mountain lion

Semantic Field
flora-fauna
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
Meaning Portuguese

Languages

Language Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
Bankalachi Toloim Puma concolor we-hā'-chit Mountain lion, also jaguar loan Yokuts Proto-NimYokuts **wehe:sith (Golla 1964:63) same underived C. H. Merriam 72-77, 60-449 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone Puma concolor toja-tukku-ppiccyh Mountain lion (Felis hippolestes) doubtful calque *tukkuC English Stubbs 1306 (2008:200), with toja “mountain”; Comanche does this too same phrase mountain-wildcat Crapo 1976:112 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Cahuilla Puma concolor túkwet ˈtukwet mountain lion inheritance *tuCkuC-wɨ Californian S1306b (Stubbs 2009;200); note Chumash tuk'em' WW %tuku same derived tuku-wet (with augmentative suffix from tukut “wild cat”) -7aʃ "pet" Possessive classifier -7aʃ Seiler & Hioki 1979:220 A relative of humans “of uncertain degree” (Strong 1929:76). A Wildcat Moiety animal (Strong 1929:109) 1 One of the four oldest animals created by Mukat. Tukwet was a great shaman (Strong 1929:72) 2 only old people, shamans could eat (Bean 1972:63) no info hunted Men skins 0 0 North America, Mexico Diverse habitats (prefers uplands) yes
Central Sierra Miwok Puma concolor hí:liča- mountain lion inheritance Eastern Miwokan In all Mis, Mip underived Freeland & Broadbent 1960 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Chemehuevi Puma concolor tukúmumuntsI Mountain lion (Felis hippolestes CHM) inheritance *tukkuC Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1306 (2008:200); this is an ancient loan. Tumpisa Shoshone has same compound ( tukkummüüntsi) WW %tuku same other complex has -ci ABS ; stem is compound Merriam 59:521 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Chumash Barbareno Puma concolor tuk'em' mountain lion inheritance *tVkem' Proto-Chumash Widespread Californianism, note NUA *tuCkuC; Klar 1977:98, probably a post P-Ch loan, I think, hence irregularity WW %tuku underived Beeler 1978:187 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Chumash Ineseno Puma concolor tuk'em' mountain lion inheritance *tVkem' Proto-Chumash Widespread Californianism, note NUA *tuCkuC; Klar 1977:98 but I think post-Proto-Ch, hence irregularity WW %tuku underived Applegate 192 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Chumash Obispeno Puma concolor tetʸe, tekš'e mountain lion inheritance *tVkem' Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:98 thinks is Proto-Ch but I think is a loan post that period, hence irregularity. This is a widespread arealism. underived Klar 1977:98 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Chumash Ventureno Puma concolor tuk'em' (took-am' (1932), 500-kem' (1905) mountain lion inheritance *tVkem' Proto-Chumash Widespread Californianism, note NUA *tuCkuC; Klar 1977:98 but I think loan is post-Proto-Ch, hence irregularity WW %tuku underived Merriam 55:35 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Cocopa Puma concolor nymca· mountain lion inheritance *nymi-tay Proto-Yuman Langdon 1979:638 LION, Mixco 1978:91 same underived diachronically bobcat-big Crawford 1989 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Comanche Puma concolor tɨmahkupa? panther, mountain lion unique same finite clause? tɨmah-kupa? clench-strangle (according to R&A Robinson & Armagost 1990:162 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Cupeño Puma concolor temevish ʹtəməviʃ mountain lion loan no information almost certainly a loan, perhaps from same source as Mono, NP “tunu-wɨ, perhaps Yokuts same other complex ʹtəməvi-ʃ mountain.lion-npn -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Hill & Nolasquez 1973:174 no info 1 ceremonial couplet tukwet, temevish (H&N p. 80) 2 if wildcat eaten, surely this too no info hunted men skins, claws 0 0 Americas diverse habitats (prefers uplands) yes
Esselen Puma concolor xeke-s (Pinart xekkesipša mountain lion unique Esselen Shaul 1986:699 notes Rumsen hek other complex -s, -p$a classifier suffixes -s, -p$a Shaul 1995:227 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Gabrielino Puma concolor tuku:rut tuˈku:rot leon inheritance *tuCkuC-wɨ Californian S1306b (Stubbs 2009;200); -ro-t is the regular Gab. augmentative from *wɨ WW %tuku same derived tuˈku:-ro-t wildcat-big-npn -ʔaʧ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Harrington 287 no info 1 skin could be used for Chingichngich figure (McC:28); a Chingichngish animal (McC 146) 2 not mentioned in any lists McC p. 116; Chingichngich animals not eaten (McC117_ no info hunted men mainly for hide 0 0 hides often trade North America diverse habitats (prefers uplands) yes
Iipay 'Aa Puma concolor nyemetaay mountain lion inheritance *nymi-tay Proto-Yuman Langdon 1979:638 LION, Mixco 1978:91 same phrase wildcat-big (although -taay not recorded as “big” for 'Iipay Aa by C&H) Couro & Hutcheson 1973 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Kawaiisu Puma concolor tukuu-mɨɨ-ci cougar inheritance *tukkuC Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1306 (2008:200; Tumpisa Shosne has same compound ( tukkummüüntsi) WW %tuku same other complex tukuu-mɨɨ-ci wild.cat-?-ABS Zigmond et al. 287 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Kiliwa Puma concolor nmi?=tay cougar inheritance *-mi(?)-tay cat-big Proto-Yuman Mixco 1978:91, Langdon 1979:638 *nymi-t same phrase cat-big Mixco 1985 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Kitanemuk Puma concolor tukučuwat ˈtukuʧruwat Mountain lion loan no information Probably loaned from another Takic language. The derivation is irregular and non-correspondent. WW %tuku same derived ˈtukuʧruwat obviously derived from tukut but morphology obscure, this whole set of words is very loan-y -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:545 no info 1 2 no info hunted men mainly for hide is my guess 0 0 North America diverse habitats (prefers uplands) yes
Lake Miwok Puma concolor 7úppukşe panther, lion unique Looks like Pmi 7upuksu “gray ground squirrel”!! A joke? Euphemism? This a “critter” word originally?? underived Callaghan 1965 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Luiseño Puma concolor túkwut ʹtukwut mountain lion, cougar inheritance *tuCkuC-wɨ Californian S1306b (Stubbs 2009;200) WW %tuku same derived ʹtuk-wu-t wildcat-augmentative-non.possessed.noun Elliott 1999:989 no info 1 a Chingichngish animal (Harrington 1978:131) 2 no no info no info no info 0 0 North America diverse habitats (prefers uplands) yes
Maidu Puma concolor pekúni mountain lion inheritance *pekun Maiduan Callaghan 2001:333 other complex -i is stem former Shipley 1963 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Mojave Puma concolor nuumet mountain lion inheritance *nymi-tay Proto-Yuman Langdon 1979:638 LION, Mixco 1978:91 same phrase from nuume - ɂatay bobcat - big Munro et al.1992 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Mutsun Puma concolor tammala(h) mountain lion loan unknown T<am'ul Mason in both SA and SM; Pinart has only in Co III; Wappo pah'-mah-lah WW %talom reduplicated Okrand p. 131; final vowel is the reduplicated vowel, -h may be a nominalizing suffix “suggesting that tammarla- might be the reduplicated stem of a verb” Okrand 1977;131 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Nisenan Puma concolor hilit' panther loan Sierra Miwok Mie *hi:li:ca- underived Uldall & Shipley 1966 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Northern Paiute Puma concolor kaggwe toohoo'oo 'mountain lion' (matches M forms) Mountain lion (Felis hippolestes) inheritance *tukkuC Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1306 (2008:200) -- WHY does this language have /h/ from *kk??? Is this a loan? WW %tuku same phrase what is kaggwe? It isn't “mountain” Merriam 61:133, Yerington Dictionary 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Northern Sierra Miwok Puma concolor hi:li:ca- mountain lion (Merriam has p- form 57:417) inheritance Eastern Miwokan In all Mis (hi:li:ca- form) and Mip; p- form also in Mip underived Callaghan 1987 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Plains Miwok Puma concolor pa:wuk, hi:li:ca- mountain lion inheritance Eastern Miwokan both forms in both Mis and Mip underived Callaghan 1984 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Salinan A Puma concolor Tá'muL puma loan Salinan unknown very widespread word WW %talom underived Mason 1918:125 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Salinan M Puma concolor T<a'muL puma loan Salinan unknown widespread areal form of unknown origin WW %talom underived Mason 1918:125 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Seri (Comcaac) Puma concolor xazoj mountain lion unique same underived Comcaac Dictionary 583 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Serrano Puma concolor wana-T mountain lion (CHM has tukut-troit/ tro'-ŭt 60>33, 72:27 inheritance *wana- Northern Uto-Aztecan I'll bet this is S557a *wanci7a “fox” which must be *wana-ci7a with a diminutive ; these forms attest to an additional vowel. In Central and Southern Numic. May be an arealism/loan. Note Yokutsan * *ɂawčhaɂ 'fox' other complex -t NPN KCHill ms 2001:62 1 Coyote's older brother 2 0 0 0 yes
Southern Paiute Puma concolor tuqumumutsI Panther (Merriam: Mountain Lion (Puma concolor) inheritance *tukkuC Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1306 (2008:200); this is an ancient loan. T Shoshone has same increment WW %tuku same other complex tuqu-mumutsI; -mumutsI only in this item (Sapir 1930:572); has -tsi ABS Sapir 1930:693 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Southern Sierra Miwok Puma concolor hi:li:ca- mountain lion inheritance Eastern Miwokan In all Mis, MIP underived Broadbent 1964: 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Southern Ute Puma concolor tukU puma, cougar semantic shift *tukkuC “bobcat” Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1306 (2008:200); this form usually means “bobcat” but Ute has had a marking reversal, probably very recent; see discussion of “bobcat” above WW %tuku same underived Givon 1979 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Tübatulabal Puma concolor tūkūkwüt tu:gu:gˈwɨt mountain lion inheritance *tuCkuC-wɨ Californian S1306b (Stubbs 2009;200); widespread Californianism WW %tuku same derived tu:gu:g-ˈwɨ-t mountain.lion-augmentative-npn Hill 2010:93 no info 1 I'm sure is special, but not noted in Voegelin's lists 2 no info hunted men roasted, pelt for diverse uses 0 0 North America diverse habitas (prefers uplands) yes
Tümpisa Shoshone Puma concolor tukkummüüntsi mountain lion inheritance *tukkuC- Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1306 (2008:200) with derivationl Kawaiisu has same compound (tukuu-mɨɨ-ci) WW %tuku same other complex tukku-mmüün-tsi wildcat-?-DIM Dayley 1989:303 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Wappo Puma concolor wíma panther? (CHM has kah'-tah-mah, wim-mah as “wolf”) unique Wintu wima “grizzly” underived Sawyer 1965 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Washo Puma concolor hilí:za Mountain lion loan Northern Sierra Miwok Mins hi:li:ca-; this is Pmie underived Merriam 55:297; WPD 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Western Mono Puma concolor wiheesitI mountain lion loan Yokuts Proto-NimYokuts **wehe:sith (Golla 1964:63) same underived Bethel et al.:283 a totem animal Gayton 2:272 in Pakwihu moiety Gifford p. 37 1 source of special hunting powers (Spier 1978:428) 2 no info hunted men no info 0 0 yes
Wintu Puma concolor patet mountain lion inheritance *pate Wintun Shepherd 2005 other complex pat “outside”; “the one from outside, from the wild” Pitkin 1985 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Yavapai Puma concolor ɲmīta mountain lion inheritance *nymi-tay Proto-Yuman Langdon 1979:638 LION, Mixco 1978:91 unknown Shaterian 1983 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Yokuts Palewyami Puma concolor wihi·šet mountain lion inheritance *wehe:sith Yokutsan Golla 1964:63; Callaghan 2001:333 “Wp wok'en 'mountain lion' matches the Proto-Yokuts form” same underived Gamble 1991 (from Harrington) 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Yokuts Yawdanchi Puma concolor wöhöcit puma inheritance *wehe:sith Yokutsan Golla 1964:63; Callaghan 2001:333 “Wp wok'en 'mountain lion' matches the Proto-Yokuts form” same underived probably complex but no possibility of analysis Kroeber 1961:200 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Yokuts Yowlumne Puma concolor wehèsit, wehe:sit N wehe:sit 199 puma inheritance *wehe:sith Yokutsan Golla 1964:63; Callaghan 2001:333 “Wp wok'en 'mountain lion' matches the Proto-Yokuts form” same underived Kroeber 1961:200 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Yuki Puma concolor >kam'-mo MWO; k'amul' A mountain lion, panther inheritance *k'amol' Yukian Schlichter 1985; Check Costanoan, Mil; note Wappo k'atama ? underived Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 1 2 0 0 0 yes
Yuma Puma concolor haht'-ah-kool' Mountain lion (Felis hippolestes) inheritance Colorado River Yuman only Looks like the Maricopa “wolf” word, hatkult unknown Merriam 61:449 1 2 0 0 0 yes