 2 Voegelin 1938:12 no info N/A N/A seems like skins might have been used but I found no info 0 0 North America Diverse habitats no
big wolf (gray wolf) flora-fauna Canis lupus tüpaych tɨˈbajʧ wolf loan Kawaiisu Southern Numic is *tyva/ch(i) S2503; if not loan should have /o/ or /u/, and final -ch is loan-y too. broader (includes a large coyote) underived Hill 2010:98 1 2 Voegelin 1938:12 no info N/A N/A hmm -- may have been taken for pelt 0 0 Americas Diverse habitats yes
bighorn sheep flora-fauna Ovis canadensis pā'at pa:ˈʔat bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis inheritance *paʔaC- Northern Uto-Aztecan S204 (Stubbs 2009:67); may be a Proto-Kiowa-tanoan loan into Proto NUA same other complex pa:ˈʔa-t bighorn-npn hill 2010:62 no info 2 1 no info hunted men roasted, diverse uses for skin, horn, etc. 0 0 Western North America steep slopes, cliffs no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna chikkīt ʧiˈki:t bird loan Southern Sierra Miwok Callaghan 2001 SSM cicka is Yok-Utian narrower (does not include big birds like hawk, eagle, owl; may not include water birds like ducks, coots) other complex ʧiˈki:-t bird-npn Hill 2010:16 no info 0 0 N/A N/A N/A N/A 0 0 N/A N/A no
black ant flora-fauna Camponotus pennsylvanicus/Lasius niger ullumush ʔuluˈmuʃ big black ant unique same underived Hill 2010:101 no info 2 0 Voegelin 1938:12 no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Americas Diverse habitats no
black bear flora-fauna Ursus americanus ūnal ʔu:ˈnal bear, Grizzly bear inheritance *hula- Uto-Aztecan S105 (Stubbs 2009:53) broader (includes all bears) other complex ʔu:ˈna-l bear-npn Hill 2010:102 no info 1 Bear is a supernatural being, a yümükīwal, and must be treated with respect 2 “A difference of opinion” (Voegelin 1938:12) no info hunted men roasted, skin, claws kept although bearkin robes said to be “too heavy” -- they were good for cutting boards, pounding surfaces because thick 0 0 North America chaparral, woodland yes
black-tail Jackrabbit flora-fauna Lepus californicus shū'itt ʃu:ˈʔit jackrabbit inheritance *suuʔit Uto-Aztecan S1713 (Stubbs 2009:243); I give Manaster-Ramer's reconstruction same other complex ʃu:ˈʔi-t jackrabbit-npn Hill 2010:80 no info 2 1 no info hunted men roasted, pelt for diverse uses 0 0 I think rabbitskin blankets were traded North America flat open areas no
blackberry flora-fauna Rubus ursinus mah'-mil 72-819, 60-503 ma:ˈmil (?) Blackberry loan Yokuts Note Southern Sierra Miwok mamlant “blackberry” where other E. Miwok have inani (or something like that) WW %mam same other complex ma:ˈmi-l blackberry-npn http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n479/mode/2up; p. 503 no info 2 1 no info gathered (wild) all eaten raw, or boiled, ground and stored as cakes 0 0 Western North America foothills, uplands no
blue grouse flora-fauna Dendrogapus? pāwusshakk pa:wuˈʧak sage grouse, sage hen, Centrocercus urophasianus unique same underived pa:wuˈʧak perhaps pa:- “big”? But not synchronically productive Hill 2010:67 0 a story character 1 0 0 0 Western North America. I don't know why it's in Merriam's list for California, mainly a Rocky Mountain bird scrublands, woodlands no
bobcat, lynx flora-fauna Lynx rufus muppippīt mupiˈpi:t wildcat, the one who is without a nose unique Good UA etyma, unique formation (but this epithet used elsewhere for wildcat) same derived mupiˈ-pi:-t nose-deprived.of-npn Hill 2010:49 no info 1 must be significant somehow 2 no info hunted men roasted, pelt for diverse uses 0 0 North America Diverse habitats no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera chikkōlolont ʧiko:loˈlont butterfly unique note S885 *sɨkwoti “fly”-- certainly resemblant, although not cognate same other complex ʧiko:loˈlon-t butterfly (root probably has derivation) Hill 2010:16 no info 2 0 Voegelin 1938:12 no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 global Diverse habitats no
California condor flora-fauna Gymnogyps californianus wits ˈwiʔiʦ California condor loan Yokuts Proto-NimYokuts *wichr' (retroflex, glottalized ch) (Golla 1964) WW %wit same underived Hill 2010:121 no info 1 2 no info no info no info no info 0 1 U. S. Southwest Rocky scrubland, woodland (they like cliffs no
California jay flora-fauna Aphelocoma californica? ātsayyipisht ʔa:ʣajiˈbiʃt bluejay, probably Steller's Jay, Cyanocitta stelleri loan into protolanguage *chaʔi- Northern Uto-Aztecan unknown S209, Central Numic, Tubatulabal, Takic, always “blue jay” (Stubbs 2009:68). Note similar words in Yokutsan. WW %chaj same derived ʔa:ʣaj-iˈbiʃ-t ?-individuator (ind) -npn chikkīt Hill 2010:12 no info 2 1 Voegelin 1938:12 no info hunted men roasted on coals, bones ground (some consultants denied Tub. ate eggs before Whites) 0 0 throughout western North America (distributions from Wikipedia unless otherwise noted) scrublands, woodlands (Habitats from Wikipedia unless otherwise noted) no
California woodpecker flora-fauna Melanerpes formicivorus? tă-lah-gawk't (k written over w) 72-77, 60-489;tă-lah'-gahkt' 60-489 ta:laˈgohkt California woodpecker loan Gabrielino UA etyma, unique formation WW %palaka ~ %pana(k) same derived ta:la-ˈkohk-t morning-repeatedly.pounds-nominalizer chikkīt http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n479/mode/2up; p. 489 no info 2 1 Voegelin 1938:12 no info N/A N/A N/A 0 1 Southern Oregon, California, south to Colombia oak woodlands no
chia flora-fauna Salvia columbariae pāshīl pa:ˈʃi:l chia seeds, Salvia columbariae inheritance *pasa/i Californian S1599 (Stubbs 2009:233). Only Numic is Tumpisa Shoshone, almost certainly a loan from Tubatulabal. This shows up in Chumash, Salinan, may be an old Californianism. WW %pasv broader (plant and seeds) other complex pa:ˈʃi:-l chia-npn Hill 2010:66 no info 1 1 no info gathered (wild) women seeds parched, mixed with other seeds, mixed with water as gruel 0 0 California and Southwest Below 6000 feet in dry open areas, extensive stands in chaparral no
chipmunk flora-fauna Tamias spp. tapāyal taba:ˈjal “chipmunk”, a small chipmunk-like ground squirrel, possibly the white-tail antelope ground squirrel inheritance *tapa ... Northern Uto-Aztecan S2095 (Stubbs 2009:288) same other complex taba:ˈja-l chipmunk-npn Hill 2010:85 no info 2 1 no info hunted men roasted on coals, bones ground 0 0 North America woodlands no
cliff swallow flora-fauna Petrochelidon pyrrhonota omhompit ʔomhomʹbit cliff swallow, mud diver, Petrochelidon pyrrhonota unique same derived ʔomhom-ʹbi-t swallow.sp-diminutive-npn chikkīt Hill 2010:58 no info 2 1 no info hunted men roasted on coals, bones ground (some consultants denied Tub. ate eggs before Whites) 0 0 Breed in North America Cliffs (and now in/on buildings) no
coot flora-fauna Fulica americana shāyal ʃa:ˈjal Mudhen or American coot, Fulica americana inheritance *saya(C) Northern Uto-Aztecan S217 (and 710) Stubbs 2009:69, very consistently for “coot, mud-hen” except in Cahuilla, Cupeño same other complex ʃa:ˈja-l mudhen-npn Hill 2010:77 no info 2 feathers in wand carried at burning 1 no info hunted men roasted on coals, bones ground (some consultants denied Tub. ate eggs before Whites) 0 0 West coastal and southern North America to Central America wetlands and open water no
cottontail rabbit flora-fauna Sylvilagus audobonii tahpunt tahˈpunt cottontail inheritance *tapuN- Uto-Aztecan S1707 (Stubbs 2009:242) same other complex tahˈpun-t cottontail-npn Hill 2010:82 no info 2 1 no info hunted men roasted, pelt for diverse uses 0 0 I think rabbitskin blankets were traded North America Diverse habitats no
cottonwood flora-fauna Populus spp. uttuhhul ʔutuˈhul Cottonwood tree inheritance *tukɨ(nu)- Californian What about S2359 tukynu “alder tree”??? (Stubbs 2009:316), Takic (Tb. vowels wrong but /u/ is contagious)_ same other complex ʔutuˈhu-l cottonwood-npn Hill 2010:104 no info 2 0 no info gathered (wild) all wood, bark, fibrous inner bark used 0 0 southern Canada south to northern Mexico moist areas no
coyote flora-fauna Canis latrans isht ˈʔiʃt coyote inheritance *ʔisa- Northern Uto-Aztecan S552 (Stubbs 2009:112) same other complex ˈʔiʃ-t coyote-npn Hill 2010:30 no info 1 figures in creation accounts 2 Voegelin 1938:12 no info hunted men eaten, and coyote pelts used for quivers, muffs to warm hands 0 0 North and Central America Diverse habitats no
crow flora-fauna Corvus brachyrhynchos akkapīppitt ʔakabi:ˈpit “little crow”, possibly a reference to the common crow, as distinguished from the raven unique This doesn't match any “crow” words; may be part of S584 *kak (Stubbs 2007:117), but not a good match. Nobody collected the Sierra Miwok word for “Raven”, might be a source same derived ʔaka-bi:ˈ-pi-t raven-deriv.suffix-diminutive-npn chikkīt Hill 2010:4 no info 2 usually Raven feathers show up in ritual paraphernalia, but Crow doesn't 1 Voegelin 1938:12 no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Americas Diverse habitats no
datura flora-fauna Datura wrightii mōmōht mo:ˈmo:ht datura, jimsonweed, toloache, Datura meteloides loan Chumash A loan from Gab. or Lu. *moy-la “moon” into Chumash, and then into Tubatulabal, probably very late WW %moji ~ %moni broader (plant and toloache drink) other complex mo:ˈmo:h-t datura-npn Hill 2010:47 no info 1 used to seek spirit familiar 1 1 diverse uses for curing gathered (wild) men plant crushed in water, could be mixed with other ingredients. Taken after 3-day fast 1 0 U.S. Southwest, California, Mexico “sandy, gravelly, open areas below 4000 feet throughout Southern California” (Bean & Saubel 1972:60) yes
deer, mule flora-fauna Odocoileus hemionus tohhīl toˈhi:l deer, hunting loan Numic Proto-Numic *tɨhɨya same other complex toˈhi:-l deer-npn Hill 2010:88 no info 2 Deer is a supernatural being, a yümükīwal, and must be treated with respect 1 no info hunted men roasted, diverse uses for skin, horn, etc. 0 0 Western North America Diverse habitats no
digger pine flora-fauna Pinus sabiniana wohhompōl wohomˈbo:l digger pine, bull pine, Pinus sabiniana inheritance *wokoN- Uto-Aztecan S1579a (Stubbs 2009:231) same other complex wohomˈbo:-l digger.pine-npn (the -bo: is a derivational suffix historically) Hill 2010:121 no info 2 1 nuts best for mixing with tobacco no info gathered (wild) men in early season eaten immediately by men and boys; later, cones roasted like pinyons, by men and boys 0 0 California central valley, Sierra foothills, Coast Ranges to Tehachapis, also on Channel Islands foothills no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris pukkupisht pukuˈbiʃt dog loan Western Numic pukku links with Western Numic same derived puku-ˈbiʃ-t domestic.animal-ind-npn Hill 2010:74 no info 0 0 “A difference of opinion” (Voegelin 1938:12) no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Americas with humans no
dogbane flora-fauna Apocynum cannabinum māwil ma:ˈwil Indian hemp, dogbane, Apocynum cannabinum loan no information Has the UA *wi- “string” element; ma:- may be from *maha “greens, herbs, weeds” but there is also a widespread Californianism %mah in Pomo, Yuki, Salinan WW %mah same other complex ma:ˈwi-l apocynum-npn (historically, wi-l “twine”) Hill 2010:44 no info 2 1 no info gathered (wild but closely managed) women major fiber plant; stems crushed, fiber extracted 0 0 Timbrook says this could be obtained in trade if a shortabe Southern Canada to Mexico open wooded areas, hillsides, ravines no
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna Zenaida macrocoura owīt ʔoˈwi:t dove, probably the mourning dove, Zenaida macroura inheritance *howi Uto-Aztecan S675 (Stubbs 2009:126); I have no idea why S finds O'odham ho:hi “difficult to explain”??? same other complex ʔoˈwi:t sound-npn chikkīt Hill 2010:61 no info 2 1 no info hunted men roasted on coals, bones ground (some consultants denied Tub. ate eggs before Whites) 0 0 Southern Canada to Mexico Prefers open areas, avoids dense forests no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae kulāpisht kula:ˈbiʃt “all ducks and geese” (Merriam), “mallard” (Hill) unique broader (includes geese; prototype is mallard, most common duck) derived kula:-ˈbiʃ-t duck-ind-npn Hill 2010:36 no info 0 1 no info hunted men roasted on coals, bones ground (some consultants denied Tub. ate eggs before Whites) 0 0 Americas wetlands and open water no
elder flora-fauna Sambucus kūhuppül ku:huˈpɨl Elderberry, Sambucus velutina inheritance *kuʔu/kuhu- Californian S179 (Stubbs 2009:64) same derived ku:huˈ-pɨ-l elderberry-deriv.suffix-npn Hill 2010:36 no info 2 1 berries no info almost certainly used elderberry tea gathered (wild) all wood used for tools, as well as berries for food 0 0 North America below 4500 feet in moist areas no
elk flora-fauna Cervas elaphus shohkoy ʃohˈgoj elk, wapiti loan Yokuts Proto-NimYokuts *sohkoy (Golla 1964) is originally a borrowing from some UA language, borrowed back into Tubatulabal. Merriam has Tub. pah'-soo-kun, 72-799; 60-481 WW %sok same underived Hill 2010:79 no info 2 1 no info hunted men roasted, diverse uses for skin, horn, etc. 0 0 Western North America uplands, not in deserts forest, forest edges no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna kuyül kuˈjɨl fish inheritance *kɨcuC- Uto-Aztecan S864 (Stubbs 2009;147) same other complex kuˈjɨ-l fish-npn Hill 2010:38 no info 0 1 no info hunted all used fish traps (men), poison (everybody), diverse preparations, mainly roasting on coals 0 0 Americas water no
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna Siphonaptera moo-tsoo' 72-79, 60-499 mu:ˈʦuh (?) flea loan no information loan direction unknown, see Gabrielino motu:cey, Kitanemuk ʔatucit same underived http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n479/mode/2up; p. 499 no info 2 0 Voegelin 1938:12 no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Americas Diverse habitats no
flicker flora-fauna Colaptes sp. chēwl ˈʧe:wl a kind of red bird loan Southern Sierra Miwok SSM tiwaj (and note PnimYokuts *T'iwisa7 “yellowhammer” (Golla 1964:66, so form is Yok-Utian) same other complex ˈʧe:w-l flicker-npn chikkīt Hill 2010:15 no info 2 feathers in headbands, etc. for rituals 1 no info hunted men roasted on coals, bones ground (some consultants denied Tub. ate eggs before Whites) 0 1 feathers traded in ritual regalia Americas Diverse habitats no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera pichōkisht piʤo:ˈtiʃt horsefly unique see Gabrielino ˈpi:ʧukʷar “fly”, Kitanemuk picucuʔač “fly”; some kind of regional element here. Note Maidu p'ic'ík'uk'ù same other complex piʤo:ˈgiʃ-t horsefly-npn (root has historical derivation) Hill 2010:71 0 a story character 0 Voegelin 1938:12 0 0 0 global Diverse habitats no
foothills yucca flora-fauna Yucca whipplei kuyat kuˈjat Spanish bayonet, Yucca whipplei inheritance *ku(ru) Uto-Aztecan S6 (Stubbs 2009;40); difficult since only first syllable but I find this a sensible start same other complex kuˈja-t y.whipplei-npn Hill 2010:38 no info 0 1 no info gathered (wild but closely managed) all stalks laid on open fire, buried in sand, then peeled (Voegelin 1938:18) 0 0 stalks traded to Kitanemuk (Harrington in Anderton 1988) Southern California and Baja California chaparral and oak woodlands, 300-2500 m no
fox flora-fauna Vulpes, Urocyon iklōpal ʔiklo:ˈbal fox inheritance *kalopV- Uto-Aztecan S560 (Stubbs 2009:113) tries to link this to Tubar kahulowi, possibly *kalop. I think is dubious but might work. Reconstruction is surely wrong -- maybe *kawo-lopV narrower (probably desert fox, Vulpes macrotis) other complex ʔiklo:ˈba-l fox-npn (root must be derived historically) Hill 2010:26 no info 2 2 no info hunted men for pelt, used for quiver, etc. 0 0 Americas Diverse habitats no
frog (generic) flora-fauna wōhnāl wo:hˈna:l large kind of frog unique broader (includes toad) other complex wo:hˈna:-l frog.sp-npn Hill 2010:121 no info 2 2 Voegelin 1938:12 no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Western North America wetlands, lakes, ponds, streams no
golden eagle flora-fauna Aquila chrysaetos āshawwütt ʔa:ʃaˈwɨt (golden) eagle, Aquila chrysaetos inheritance *ʔasa-wɨ-ta Californian S719 (Stubbs 2009:131) same derived ʔa:ʃa-ˈwɨ-t eagle-augmentative-npn Hill 2010:11 no info 1 a story character and “a chief in the mythical age” (Voegelin 1938:21); feathers in wands, armlets 2 “A difference of opinion” (Voegelin 1938:12) no info hunted men eaglets captured and raised for feathers; birds set free when too big and scary to handle (Voegelin 1938:21). Adult eagles snared and killed for feathers 0 1 North America They like cliffs, tall trees for nesting no
gooseberry flora-fauna Ribes spp. woppul woˈpul gooseberry, Ribes quercetorum unique There are lots of NUA *po- berry words -- no /wo/, though same other complex woˈpu-l gooseberry.npn Hill 2010:123 no info 2 1 no info gathered (wild) all eaten raw, or boiled, ground and stored as cakes 0 0 diverse species in California chaparral, woodland no
gopher snake, bull snake flora-fauna Pituophis catenifer tüpappul tɨbaˈpul gopher snake unique same derived tɨbaˈ-pu-l snake.sp-deriv.suffix-npn (tɨ-ba is probably rock-on historically tuhhatt Hill 2010:95 no info 2 2 no reptiles eaten (Voegelin 1938:6) no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Southern Canada to Mexico Diverse habitats no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) māshil, masshil ma:ˈʃil grass/deer grass (Epicampes rigens), grass, weeds inheritance *maha-si Northern Uto-Aztecan S1033 (Stubbs 2009:167) and see also 1614 broader (includes non-used herbs as well as grass) other complex ma:ˈʃi-l grass-npn Hill 2010:44 no info 0 0 seeds no info gathered (wild but closely managed) women seeds parched, mixed with other seeds, mixed with water as gruel 0 0 N/A N/A no
grasshopper flora-fauna Caelifera ka'awüt kaʔaˈwɨt grasshopper unique Note: (Merriam gives sah'-kah-kah-wah “red-winged grasshopper” 60-143 for Wanikik Cahuilla same other complex kaʔaˈwɨ-t grasshopper-nph (may contain augmentative) Hill 2010:33 no info 2 1 Voegelin 1938:12 no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 global Diverse habitats no
gray ground squirrel flora-fauna Sphermophilus sp. tsawānünt ʦawa:ˈnɨnt Gray squirrel, Scurius griseus unique same other complex ʦawa:ˈnɨn-t ground.squirrel-npn (root may have derivation) Hill 2010:90 no info 2 1 no info hunted men roasted on coals, bones ground 0 0 North America Diverse habitats no
gray tree squirrel flora-fauna Sciurus spp. üshükal ʔɨʃɨˈgal blue squirrel, possibly the chickaree, Tamiascurius douglassii inheritance *sika-(wV) Northern Uto-Aztecan S2094 (Stubbs 2009:288); not quite correspondent; may be very early loan into NUA; note similar Yokuts forms in Kroeber's “ground squirrel” list same other complex ʔɨʃɨˈga-l blue.squirrel-npn Hill 2010:109 no info 2 1 no info hunted men roasted on coals, bones ground 0 0 Western North America woodlands no
great horned owl flora-fauna Bubo virginianus muhhumpisht muhumˈbiʃt horned owl, great-horned owl inheritance *muhuN- Uto-Aztecan S1542 (Stubbs 2009:227), do NOT include Raramuri form with mo- same derived muhumˈ-biʃ-t sound-ind-npn Hill 2010:48 no info 1 Owl is a supernatural being, a yümükīwal, and must be treated with respect 2 Voegelin 1938:12 no info hunted men for feathers for arrow fletching (Voegelin 1938:28) 0 1 Americas Diverse habitats (less common in extreme deserts) no
grizzly bear flora-fauna Ursus arctos horribilis ūnal ʔu:ˈnal bear, Grizzly bear inheritance *hula- Uto-Aztecan S105 (Stubbs 2009:53) broader (includes all bears) other complex ʔu:ˈna-l bear-npn Hill 2010:102 no info 1 Bear is a supernatural being, a yümükīwal, and must be treated with respect 2 “A difference of opinion” (Voegelin 1938:12) no info hunted men roasted, skin, claws kept although bearkin robes said to be “too heavy” -- they were good for cutting boards, pounding surfaces because thick 0 0 Western North America chaparral, woodland yes
horned toad flora-fauna Phrynosomatidae mah-kah-seet' 72-79, 60-497 ma:kaˈsit (?) horned toad loan Kawaiisu S1333 *makaCta (Stubbs 2009:202) have all attestations in Numic. Kawaiisu makaca-zi seems like an excellent candidate for source word same other complex ma:kaˈsi-t horned.toad-npn http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n479/mode/2up; p. 497 no info 2 2 no reptiles eaten (Voegelin 1938:6) no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Western U.S. and Mexico hot, dry, sandy areas no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus pungkul puŋˈgul possessed animal or bird; dog; horse inheritance *puNku- Uto-Aztecan S38 (Stubbs 2009:43) broader (this is “domestic animal, pet”) other complex puŋˈgu-l pet-npn Hill 2010:75 no info 0 0 no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 global with humans no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae oo-le'-bit, oo-leet' 72-77, 60-493 ʔuli:ˈbit (?) hummingbird loan Southern Sierra Miwok SSM li:ci:cint (this is from PSM, same form in NSM, CSM) same derived ʔuli:ˈ-bi-t hummingbird-diminutive-npn chikkīt http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n479/mode/2up; p. 493 no info 0 0 no info hunted all roasted on coals, bones ground (some consultants denied Tub. ate eggs before Whites) 0 0 Americas Diverse habitats no
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana spp. shokohnt ʃoˈgohnt tobacco, Nicotiana bigelovii and N. attenuata loan Yokuts a Yok-Utian etymon, broadly distributed in California and in Numic WW %sokon broader (includes plant and several preparations) other complex ʃoˈgohn-t tpbacco-npn Hill 2010:79 no info 1 used to seek spirit familiar 1 1 diverse uses for curing gathered (wild but closely managed) women diverse preparations: mixed with lime as chaw, snuff; smoked crushed leaves. VERY closely managed at the level of semi-cultivation 1 0 prepared tobacco used in exchange Americas Diverse habitats no
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic tohhawal tohaˈwal bug, generic term for insect semantic shift *toka “spider” (in SUA) Uto-Aztecan S2055 (Stubbs 2009:285), he has only in SUA narrower (includes nameless insects, not named ones) other complex tohaˈwa-l bug-npn Hill 2010:88 no info 0 0 Voegelin 1938:12 no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 N/A N/A no
junco flora-fauna Junco sppp missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
juniper flora-fauna Juniperus californica wa'atul waʔaʹdul Juniper inheritance *waʔaC- Northern Uto-Aztecan S414 (Stubbs 2009:94) same derived waʔaʹd-u-l juniper-deriv.suffix-npn Hill 2010:114 no info 2 1 berries boiled fresh; when dry and fully rpie seeded by hand, fleshpounded inpit mortars and eaten raw (Voegelin 1938:18) no info gathered (wild) all see food notes 0 0 North America abundant 3000-4500 feet no
louse flora-fauna order Phtiraptera nahāl naˈha:l louse, lice unique S 1361 *nawi but only na- is match, so not good same other complex naˈha:-l louse-npn Hill 2010:51 no info 2 0 Voegelin 1938:12 no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Americas on people's hair no
mallard flora-fauna Anas platyrhynchos kulāpisht kula:ˈbiʃt mallard, Anas fulvigula unique broader (includes geese; prototype is mallard, most common duck) derived kula:-ˈbiʃ-t duck-ind-npn Hill 2010:36 no info 2 1 no info hunted men roasted on coals, bones ground (some consultants denied Tub. ate eggs before Whites) 0 0 global wetlands and open water no
manzanita flora-fauna Arctostaphylos spp. kü:nal kɨ:ˈnal Arctostaphyllos sp. (manzanita) unique Really ought to be relatable to S1635, Takic *kita- same other complex kɨ:ˈna-l manzanita-npn Hill 2010:2 (English index only) no info 2 1 berries no info gathered (wild) all berries eaten in “lemonade” and other preparations 0 0 Western North America chaparral, edges of woodlands no
milkweed, broad leaf flora-fauna Asclepias eriocarpa pollolīwapü:l pololi:waˈbɨ:l gum plant, Asclepias erosa unique same derived pololi:wa-ˈbɨ:-l milkweed-deriv.suffix-npn Hill 2010:72 no info 2 1 chewing gum 1 juice rubbed on warts to make them disappear gathered (wild) all gum from boiled sap, sucked out of reed tubes 0 0 California and adjacent Nevada and Baja California dry barren areas 200-1900 m (Jepson Herbarium site) no
milkweed, narrow leaf flora-fauna Asclepias fascicularis yūwil ju:ˈwil string, buckskin thong (see species notes) unique probably from UA *yu “hair, cornsilk” plus wi- “fiber” same other complex ju:ˈwi-l milkweed.sp-npn (historically, wi-l “twine” Hill 2010:129 no info 0 1 no info gathered (wild) women mainly for fiber; may have provided pot greens from young shoots 0 0 Inland California to Washington, Baja California dry areas, slopes, 50-2200 m (Jepson Herbarium) no
mission tule flora-fauna Juncus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
mockingbird flora-fauna Mimus polyglottos tsahl 72-807, 60-491 ˈʦa:l mockingbird unique same other complex ˈʦa:-l mockingbird-npn chikkīt http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n479/mode/2up; p. 491 no info 2 1 no info hunted men roasted on coals, bones ground (some consultants denied Tub. ate eggs before Whites) 0 0 North America, Mexico diverse habitats (they like habitats with high places to perch, and don't like pine trees) no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera pesht ˈpeʃt mosquito unique not correspondent with pich- words for “fly” same other complex ˈpeʃ-t Hill 2010:68 no info 0 0 Voegelin 1938:12 no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 global Diverse habitats no
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna Heterocera missing missing missing 2 0 Voegelin 1938:12 0 0 0 Americas Diverse habitats no
mountain lion flora-fauna Puma concolor tūkūkwüt tu:gu:gˈwɨt mountain lion inheritance *tuCkuC-wɨ Californian S1306b (Stubbs 2009;200); widespread Californianism WW %tuku same derived tu:gu:g-ˈwɨ-t mountain.lion-augmentative-npn Hill 2010:93 no info 1 I'm sure is special, but not noted in Voegelin's lists 2 no info hunted men roasted, pelt for diverse uses 0 0 North America diverse habitas (prefers uplands) yes
mountain quail flora-fauna Oreortyx pictus tūkt ˈtu:kt mountain quail unique same other complex ˈtu:k-t mountain.quail-npn chikkīt Hill 2010:93 no info 2 topknots in feather wand carried at burning 1 no info hunted men roasted on coals, bones ground (some consultants denied Tub. ate eggs before Whites) 0 0 US west of Rockies and Baja California chaparral no
mussel flora-fauna Mytilus spp. chono, sho'ono p. 78 ʧoˈno (freshwater) mussel, freshwater clam unique narrower (freshwater mussel; I don't know if it includes imported “spoon” shells) underived Hill 2010:17 no info 2 1 “obtained near Kernville” (Voegelin 1938:11) no info gathered (wild) no info no info 0 1 West coast North America cold coastal waters no
olivella (olive snail) flora-fauna Callianax biplicata missing missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 1 no
pinyon jay flora-fauna Cyanocitta stelleri? ah'-ahlCH ʔaˈʔahl (?) Pinyon Jay unique This may be a mistake. It looks like verbs for “talk” and is closer to common words for “crow” same other complex ʔaˈʔah-l jay.sp-npn (talker??) chikkīt http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n479/mode/2up; p. 489 no info 2 1 no info hunted men roasted on coals, bones ground (some consultants denied Tub. ate eggs before Whites) 0 0 Western North America Foothills where pinyon groves occur no
pinyon pine flora-fauna Pinus monophylla tüpatt tɨˈbat nuts from pinyon pine; pinyon pine, Pinus monophylla inheritance *tɨpat Northern Uto-Aztecan S1583 (Stubbs 2009:231). This is probably a loan into Proto-NUA from Proto-Kiowa-Tanoan (Hill 2008 broader (includes tree and nuts) other complex tɨˈba-t pinyon-npn Hill 2010:97 no info 2 1 no info gathered (wild) all ripe (but unopened) cones roasted, nuts removed, dried, cached 0 1 traded to Chumash for beads Southwestern U.S. and Mexico In pinyon-juniper woodland, 3500-9000 feet (for P. monophylla), 2500-8000 feet (for P. quadrifolia). Rocky hills and slopes. no
pismo clam flora-fauna Tivella stultorum tukumpal tugumˈbal sky, white clamshell disks semantic shift *tukuN-pa “sky” Northern Uto-Aztecan S1985a (Stubbs 2009?276) narrower (does not refer to the animal or its shell, probably only to be disks strung as money) other complex tugumˈba-l sky/shell.disk-npn (historically, tukum-pa'an- “sky-on”) Hill 2010:24 no info 2 clam disks used as offerings 1 no info N/A N/A N/A 0 1 these obtained from Chumash, apparently directly Pacific Coast roughly Monterrey-Baja sandy beaches in surf zone no
pocket gopher flora-fauna Thomomys muyyampisht mujamˈbiʃt gopher inheritance *mɨjɨN- Northern Uto-Aztecan S1009 (Stubbs 2009:164); not quite correspondent same derived mujam-ˈbiʃ-t gopher-ind-npn Hill 2010:50 no info 2 1 no info hunted men roasted on coals, bones ground 0 0 North America Diverse habitats no
poison oak flora-fauna Toxicodendron diversilobum yah-wŭt' 72-79, 60-505 ʔɨja:ˈwɨt (?) Poison Oak, Toxicodencron diversiblobum inheritance *ʔɨjaa- Californian S1506 (Stubbs 2009:224) Huasteca Nahuatl iyatl “tobacco”is ridiculous. Kitanemuk ʔɨycič should be in. First vowel is central. same other complex ʔɨja:ˈwɨ-t poison.oak-npn http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n479/mode/2up; p. 505 no info 2 2 no N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Pacific coast Canada to Baja California Likes damp, shady areas, chaparral yes
rattlesnake flora-fauna Crotalus spp. shümmünt ʃɨˈmɨnt rattlesnake inheritance *samɨnɨ Uto-Aztecan S2011b (Stubbs 2009:280), should combine with 2011a same other complex ʃɨˈmɨn-t rattlesnake.npn Hill 2010:81 no info 1 Rattlesnake is a supernatural being, a yümükīwal, and must be treated with respect 2 no reptiles eaten (Voegelin 1938:6) no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Southern Canada south Diverse habitats yes
red ant flora-fauna Solenopsis spp anünt ʔaˈnɨnt red ant, yellow ant inheritance *ʔalɨN- Uto-Aztecan S44 (Stubbs 2009:44) broader (includes yellow ants) other complex ʔaˈnɨn-t red.ant-npn Hill 2010:9 no info 1 live ants wrapped in balls of eagle down swallowed for visions 0 Voegelin 1938:12 1 live ants wrapped in balls of eagle down swallowed for ailments gathered (wild) men see notes 0 “the effect produced when the ants bit the lining of the stomach was similar to that produced by drinking jimsonweed” (Voegelin 1938:5) 0 Americas Diverse habitats no
red-shouldered blackbird flora-fauna Agelaius phoeniceus tsakkīpü:l ʦaki:ˈbɨ:l blackbird loan Yokuts Nim-Yokuts *č'ax (Golla 1964:60) WW %chak same derived ʦaki:ˈ-bɨ:-l blackbird-deriv.suffix-npn chikkīt Hill 2010:89 no info 2 1 no info hunted men roasted on coals, bones ground (some consultants denied Tub. ate eggs before Whites) 0 0 North and Central America Open grassy areas, prefers wetlands, but also found in dry upland meadows no
red-tailed hawk flora-fauna Buteo jamaicensis wā'al wa:ˈʔal large hawk inheritance *kwa7a- Uto-Aztecan S716 (Stubbs 2009:131) same other complex wa:ˈʔa-l hawk-npn Hill 2010:114 no info 2 Hawk is a supernatural being, a yümükīwal, and must be treated with respect 2 Voegelin 1938:12 no info hunted men for feathers for arrow fletching (Voegelin 1938:28) 0 0 Americas Mixed forest and field no
roadrunner flora-fauna Geococcyx californianus üyhyümpisht ʔɨjhjɨmˈbiʃt roadrunner, Geococcyx californianus loan Yokuts Proto-NimYokuts *ʔoyʔoy (Golla 1964); UA roadrunners say puypuy WW %uji same derived ʔɨjhjɨmˈ-biʃ-t goes.uy-indiv-npn chikkīt Hill 2010:113 no info 2 1 Voegelin 1938:12; disgusting because they eat lizards no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Southwestern U.S. to Central America desert areas no
ruddy duck flora-fauna Oxyura jamaicensis missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
sage herb flora-fauna Artemisia californica missing (not found this far east) missing missing 2 2 1 0 0 no
salmon/steelhead flora-fauna Oncorhynchus mykiss ha”yahl haʔayahl trout unique same other complex haʔayah-l trout-npn Hill 2010:22 no info 2 1 no info hunted all used fish traps (men), poison (everybody), diverse preparations, mainly roasting on coals 0 0 West coast North America to roughly San Diego anadromous; rivers with coastal outlets no
scaly lizard flora-fauna Pygopus lepidopodus? shikkol ʃiˈkol lizard semantic shift *siko- “stinkbug” Californian S312 (Stubbs 2009:83); alwas reduplicated as sisko in “stinkbug”, perhaps that's the shift from “lizard”. broader (includes several kinds of lizard, more like English “lizard, generic”) other complex ʃiˈko-l lizard-npn Hill 2010:78 no info 2 2 no reptiles eaten (Voegelin 1938:6) no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Americas Diverse habitats no
small bird flora-fauna chikkīt ʧiˈki:t bird (also “small bird” in Merriam) loan Southern Sierra Miwok Callaghan 2001 SSM cicka is Yok-Utian broader (includes more than songbirds -- see “bird”)) other complex ʧiˈki:-t bird-npn Hill 2010:16 no info 2 1 Voegelin (1938:12) mentions that Tub. did not eat meadowlarks because they thought they were cute and felt sorry for them N/A N/A N/A N/A 0 0 N/A N/A no
small brown lizard flora-fauna chi-le-vit 72-811; 60-497 with chi-le-bit ʧayliˈbit small brown lizard (Uta) unique Note Yawelmani Yokuts Tesa'ay (Kroeber 1961:205) no info derived ʧayli-ˈbi-t lizard.sp-diminutive-npn http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n479/mode/2up; p. 497 no info 2 2 no reptiles eaten (Voegelin 1938:6) no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Western North America desert areas no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna tuhhatt tuˈhat water snake (see species notes) inheritance *tahu Northern Uto-Aztecan S2015 (Stubbs 2009:280); seems reasonable to include in the set narrower (does not include rattlesnakes) other complex tuˈha-t snake-npn Hill 2010:92 no info 0 1 no reptiles eaten (Voegelin 1938:6) no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Americas Diverse habitats no
soaproot flora-fauna Chlorogalum hōlōhpü:l ho:lo:hˈbɨ:l Soaproot, Lathoe pomeridiana, used for shampoo unique same derived ho:lo:h-ˈbɨ:-l soaproot-deriv.suffix-npn Hill 2010:24) no info 2 1 no info gathered (wild) women root chopped and mashed for shampoo; fibers from root for brushes 0 0 Southwest Oregon, California rock bluffs, grasslands, chaparral no
sour berry flora-fauna Rhus trilobata shü:l ˈʃɨ:l weft or warp material for coiled baskets inheritance *sɨ(ta) Californian Note Cahuilla selet, Gabrielino sorat, Kitanemuk. hɨč broader (includes a particular stem type from several plants) other complex ˈʃɨ:-l warp-npn Hill 2010:80 no info 2 1 some people considered berries too sour -- mainly a basketry plant no info gathered (wild but closely managed) women used for warp and weft of baskets for dark red color 0 0 Western North America chaparral to 3500 feet no
sparrow hawk flora-fauna Falco liklīkīpitt likli:gi:ˈbit a story character loan Southern Sierra Miwok SSM lekleksa (and note Nutuntu Yokuts likik WW %kili same derived likli:gi:-ˈbi-t hawk.sp-diminutive-npn Hill 2010:40 no info 2 Hawk is a supernatural being, a yümükīwal, and must be treated with respect 2 Voegelin 1938:12 no info hunted men for feathers for arrow fletching (Voegelin 1938:28) 0 0 Americas Diverse habitats no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae shūyal ʃu:ˈjal spider inheritance *sujV- Northern Uto-Aztecan S1841 (Stubbs 2009:260) “scorpion, sting” same other complex ʃu:ˈja-l spider-npn Hill 2010:81 no info 0 0 Voegelin 1938:12 no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Americas Diverse habitats no
spotted skunk flora-fauna Spilogale gracilis ponnihw ponˈnihw skunk inheritance *po(C)ni Northern Uto-Aztecan S1983 (Stubbs 2009:275); see discussion of possible UA etymology that I don't care for broader (includes all skunks) underived Hill 2010:73 no info 2 2 Voegelin 1938:12 no info N/A N/A seems like skins might have been used but I found no info 0 0 Western U.S. Diverse habitats no
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna Bufonidae wōhnāl wo:hˈna:l large kind of frog unique broader (includes frog) other complex wo:hˈna:-l frog.sp-npn Hill 2010:121 no info 2 2 Voegelin 1938:12 no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Americas Diverse habitats no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) u'ut ʔuˈʔut cottonwood; tree (generic) inheritance *hu- Uto-Aztecan S63 (Stubbs 2009:47) broader (includes tree, wood, firewood, etc.. Would not be used for a named tree type.) other complex ʔuˈʔu-t tree-npn Hill 2010:105 no info 0 0 N/A N/A N/A N/A 0 0 N/A N/A no
tree yucca flora-fauna Yucca schidegera umūpü:l ʔumu:ˈbɨ:l Joshua tree, Yucca brevifolia inheritance *amu(wV) Uto-Aztecan S4 (Stubbs 2009:40) same derived ʔumu:-ˈbɨ:-l yucca.sp-deriv.suffix-npn Hill 2010:102 no info 2 1 pods no info gathered (wild) all pods boiled whole 0 0 Mojave and Sonoran Deserts (and obviously nearby Coast Ranges in dry areas) rocky slopes, creosote flats, 300-1200m (rarely up to 2500m) no
turkey buzzard flora-fauna Cathartes aura wishokkompisht wiʃokomˈbiʃt turkey vulture or buzzard, Cathartes aura inheritance *wisoko Northern Uto-Aztecan note Hopi wisoko and widespread wi- forms in UA, perhaps from an even older loan; see discussion at Hill/Miller *wi-08 same derived wiʃokom-ˈbiʃ-t vulture-ind-npn Hill 2010:121 no info 2 has a song 2 Voegelin 1938:12 no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Americas Diverse habitats no
turtle (generic) flora-fauna Testudines kōyōt ko:ˈjo:t turtle unique Probably from *ko-ya-wɨ (or something like that); needs work. cf. koikoyoT, in several forms of Yokuts, but does not reconstruct to Yokutsan or Yok-Utian same other complex ko:ˈjo:-t turtle-npn Hill 2010:35 no info 2 2 “A difference of opinion” (Voegelin 1938:12) no info hunted all no info 0 1 Western North America Diverse habitats no
valley live oak flora-fauna Quercus agrifolia wa'anul waʔaˈnul Canyon live oak, Quercus chrysolepsis inheritance *wi7a(N) Northern Uto-Aztecan S2507b (Stubbs 2009:224); vocalism bad but first /a/ could just be harmony across the glottal stop. Surely it is this etymon. same other complex waʔaˈnu-l q.chrysolepsis-npn (really has -u- deriv. suffix but perhaps not synchronic) Hill 2010:115 no info 2 1 no info gathered (wild but closely managed) all acorns shelled, ground into flour, leached, prepared in diverse ways 0 1 Southwestern U.S. to Sierra Nevada up to 2700 meters, likes north-facing slopes in hot areas, tolerant of steep slopes, rocky soil no
valley oak flora-fauna Quercus lobata shīpī'ül ʃi:bi:ˈʔɨl Valley Oak, Quercus lobata inheritance *siˈpiC- Uto-Aztecan S1511 (Stubbs 2009:224), to which add Gabrielino sa-veCH (Merriam). This is a very conservative item. same other complex ʃi:bi:ˈʔɨ-l valley.oak-npn (root perhaps a loan? See Kitanemuk shef) Hill 2010:79 no info 2 1 no info gathered (wild but closely managed) all acorns shelled, ground into flour, leached, prepared in diverse ways 0 1 sometimes traded from Yokuts Southwest Oregon, California to Tehachapis, also on Channel Islands valley floors, riparian areas no
valley quail flora-fauna Callipepla californica takkāh taˈkah California quail, Valley quail, Callipepla californica loan no information A very widespread Californianism, showing up only in Tubatulabal in Californian; all others have expected *kakaC WW %kaka same underived taˈkah (ultimately sound-imitative) chikkīt Hill 2010:83 no info 2 topknots in feather wand carried at burning 1 no info hunted men roasted on coals, bones ground (some consultants denied Tub. ate eggs before Whites) 0 0 Far west North America to British Columbia open woodlands, chaparral no
Washington clam flora-fauna Saxidomus nuttalli missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
Western Canada goose flora-fauna Branta canadensis pāwilīkant pa:wili:iˈgant a white-faced goose, possibly snow goose or Ross's goose unique Stubbs 2009:130 (S709) links to Hopi pa:wikya “duck”; they have only pa: in common. Tub. word probably reflects pa:-witikV, but correspondences are not regular same other complex pa:wili:iˈgan-t goose.sp-npn (root is surely complex historically) kulāpisht Hill 2010:67 no info 0 1 no info hunted men roasted on coals, bones ground (some consultants denied Tub. ate eggs before Whites) 0 0 North America open fields, wetlands no
whale flora-fauna Eschrichtius robustus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
white pelican flora-fauna Pelicanus erythrorhynchos missing missing missing 0 2 0 0 0 no
wild grapevine flora-fauna Vitis californica wōlōnt wo:ˈlo:nt Wild grape, Vitis californica unique same other complex wo:ˈlo:n-t grapes-npn Hill 2010:122 no info 2 1 no info gathered (wild) all eaten raw, or boiled, ground and stored as cakes 0 0 Southwest Oregon, California common along streams and in canyon bottoms below 4000 feet no
wild oats flora-fauna Avena (introduction) māsht ˈma:ʃt wild oats, a species of seed semantic shift *maha-si Northern Uto-Aztecan S1033 (Stubbs 2009:167) and see also 1614 same other complex ˈma:ʃ-t wild.oats-npn Hill 2010:43 no info 2 1 seeds no info gathered (wild but closely managed) women seeds parched, mixed with other seeds, mixed with water as gruel 0 0 Americas Common up to about 3500 feet; abundant since at least 1835 no
wild rose flora-fauna Rosa californica ki'-yah-ahl' 72-819, 60-503 ka:jaˈʔal (?) wild rose, Rosa californica unique Note Lu. kaya:t “southern Tauschia” (an umbel) same other complex ka:jaˈʔa-l wild.rose-npn http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n479/mode/2up; p. 503 no info 0 1 no info gathered (wild) all fruits eaten raw, or in tea, or ground 0 0 Oregon, California, northern Baja California moist areas, cienegas, along streams no
wild sunflower flora-fauna Helianthus (and other genera) tālattāwkipü:l ta:lata:wgiˈbɨ:l sunflower, sunflower seeds unique probably calque from Spanish girasol?? narrower (perhaps domestic sunflower only) derived ta:la-ta:wgi-ˈbɨ:-l sun-look.at-deriv.suffix-npn (perhaps a nonce form) Hill 2010:84 no info 0 1 no info planted (intensive maintenance) women seeds parched, mixed with other seeds, mixed with water as gruel 0 0 North America Diverse habitats no
willow flora-fauna Salix spp. sāhat sa:ˈhat willow, Salix laevigata inheritance *sakat Uto-Aztecan S1023 (Stubbs 2009:166) WW %saka same other complex sa:ˈha-t willow-npn Hill 2010:77 no info 2 2 mainly for baskets, matting, etc. no info gathered (wild) women basketry 0 0 Southwestern U.S. and Mexico Along streams and in wet places below 2000 feet no
wood rat, round-tail flora-fauna Neotoma spp. hawal haˈwal woodrat inheritance *kawa- Northern Uto-Aztecan S1423 (Stubbs 2009:242) same other complex haˈwa-l woodrat-npn Hill 2010:22 no info 2 1 no info hunted men roasted on coals, bones ground 0 0 Western U.S., northern Mexico Diverse habitats no
worm, hairy caterpillar flora-fauna Arctiidae (many species) ah'-ling pun-goon “caterpillar” 72-815, 60-499 ʔa:ˈliŋ pɨnˈgu:n (?) caterpillar unique no info phrase ʔa:ˈl-iŋ pɨnˈgu:-n crow(?)-genitive pet-possessed “X's pet” http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n479/mode/2up; p. 499 no info 2 2 Voegelin 1938:12 no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Americas Diverse habitats no
worm, smooth caterpillar flora-fauna Trichoplusia ni (?) cabbage looper pi'akünt piʔaˈgɨnt tobacco worm inheritance *piʔakɨC Northern Uto-Aztecan S2527 (Stubbs 2009:338) same other complex piʔaˈgɨn-t tobacco.worm-npn Hill 2010:48 no info 2 2 Voegelin 1938:12 no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Americas Diverse habitats no
yellow jacket flora-fauna Vespula spp., Dolichovespula spp. wewwehyül wewehˈjɨl yellow jacket unique Stubbs (S162; 2009:62) suggests with Lu. waawa-la “mud wasp”, Cup wa'walim “yellowjacket”. Maybe. same other complex wewehˈjɨ-l yellowjacket-nph (root probably has reduplication) Hill 2010:118 no info 2 a story character 0 Voegelin 1938:12 no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Americas Diverse habitats no
yellowbird flora-fauna Dendroica petechia missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
yerba santa flora-fauna Eriodictyon californicum wool-loo'-ye-pŭl 72-79; also sil-le'-ă-pul 72-821, 60-505 both wulu:yyiˈpü:l (?) Yerba santa unique same derived wulu:yyi-ˈpü:-l Yerba.sants-deriv.suffix-npn http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n479/mode/2up; p. 505 no info 2 1 1 gathered (wild) women no info, but used everywhere in tea for diverse ailments 0 0 Oregon, California Diverse habitats no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna paanynt “generic term” inheritance Jane Hill
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna chikkiit loan Jane Hill
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna pitchookisht “horsefly” loan direction unknown Jane Hill
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna pukkupisht, loan Jane Hill
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna mashil inheritance Jane Hill
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna tohhii-l loan Jane Hill
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna shymmynt “rattlesnake” inheritance Jane Hill
spider araña aranha flora-fauna shuujaal inheritance Jane Hill


Cultural Vocabulary (115)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
acorn mush food chāmi-l acorn mush or gravy unique other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
ball game food pāwāshil shinny game unique could this be related to Cup. Pawxan 'club, bat'?? other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology Āpōnōlīmak Land of the Dead unique other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
feather headband dress annampül headband of magpie feathers unique other complex Jane Hill
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool pāhūl arrow, war arrow, bullet inheritance *huca Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 63 with pa- "big" other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
arrow straightener other ūkisht heated stone arrow straightener unique contains huu 'arrow'?? other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool tü:hatt fish bait loan Numic Could this be Stubbs 1235, from Numic *tyha 'to hunt'?? other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
school escuela escola acculturation ishkwele7 school loan Spanish WW %escuela simplex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
stone bowl culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material hommol cooking basket inheritance *komi Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 99b "pot, back of tortoise, back" other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material hommopit small coiled basket inheritance *komi Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 99b "pot, back of tortoise, back" derived, other complex K. Hill Eng>Tb Jane Hill
basketry hat culture-material pongkat basket hat, worn by women unique Stubbs 1711 *apoko?? other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material tukumpal sky; bead, beads, white clamshell disks inheritance *tukuN-pa Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 2032a, related to b) other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
ochre culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
bow arco arco subsistence tool ālitt bow, gun inheritance *aCta Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 275 other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
canoe canoa canoa transport missing missing Jane Hill
carrying net subsistence tool tsampahal carrying net unique other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
bottle botella garrafa acculturation iwwat water basket, bottle unique other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
paper papel papel acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology timmiwwal chief unique other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress talūmatt breechcloth inheritance *taLumaC Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 255 other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
cook food food tükkikūy'at to cook loan Numic kātsat 'cook by boiling' other complex foor-? K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
corpse food mukut dead person inheritance *mukki Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 655 other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
dance (generic) culture-mythology mūluwat to dance inheritance *muLawi Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 637 other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology Pangattal God ("above the sun") unique CHM has man-nā'-sar 'the world maker, an old woman who had 5 brothers' (this is Gab manisar 'capitana' and maybe the manit woman 49:277 derived, other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool ūlūynīl digging stick loan Sierra Miwok CHM has nahhatil 49:267, K. Hill also has 'digging stick', p. 133 derived, other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
dipper subsistence tool hommopit ladle, basketry ladle for the cooking basket inheritance *komi Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 99b "pot, back of tortoise, back" derived, other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology tummūka to dream inheritance *ty-mukki Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 714; noun is untummūkappül 135 simplex root; complex diachronically only K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
drone pipe culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
chicken gallina galinha acculturation ōywal chicken loan unknown note Mins 7awa7:awle-, awa7:awli- 'chicken'. Source??? other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
earring other nangkawilli'at earrings unique nas nangka 'ear' compound, derived, other complex ear-wili (what is that?) either wil'in 'hang' or wilat 'skirt feathers'??? K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology āpawwinal devil, ghost, soul unique other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
fire drill subsistence tool ātāwāyisht drill of fire drill unique derived, other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
fire-tender culture-mythology po'anappü:l fire tender unique derived, other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
fireplace hogar lareira other po-ist' fireplace unique other complex Merriam 49:263 Jane Hill
firewood leña lenha other kuttukatt firewood inheritance *kut-ta Northern Uto-Azteca Stubbs 2011 2408 other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food welēhanat to fish inheritance *kwyty Uto-Aztecan Hill/Miller kwy-07 'carry, catch with hand' derived, other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food wīshat catch with cord, rope, fishline inheritance *wik Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1843; yu- is the 'hair' root derived, other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fish hook subsistence tool welēhanisht fish hook inheritance *kwyty Uto-Aztecan see 'fish with poison' derived, other complex from 'catch' word K. Hill Tub>Eng Jane Hill
acorn bread food tappishīl, tapshīl Note: pp, mm etc. do not lenite to b, w, etc. But 'p' >b, ts > dz, etc. Sh is š, ch is č. Macrons are long. bread unique Unpublished compilation of all sources with Tb. Lexicon; this is July 2010 version other complex K. Hill Tub>Eng Jane Hill
wheat food missing missing Jane Hill
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology lūlu'isht flute loan Southern Sierra Miwok Stubbs 912 has with *wiLu (PNUA), he says this is just the second syllable reduplicated. But is clearly Miwokan loan (similar forms elsewhere in north other complex K. Hill Tub>Eng Jane Hill
gambling sticks other tūpisht stick used for guessing in the hand game called tūppimīl CHM 49:281) inheritance *typo- Californian see Serrano; tah-tsă-hahn-ist gambling sticks Merriam 49:281 other complex K. Hill Tub>Eng Jane Hill
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food missing missing Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology āpawwinal ghost unique other complex K. Hill Tub>Eng Jane Hill
glue subsistence tool āwating pān glue ("horn soup") unique phrase K. Hill Tub>Eng Jane Hill
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology tusshikāl grave, unique tūshikal 'burial place' other complex K. Hill Tub>Eng Jane Hill
alcohol food missing missing Jane Hill
Datura wrightii narcotics mōmōht, mōmoht Datura meteloides, Jimsonweed, toloache loan Ventureno Chumash J. Hill 2011; ultimately Gab/Lu, into Chumashan WW %moji ~ %moni other complex K. Hill Tub>Eng Jane Hill
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology ātsowāl shaman, curing shaman (male only), witch; doctor, physician unique maybe related to Numic tso7a 'spirit, ghost' words???pahām'weather shaman' other complex K. Hill Tub>Eng Jane Hill
honey miel mel food missing missing Jane Hill
house other hannīl house inheritance *kaNLi Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1213 other complex K. Hilll Tb>Eng Jane Hill
hunt cazar caçar food tohhat to hunt loan Numic Stubbs 2011 1235 other complex K. Hilll Tb>Eng Jane Hill
initiate boy culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
initiate girl culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
knife cuchillo faca culture-material pikat knife inheritance *pikkaC Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1266 other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
mat culture-material paht tule mat, mat made from whole dried tules inheritance *paka Uto-Aztecan Hill/Miller pa-31 other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool kūppahhal portable mortar inheritance *paha Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1085 phrase, other complex wood-mortar K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
necklace other ho'-naht CHM's ' is stress necklace of shells inheritance *koLoka Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1505 WW %xene other complex Merriam 49:261 Jane Hill
needle/awl subsistence tool ninga'atol awl unique wüngapüt 'awl from cactus spine' other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
paddle/oar remo remo transport missing missing Jane Hill
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool poho'wal, pohōwal pestle loan *paha Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1085 with increment, is vowel from assim from /w/? WW %polwa other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
pinole food u'ūkil gruel unique hāyil 'thick gray-colored gruel' other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other wōshākinisht tobacco pipe, tubular pipe made of cane unique derived, other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
pitch food shānot pitch from pine inheritance *salaC Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1634 other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool kātsul pot of clay inheritance *kasa Uto-Aztecan Hill 2012 other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
quiver subsistence tool māshatt bag, sack, quiver for arrows unique same as 'bag, sack', homophone with 'antelope'; antelope scrotum used for bags other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology shālisht dew-claw rattle unique could this be a variant of stubbs 1930 with loss of /w/?? Also pātsō'alkinisht 'cocoon rattle other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
red paint culture-mythology yahhawāl red earth or clay (Merriam 'red paint' 49:261) unique other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
salt sal sal food ungāl salt inheritance *omCa Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1865 other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
seed beater subsistence tool wālat seed beater loan unknown see Maidu walétky 'winnowing basket', but should be through intermediate lg., maybe Sierra Miwok other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology üttüsshal clothes inheritance *wytta Northern Uto-Aztecan might be a loan from W. Numic, Stubbs 2011 253b; note Yawlmani Suto:sol 'shirt' Newman 109 other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
sinew-backed bow subsistence tool ālitt tappanīl sinew-backed bow inheritance *aCta Uto-Aztecan with 'wrap' also inherited phrase K. Hill Tb>E Jane Hill
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material yāpil skirt (CHM says 'white woman's dress') unknown maybe Stubbs 493??? 'old time short skirt' -Nah-ween' Merriam 49:259 other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
snare subsistence tool mŏn-ahl trap, deadfall unique other complex Merriam 49:265 Jane Hill
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology āyānil song, singing inheritance *aya Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1492 derived, other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool mūsht fishing spear unknown maybe from 'shoot'??? other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
stirring stick food wōtō'li-l looped stirrer for acorn mush unique derived, other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture yūwil string, buckskin thong (of Milkweed, Merriam 49:267) inheritance *wik Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1843; yu- is the 'hair' root other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
bag, sack culture-material māshatt, māshal bag unique homophone with "antelope", as in Palewyami Yokuts other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
string of shell money other ōyatt money unique other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation hāpisht, asuka sugar, sweet semantic shift *pisa(L) Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 2259 other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
sweathouse other mūshatt sweathouse loan Yokuts WW %mosh other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
tell history culture-mythology tü'pinnuka'tawat tell myth unique other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
cremate culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
tobacco (native) narcotics sho'kohnt tobacco loan Yokuts WW %sokon other complex K. Hill Tub>Eng Jane Hill
tule boat transport nīht tule raft loan Southern Sierra Miwok perhaps loan, note Proto-Wintun *nuh, loaned into Maidu, Yuki -- might have reached Tub through Sierra Miwok but I don't have any words for tule raft from Eastern Miwok. Lake Miwok has this etyma set WW %nuh other complex K. Hill Tub>Eng Jane Hill
white paint culture-mythology ah-haht' white paint unique tsuyūl 'white rock or lime' in K.Hill other complex Merriam 49:261 Jane Hill
winnowing basket culture-material pū'isht winnowing tray unique could this be from pi7wa 'clean' Stubbs 2011 2495??? Merriam has waht 'circular winnower' 49:269 other complex K. Hill Tub>Eng Jane Hill
wood tray subsistence tool ūtsīl tule tray unique other complex K. Hill Tub>Eng Jane Hill
shoes zapatos sapatos dress wongkol shoes loan *woNko Uto-Aztecan Southern Sierra Miwok Stubbs 2011 1956, cognate is Mayo wok 'put on shoes'; CHM wah-haht' men's moccasins 49:261 WW %moko other complex K. Hill Tub>Eng Jane Hill
medicine narcotics tīpōhisht medicine, herb medicine unknown maybe from puha 'power'?? other complex K. Hill Tub>Eng Jane Hill
cradleboard culture-material umpuwal y-shaped cradle unique other complex K. Hill Tub>Eng Jane Hill
policeman polícia policía acculturation nahhakkannan sheriff, police, agent unique derived, other complex K. Hill Tub>Eng Jane Hill
soldier soldado soldado acculturation shünnü7ash (sg.) wattam (pl.) soldier unique Spanish maybe from soldado??? WW %soldado derived, other complex K. Hill Tub>Eng Jane Hill
corn food maysht corn loan Spanish Spanish WW %maiz other complex K. Hill Tub>Eng Jane Hill
beans food missing missing Jane Hill
cat gato gato acculturation nātü7 cat loan Spanish Spanish from an intermediate language WW %gato simplex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation āli-t gun, bow semantic shift *aCta Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 275 other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
hat sombero chapéu dress elēlinnat hat unique derived, other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
clapper acculturation kāpāpāynisht split-stick rattle unique derived, other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material wattangaa-n hanniiling “the top of the house” unique Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture tuumajuut, tyymi7at loan Jane Hill
bottom grinding stone manufacture pahal “mortar” (bedrock) loan direction unknown Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool uuluujniil (written uuluuyniil) loan Jane Hill
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture missing Jane Hill
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture pohoo(7)wal “pestle” loan direction unknown Jane Hill
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing Jane Hill
spearthrower subsistence tool aali-tt “bow” inheritance Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool paahuul “arrow” (are other kinds) inheritance Jane Hill
house other hannii-l inheritance Jane Hill


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
medium HG medium seasonal no