Serrano

Family
Uto-Aztecan
Region
North America
ISO 639-3
ser
Location
33.95°, -116.77°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (185)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location -kupia:-7, inheritance KCH2001 Jane Hill
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar hamek (hamyk) inheritance R&E2000:218, 290 Jane Hill
all todo todos other puju inheritance Jane Hill
and y e grammar ami7 “and” unknown Jane Hill
ankle tobillo tornozelo body navY:-T inheritance Jane Hill
armpit axila, sobaco axila body missing Jane Hill
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment kuku-t inheritance Jane Hill
at en, a em, a location -pa inheritance Jane Hill
back espalda costas body -tyhpi-7 inheritance Jane Hill
bad mal mal quality kYSa:7 loan Jane Hill
belly barriga barriga body tO7-c loan Jane Hill
below abajo, debajo abaixo location puhtk “below it”, nuhtk “below me” inheritance Jane Hill
big grande grande quality atiY7a7, atY7a7 Y is retro y inheritance Jane Hill
bite morder morder body kY:7 inheritance Jane Hill
black negro preto colour tYnA:- inheritance Jane Hill
blood sangre sangue body YT-T inheritance Jane Hill
blow soplar soprar body puih-kin “blow on w/ mouth” inheritance Jane Hill
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body muuki- “sore” inheritance R&E2000 Jane Hill
bone hueso osso body O:-T inheritance Jane Hill
breast pecho, seno peito body pi7 (possessed, needs prefix) inheritance Jane Hill
breathe respirar respirar body hi:k “breathe, be alive, get well, be well” inheritance Jane Hill
burn quemar queimar environment hu7a-i (intr) inheritance Jane Hill
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body qa:c unknown Jane Hill
child niño, niña criança human anyi:7c-i7 “small one, little one, baby, child” inheritance Jane Hill
climb subir subir motion hwA:c-q unknown Jane Hill
cloud nube nuvem environment taY:7-T (also “thunder”) inheritance Jane Hill
cold frío frio quality ycy inheritance Jane Hill
come venir vir motion kim inheritance Jane Hill
cook cocinar cozinhar impact kwaha:n(in) inheritance Jane Hill
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality mym-q (vi) loan Jane Hill
count contar contar mental ty:7wym inheritance Jane Hill
cry llorar chorar mental ju:-7 inheritance Jane Hill
cut/hack cortar cortar impact cing-kin (cut up as fruit) Jane Hill
day día dia time ta:mi-at inheritance Jane Hill
die/be dead morir morrer state mymy7k (sg) inheritance Jane Hill
dig cavar cavar impact wa:n(a)7-q inheritance Jane Hill
dingo/wolf fauna wercac /wYca-c/ unique R&E2000:265 Jane Hill
dirty sucio sujo quality tYnA7n-k unique R&E2000:503 Jane Hill
dream soñar sonhar mental kwahcymy7-q inheritance Jane Hill
drink beber, tomar beber body pa:7 inheritance Jane Hill
dry seco seco quality awa:ki=7 inheritance Jane Hill
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality missing Jane Hill
dust polvo poeira environment tiYva-T inheritance Jane Hill
ear oreja orelha body -qAv, qAva:-c "ear, leaf" inheritance Jane Hill
earth/soil tierra terra environment tiYva-T inheritance Jane Hill
eat comer comer body kwa7-i inheritance Jane Hill
egg huevo ovo fauna -pA:n inheritance Jane Hill
eye ojo olho body huva:-t, huva-c unique Jane Hill
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body Sai:7 inheritance Jane Hill
fall caer cair motion huc-q inheritance Jane Hill
far lejos longe quality pyja:n inheritance Jane Hill
fat/grease grasa gordura body wip-t inheritance Jane Hill
father padre, papá pai kinship na7 inheritance Jane Hill
fear miedo medo mental tiYmq loan Jane Hill
feather pluma pena fauna -pOh “fur, body hair, feathers” inheritance Jane Hill
fire fuego fogo environment ku-t inheritance Jane Hill
fish xx xx fauna kihu-T inheritance Jane Hill
flow fluir fluir motion ja-7i (= “run”); wanytu-7 inheritance Jane Hill
flower flor flor environment 0 inheritance Jane Hill
fly volar voar motion hi:ny-(i)7k inheritance Jane Hill
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment paki:-t inheritance Jane Hill
foot pie body navY:-T inheritance Jane Hill
fruit fruta fruta flora pikwa-T “berry” inheritance Jane Hill
good bueno bom quality a7ai inheritance Jane Hill
grow crecer crescer state ja:ng-q “grow, grow up” inheritance Jane Hill
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body 7ajy7 “head, hair” inheritance Jane Hill
hand mano mão body -ma inheritance Jane Hill
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar ama-7 that, the one, he, she, it inheritance Jane Hill
head cabeza cabeça body -Sy:7 unique Jane Hill
hear oír ouvir mental ma:T inheritance Jane Hill
heavy pesado pesado quality pYTY7 inheritance Jane Hill
hide esconder esconder motion my:j7-kin vt; my:j7-q vi unknown Jane Hill
hit golpear, pegar bater impact wYqO:v “hit” inheritance Jane Hill
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other ja:yTik inheritance Jane Hill
how? como como grammar hami:n' inheritance Jane Hill
1sg yo eu grammar ny:7 inheritance Jane Hill
if si se grammar pyvyipa7 unknown Jane Hill
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location 7ahu:na- inheritance R&E200:83 Jane Hill
intestines intestinos intestinos body -Si inheritance Jane Hill
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body missing Jane Hill
kill matar matar impact mYkAn (sg obj) inheritance Jane Hill
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental yna:n inheritance Jane Hill
lake lago lago environment my:m-t (also “ocean”) loan into protolanguage Jane Hill
laugh reír rir mental mamq inheritance Jane Hill
leaf hoja folha environment -qAv, qAva:-c "ear, leaf" inheritance Jane Hill
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body -7O:-c O is umlaut o inheritance Jane Hill
leg/foot pierna perna body -ca:q leg, lower leg inheritance Jane Hill
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion yk (sg); wyn(yi) (pl) “be in a place, lie” inheritance Jane Hill
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment tikaltikalq loan Jane Hill
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body hi:k “breathe, be alive or well” inheritance Jane Hill
liver hígado figado body nym-yic inheritance Jane Hill
long largo comprido, longo quality mitat unique Jane Hill
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna Atym head lice A is retroflex inheritance Jane Hill
lung pulmón pulmão body a-$unga loan Stubbs08:205 Jane Hill
man/male hombre homem human wyTY-ST inheritance Jane Hill
meat/flesh carne carne fauna -tuk inheritance R&E2000:86 Jane Hill
moon luna lua environment mya:-T/t inheritance Jane Hill
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship -jy-7 inheritance Jane Hill
mouth boca boca body -SyT unknown Jane Hill
name nombre nome human tywan-c inheritance Jane Hill
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body missing Jane Hill
near/close cerca de perto quality pi:pish inheritance Jane Hill
neck cuello pescoço body ngYh-YT (poss -Y7) (also “voice”) inheritance Jane Hill
new nuevo novo quality amai-t “new one” inheritance Jane Hill
night noche noite time atu:k; tu:k inheritance Jane Hill
no/not no não grammar qai, qa- inheritance Jane Hill
nose nariz nariz body -mukpi7 inheritance Jane Hill
old viejo velho quality uvihpy-T inheritance Jane Hill
one uno um number hau:kp unique Jane Hill
open/uncover abrir abrir other A:n-(a)7kin, A:nY7 (intr) unknown Jane Hill
other otro outro grammar huwa-T inheritance Jane Hill
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body myhcan “be hurt” inheritance Jane Hill
person/human being persona pessoa human ta:q-t inheritance Jane Hill
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact pO:ng inheritance Jane Hill
rain lluvia chuva environment wO:ng-t inheritance Jane Hill
red rojo vermelho colour Syri:- inheritance Jane Hill
right/right hand derecha direita location/body 7aiynu7 “right side” (cf. a7ai “good” inheritance Jane Hill
road/path camino caminho manufacture pO:q-t inheritance Jane Hill
root raíz raiz flora -nga:qaw inheritance Jane Hill
rotten podrido podre quality apiSqa7i inheritance Jane Hill
sand arena areia environment O:q-T inheritance Jane Hill
say decir dizer mental qy-i inheritance Jane Hill
scratch rascar rasgar impact waTu-7 unknown Jane Hill
see ver ver mental hii, hihii inheritance Jane Hill
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality haca:7i-7 unknown Jane Hill
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact mu-i inheritance Jane Hill
short corto curto quality kapOcik, qapOcka “short one” O is umlaut inheritance Jane Hill
shoulder hombro ombro body -Sy:k-a7 inheritance Jane Hill
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental cu:7n (vintr) inheritance Jane Hill
sit sentar(se) sentar state ny:p-q “sit, stay, settle” unknown Jane Hill
skin piel pele body -qOc inheritance Jane Hill
sky cielo céu environment tukuhp-t inheritance Jane Hill
sleep dormir dormir body ku:man unique Jane Hill
small pequeño pequeno quality chilykam loan R&E2000:223 Jane Hill
smoke humo fumaça environment mOa:-7t inheritance Jane Hill
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body hukim (-a-) loan direction unknown Jane Hill
spit escupir cuspir body cOv-kin inheritance Jane Hill
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact Sara-7 (vt) inheritance Jane Hill
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact mAcaq-kin inheritance Jane Hill
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact cikY:n inheritance Jane Hill
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state cOnu7-q unknown Jane Hill
star estrella estrela environment hu:7-T inheritance Jane Hill
steal robar roubar other yj-yi inheritance Jane Hill
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora kuTa:-t inheritance Jane Hill
stone piedra pedra environment tymy-t inheritance Jane Hill
suck chupar chupar body cu:ng inheritance Jane Hill
sweat sudar suor, suar body jySka7 (v), -jySka7 (n) inheritance Jane Hill
swell hincharse inchar body pO:cq inheritance Jane Hill
swim nadar nadar motion hamiaqaT nakyT-k paav swim in the water inheritance R&E2000:333 Jane Hill
tail cola, rabo rabo body -wath (th is voiced) inheritance Jane Hill
that ese/esa esse grammar ama-7 that, the one, he, she, it inheritance Jane Hill
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar a:m inheritance Jane Hill
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality missing Jane Hill
thin delgado fino quality jeipka7 “thin one” inheritance Jane Hill
think pensar pensar mental camaqa:n vt unknown Jane Hill
this este/esta este grammar ivi-7 inheritance Jane Hill
2sg xx xx grammar ymi7 inheritance Jane Hill
three tres tres number pa:hi7 inheritance Jane Hill
throat garganta garganta body ngYh-YT (poss -Y7) also “voice” inheritance Jane Hill
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact pi:7 inheritance Jane Hill
thunder truenos trovão environment taY:7-T inheritance Jane Hill
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact pOc-kin unknown Jane Hill
tongue lengua lingua body nang-ac inheritance Jane Hill
tooth diente dente body tam-aC inheritance Jane Hill
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other ngOhA:h-q turn w/ forward momentum, change direction, go around a bend inheritance Jane Hill
two dos dois number wOh inheritance Jane Hill
vomit vomitar vomitar body pi:S (no eg's -- only from Miller?) inheritance Jane Hill
walk caminar, andar andar motion nym(yi) inheritance Jane Hill
water agua agua environment pa:-T inheritance Jane Hill
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar acam inheritance Jane Hill
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar acam inheritance Jane Hill
wet mojado molhado quality pa:Tu “be or become wet” inheritance Jane Hill
what? que, qué que grammar hi:t inheritance Jane Hill
when? cuando quando grammar hai:pa7n inheritance Jane Hill
where? donde onde grammar hai:ngkwa7, haip, hai:piu7 inheritance Jane Hill
white blanco branco colour jara:7- unknown Jane Hill
who? quien, quién quem grammar hai:m, hami-7 inheritance Jane Hill
wife esposa esposa kinship -tyjy-7 inheritance Jane Hill
wind viento vento environment Syvyt inheritance Jane Hill
wing ala asa body maha-c, -ma inheritance Jane Hill
woman/female mujer mulher human nY:ht “woman” loan Jane Hill
work trabajar trabalhar other tyhty-i inheritance Jane Hill
yawn bostezar bocejar body kuhkuman unique Jane Hill
yellow amarillo amarelo colour SaTi:- unknown Jane Hill
2pl ustedes vocês grammar i:m inheritance Jane Hill


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (130)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
abalone flora-fauna Haliotis spp. missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae ar:nyr-ht ant (any) (CHM); KCH a large kind of ant inheritance *7alɨN- Uto-Aztecan S44 (Stubbs 2009:44) other complex -t NPN Merriam 60:111; KCHill ms 2001:7 0 0 2 0 0 no
antelope flora-fauna Antilocapra americana tŭ-mertz, tŭ-winz tymyT? antelope inheritance *tɨn(nV)- Northern Uto-Aztecan S52 (Stubbs 2009:45), the *tɨm(V)nV- possibility is worth considering. May be a loan into PNUA from Proto-Kiowa-Tanoan. Note Mutsun tiwyen other complex -c NPN Merriam 60-97, 72-77 2 1 0 0 0 no
badger flora-fauna Taxidea taxus hu:navt badger inheritance *hurap- Uto-Aztecan S105 (Stubbs 2009:53) other complex -t NPN KCHill ms 2001:16 2 1 0 0 0 yes
bald eagle flora-fauna Haliaeetus leucocephalus missing missing missing 1 2 0 0 1 no
band-tail pigeon flora-fauna Patagioenas fasciata muk'-kah how'-wut band-tail pigeon inheritance *makahVwi Uto-Aztecan S676 (Stubbs 2009:126) phrase dove pigeon ? Merriam 72-27; 60-101 0 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp walu:lu-T bat unique other complex -T non-possessed noun suffix (NPN) KCHill ms 2001:62 0 1 0 0 0 no
beaver flora-fauna Castor missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
beetle flora-fauna Coleoptera spp hu:hua7-T stink beetle inheritance *huhuCa Northern Uto-Aztecan S313 (Stubbs 2008:83): in Kitaneumuk and Hopi hohoyaw. Possibly a regionalism just missing in intermediate langauges? May include the “fart” word. other complex -t NPN KCHill ms 2001:16 2 0 0 0 0 no
big round tule flora-fauna Schoenoplectus acutus pe'-wum' big round tule inheritance Kitaneumk pivuht “tule” is similar but not identical, shouldn't have a plural so what is this? Is this related to piivat “tobacco” (reeds used for pipes). See Luiseño pivee$ash. underived Merriam 60:121 2 1 2 0 0 no
big skunk flora-fauna Mephitis mephitis por:nivyr-T skunk inheritance *po(C)ni Northern Uto-Aztecan S1983 (Stubbs 2009:275); he thinks U-A but I doubt it other complex -t NPN KCHill ms 2001:44 2 2 0 0 0 no
big wolf (gray wolf) flora-fauna Canis lupus wana-T big wolf (same as mountain lion?) inheritance *wana- Northern Uto-Aztecan also in Kitanemuk. I'll bet this is S557a *wanci7a “fox” which must be *wana-ci7a with a diminutive; these forms attest to an additional vowel. In Central and Southern Numic. May be an arealism/loan. Note Yokutsan * *ɂawčhaɂ 'fox' other complex -t NPN Merriam 72:27 1 2 0 0 0 yes
bighorn sheep flora-fauna Ovis canadensis pa:7t mountain sheep inheritance *pa7aC- Northern Uto-Aztecan S204 (Stubbs 2009:67); may be a Proto-Kiowa-Tanoan loan into PNUA other complex -t NPN KCHill ms 2001:41 2 1 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna wicit bird inheritance *wi(t)tiki Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 205a (2009:67)these wici forms in Serran and S. Numic; Tb. has chikit (is wi- a prefix??? Or is Tb a Miwokan loan?) other complex -t NPN KCHill ms 2001:63 0 0 0 0 0 no
black ant flora-fauna Camponotus pennsylvanicus/Lasius niger kah-powm big black ant unique other complex looks like a plural suffix -m Merriam 60:111 2 0 0 0 0 no
black bear flora-fauna Ursus americanus hu:na-t bear inheritance *huna-wɨ-ta Californian S132 (Stubbs 2009:59). This is “big badger”; *hura(p) “badger” is UA etymon. But this only means “bear” in Californian. other complex -t NPN KCHill ms 2001:16 1 2 0 0 0 yes
black-tail Jackrabbit flora-fauna Lepus californicus hwi:7-t jackrabbit inheritance *suu7it Northern Uto-Aztecan S1713 (Stubbs 2009:243): I give Manaster-Ramer's reonstruction other complex -t NPN KCHill ms 2001:17 2 1 0 0 0 no
blackberry flora-fauna Rubus ursinus pikwa-T berry, blackberry (CHM confirms 60:115) inheritance *pi(kwa-) Takic S182 (Stubbds 2009:64) other complex -t NPN KCHill ms 2001:43 2 1 2 0 0 no
blue grouse flora-fauna Dendrogapus? kakawt grouse semantic shift *kacaC-wɨ Uto-Aztecan S1702a (Stubbs 2008:241); usually “mountain quail”, perhaps a consultant error WW %kaka other complex -w-t Augmentative-NPN KCHill ms 2001:22 0 1 0 0 0 no
bobcat, lynx flora-fauna Lynx rufus tukut bobcat inheritance *tuCkuC- Northern Uto-Aztecan S1306 (Stubbs 2009:200). This is a California Wanderwort; Great Basin forms giving NUA are surely loans. But loan may be early beause Hopi has regular vocalism and Hopi vowel shift definitely before 13th C. WW %tuku other complex -t NPN KCHill ms 2001:57 1 2 0 0 0 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera lalava-T butterfly unique other complex -t NPN KCHill ms 2001:27 2 0 0 0 0 no
California condor flora-fauna Gymnogyps californianus pa: wirukt California condor inheritance *wiLhukuN Uto-Aztecan pa- is “big”; S335 (Stubbs 2008:86) phrase big buzzard Merriam 72:27 1 2 0 0 1 no
California jay flora-fauna Aphelocoma californica? chi'-chi California jay loan *cha7i- Northern Uto-Aztecan Yokuts Kitanemuk cayca7y “blue jay”; S209, Central Numic, Tubatulabal, Takic, always “blue jay” (Stubbs 2009:68). Note similarity of Yokuts, Chumash words. I think this reduplicated form is recent Yokutsan loan. WW %chaj reduplicated Merriam 72-27, 60-101 2 1 0 0 0 no
California woodpecker flora-fauna Melanerpes formicivorus? pe'-vahnts California woodpecker inheritance Takic In Kitanemuk, also Gab. pe-var” (CHM 72-77, 60-423) other complex -t NPN Merriam 72-27, 60-103 2 1 0 0 1 no
chia flora-fauna Salvia columbariae pa:hinaT chia (CHM confirms 60-119) inheritance *pasa/i Californian S1599 (Stubbs 2009:233). Only Numic is Tumpisa Shoshone, almost certainly a loan from Tubatulabal, and Kawaiisu. This shows up in Chumash, Salinan, Kiliwa! May be an old Californianism. WW %pasv other complex -t NPN KCHill ms 2001:41 1 1 1 0 0 no
chipmunk flora-fauna Tamias spp. hika:y-t chipmunk (CHM says hikayt is tree squirrel, wisko (Cahuilla loan) is chipmunk 72-77, 60-99) loan into protolanguage *sika(-wV-) Northern Uto-Aztecan Gabrielino S2094a (Stubbs 2008:288) WW %sik other complex -t NPN KCHill ms 2001:13 2 1 0 0 0 no
cliff swallow flora-fauna Petrochelidon pyrrhonota su'-wut ahn-kin'-ne-ahts cliff swallow “wind open” unique phrase wind opener? Merriam 60-103 2 1 0 0 0 no
coot flora-fauna Fulica americana missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottontail rabbit flora-fauna Sylvilagus audobonii tiiyrhaqt cottontail rabbit (CHM confirms 72-27) inheritance *tosa-kammu (Stubbs); this is *tosa-xaC- by me Northern Uto-Aztecan S1709 (Stubbs 2009:242); frankly I doubt Stubbs kammu (jackrabbit in Numic). . Note Central and Southern Sierra Miwok Tós:ewe-, Cupeno tisixat. other complex -t NPN KCHill ms 2001:56 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottonwood flora-fauna Populus spp. wah'-mut cottonwood (= tree) unique Serran other complex -t NPN Merriam 72:29, 60:113 2 0 2 0 0 no
coyote flora-fauna Canis latrans wahi7 coyote unique Serran Also in Kitanemuk; Stubbs suggests related to Hopi waha “bark, v.”; maybe underived KCHill ms 2001:62 1 2 0 0 0 no
crow flora-fauna Corvus brachyrhynchos arTaw-t r is retroflexion/pharyngealization on preceding vowel; T is retroflex crow loan into protolanguage *atawɨ-t Northern Uto-Aztecan Yokuts S582b (Stubbs 2008:116) WW %alwut other complex -t NPN KCHill ms 2001:6 2 1 0 0 0 no
datura flora-fauna Datura wrightii ma:nic jimsonweed, toloache inheritance *mani- Takic may be a loan; S1639 (Stubbs 2009:235); Gabrielino a good candidate for source language within Takic WW %mani other complex -c NPN KCHill ms 2001:29 1 1 1 1 0 yes
deer, mule flora-fauna Odocoileus hemionus hukaht deer inheritance *suCkaC- Uto-Aztecan S621 (Stubbs 2009:121) WW %sok other complex -t NPN KCHill ms 2001:15 2 1 0 0 0 no
digger pine flora-fauna Pinus sabiniana missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris kuci7 dog loan no information *ku- words for dog are areal, oriented northward; this loan into Serran as also in Kitanemuk underived KCHill ms 2001:23 0 0 0 0 0 no
dogbane flora-fauna Apocynum cannabinum missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna Zenaida macrocoura muk'-hahT; muk'-haht dove inheritance *makahV- Uto-Aztecan S676 (Stubbs 2009:126) other complex -t NPN Merriam 72-27:60-101 2 1 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae paht'-too-yă all ducks loan Spanish Spanish pato, presumably WW %pato underived Merriam 72-27, 60-107 0 1 0 0 0 no
elder flora-fauna Sambucus ku:ht elderberry, elderberry tree inheritance *kuhu- Californian S179 other complex -t NPN KCHill ms 2001:24 2 1 1 0 0 no
elk flora-fauna Cervas elaphus pa:hukaht elk inheritance *pa:-suka- Takic S788:139 “elk” WW %sok phrase big deer Merriam 60-97 2 1 0 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna ke'-ho>tR fish inheritance *kɨcuC Uto-Aztecan S864 (Stubbs 2009;147) other complex -t NPN Merriam 60:111 0 1 0 0 0 no
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna Siphonaptera missing missing missing 2 0 0 0 0 no
flicker flora-fauna Colaptes sp. kē'-mahtR, ke'-mahts ki:marT Flicker inheritance *kima:- Takic Gab. ke'mar”; a bit cautionary on “takic” since much Serrano/Gabrielino bilingualism along a long frontier other complex -t NPN Merriam 72-27, 60-101 2 1 0 0 1 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera pi:c(i)cua7-T fly unique Serran see Gab. pi:cukwar; probably a regional element here, it's in Tub “horsefly” also; contains Stubbs 1184 *pitti, also in “hummingbird” other complex -t NPN KCHill ms 2001:44 0 0 0 0 0 no
foothills yucca flora-fauna Yucca whipplei u:mu-T Spanish dagger, a yucca stalk that is eaten (CHM confirms Y. whipplei 60:119 inheritance *amuwV Uto-Aztecan S4 (Stubbs 2009:40) other complex -t NPN KCHill ms 2001:60 0 1 blossoms and root cooked, good food 0 0 0 no
fox flora-fauna Vulpes, Urocyon qor:Ta-T fox (CHM confirms Urocyon 72:27 inheritance *kawosi Northern Uto-Aztecan S556 (Stubbs 2009;113); this is an unusual development from *kawo, not really a nice cognate. other complex -t NPN KCHill ms 2001:50 from original file slip 2 2 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna waqar-t frog inheritance *wakaC-ta Uto-Aztecan S940 (Stubbs 2009:157) WW %wakat other complex -t NPN KCHill ms 2001:62 2 2 0 0 0 no
golden eagle flora-fauna Aquila chrysaetos ahyrngt eagle inheritance Californian S719 (Stubbs 2008:131); note Yuman forms, perhaps Proto-Yuman *7as/shpa, as a possible source. But given this regular *s > n, if this is a loan it was very early in Takic other complex -t NPN KCHill ms 2001:2 1 2 0 0 1 no
gooseberry flora-fauna Ribes spp. missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
gopher snake, bull snake flora-fauna Pituophis catenifer kuk-kort'R, kr'-krKT gopher or bull snake inheritance *koNwa- Uto-Aztecan S2009 (Stubbs 2008:279) other complex -t NPN Merriam 60-109 2 2 0 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) ha:mt grass inheritance &sama/u- Northern Uto-Aztecan S1025a (Stubbs 2009:166; similar Yuman forms need thought other complex -t NPN KCHill ms 2001:13 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Caelifera wor7-orht grasshopper inheritance *wo7V- Uto-Aztecan S1034 (Stubbs 2009:167) other complex -t NPN KCHill ms 2001:65 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray ground squirrel flora-fauna Sphermophilus sp. kĕr'-rum; kŭr'-runt, kŭr-rumpt gray ground squirrel unique Could this be just 17 in CHM's interpretation? other complex -t NPN Merriam 72-27, 60-97 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray tree squirrel flora-fauna Sciurus spp. qor:ng-t squirrel (CHM confirms tree quirrel 72:27 inheritance *kongi- Northern Uto-Aztecan S2092 (Stubbs 2008:288) other complex -t NPN KCHill ms 2001:50 2 1 0 0 0 no
great horned owl flora-fauna Bubo virginianus mu:m-t owl (CHM confirms great horned owl) inheritance *muhuN Uto-Aztecan S1542 (Stubbs 2009:228) other complex -t NPN KCHill ms 2001:32 1 2 2 0 1 no
grizzly bear flora-fauna Ursus arctos horribilis hu:na-t grizzly bear (CHM confirms same word 60:95 inheritance *huna-wɨ-ta Californian S132 (Stubbs 2009:59). This is “big badger”; *hura(p) “badger” is UA etymon. But this only means “bear” in Californian. other complex -t NPN Merriam 60:95 1 2 0 0 0 yes
horned toad flora-fauna Phrynosomatidae tupar7xoriñi; typar7qRiñi (58 horned toad (CHM confirms 60:109) unique phrase note qRi:ñiñi “dragonfly” (p. 58); I have no idea what this means, insufficient lexical information KCHill ms 2001:8 2 2 2 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus -7a:ci7, kava:ju7 (22) horse, possessed animal inheritance *7aci- Takic The Takic “pet” word, really does seem to be more common based on texts underived KCHill ms 2001:6 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae piti:dhi7 hummingbird inheritance *pitsi/*pitti- Uto-Aztecan S1184 (Stubbs 2009:185) underived KCHill ms 2001:43 0 0 0 0 0 no
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana spp. pi:v-t tobacco inheritance *pipaC- Uto-Aztecan S2290 (Stubbs 2008:310) other complex -t NPN KCHill ms 2001:44 1 1 1 1 0 yes
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing missing missing 0 0 2 0 0 variable
junco flora-fauna Junco sppp wolft' wyr(:)vt junco unique other complex -t NPN Merriam 72-77, 60-105 0 1 0 0 0 no
juniper flora-fauna Juniperus californica waht' juniper inheritance *wa7aC- Northern Uto-Aztecan S414 (Stubbs 2009:94) other complex -t NPN Merriam 60:113 2 1 1 0 0 no
louse flora-fauna order Phtiraptera arTym head lice inheritance *7atɨC- Uto-Aztecan S1357 (Stubbs 2009:205) other complex looks like a plural suffix -m KCHill ms 2001:6 2 0 0 0 0 no
mallard flora-fauna Anas platyrhynchos missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
manzanita flora-fauna Arctostaphylos spp. kootCH chah, koot'R A. glauca inheritance *kɨta- Takic I think this is hitherto unnoticed member of S1635, requiring revision of S's reconstruction (Stubbs 2009:235) based on Cupan *kɨlV-l other complex -t NPN Merriam 72-29, 60-115 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, broad leaf flora-fauna Asclepias eriocarpa missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, narrow leaf flora-fauna Asclepias fascicularis ky7at gum plant inheritance *kɨya- Takic See Cahuilla kiyat “A. eriocarpa” other complex -t NPN KCHill ms 2001:25 0 1 1 0 0 no
mission tule flora-fauna Juncus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
mockingbird flora-fauna Mimus polyglottos $yTy:t mockingbird (CHM confirms 60-105) unique other complex -t NPN KCHill ms 2001:53 2 1 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera how-wow'-wut mosquito unique Serran contains /wa-/ element in, for e.g., Taracahitan waho, Tepiman wamug; NOTE KAWAiisu waca-vi “yellow jacket” other complex -t NPN Merriam 60:111 0 0 0 0 0 no
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna Heterocera missing missing missing 2 0 0 0 0 no
mountain lion flora-fauna Puma concolor wana-T mountain lion (CHM has tukut-troit/ tro'-ŭt 60>33, 72:27 inheritance *wana- Northern Uto-Aztecan I'll bet this is S557a *wanci7a “fox” which must be *wana-ci7a with a diminutive ; these forms attest to an additional vowel. In Central and Southern Numic. May be an arealism/loan. Note Yokutsan * *ɂawčhaɂ 'fox' other complex -t NPN KCHill ms 2001:62 1 Coyote's older brother 2 0 0 0 yes
mountain quail flora-fauna Oreortyx pictus ki'-itch kah-kah'-tah, kah-kowt' qai:c kaka:ta7 mountain quail inheritance *kacaC Uto-Aztecan second element is Stubbs 1702a (2009:241); this is a neologism/loan-translation; qai:c “mountain” WW %kaka phrase mountain quail Merriam 72:27, 60-101 2 1 0 0 0 no
mussel flora-fauna Mytilus spp. missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
olivella (olive snail) flora-fauna Callianax biplicata missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 1 no
pinyon jay flora-fauna Cyanocitta stelleri? too'-bah ahts tyvah a7a:c “pinyon jay” (once a person) unique This is a neologism/loan-translation phrase pinyon crow M 72-27 2 1 0 0 0 no
pinyon pine flora-fauna Pinus monophylla tyvat pinyon inheritance *tɨpat Northern Uto-Aztecan S1583 (Stubbs 2009:231); probably a loan into Proto-NUA from Proto-Kiowa Tanoan (Hill 2008) other complex -t NPN KCHill ms 2001:58 2 1 2 0 1 no
pismo clam flora-fauna Tivella stultorum missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
pocket gopher flora-fauna Thomomys mi:nga-ht gopher inheritance *mɨjɨN- Northern Uto-Aztecan S1009 (Stubbs 2008:164) other complex -t NPN KCHill ms 2001:30 2 1 0 0 0 no
poison oak flora-fauna Toxicodendron diversilobum o'-e'-tram, oo-e'-chum poison oak inheritance *7ɨjaa- Californian S1506 (Stubbs 2009:224); seems to be a plural other complex looks like a plural suffix -m Merriam 72-29, 60-117 2 2 2 0 0 yes
rattlesnake flora-fauna Crotalus spp. hyr:ng-t rattlesnake (CHM confirms) inheritance *sɨwɨn- Takic S2011a (Stubbs 2008:280); not Stubbs' reconstruction, but Kitanemuk, Serrano are conservative in retaining these nasals. other complex -t NPN KCHill ms 2001:17 1 2 0 0 0 yes
red ant flora-fauna Solenopsis spp ar:nyr-ht red ant (CHM); KCH a large kind of ant inheritance *7alɨN- Uto-Aztecan S44 (Stubbs 2009:44) other complex -t NPN Merriam 60:111 1 0 1 0 0 no
red-shouldered blackbird flora-fauna Agelaius phoeniceus missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
red-tailed hawk flora-fauna Buteo jamaicensis kwa:7T red-tailed hawk (CHM confirms 72-27) inheritance *kwa7a Northern Uto-Aztecan S716a (Stubbs 2008:131) other complex -t NPN KCHill ms 2001:25 2 2 0 0 0 no
roadrunner flora-fauna Geococcyx californianus pu:hia7-t roadrunner inheritance *puhi/*pu7i/*puwi Uto-Aztecan final increment is augmentative (as in Gab., Kit.) WW %pu: other complex -t NPN KCHill ms 2001:46 2 1 0 0 0 no
ruddy duck flora-fauna Oxyura jamaicensis missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
sage herb flora-fauna Artemisia californica hoo'-troo-hwahtR Artemisia californica inheritance *hulupa- Northern Uto-Aztecan S1597 (Stubbs 2009:233) other complex -t NPN Merriam 60:119 2 2 1 0 0 no
salmon/steelhead flora-fauna Oncorhynchus mykiss missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
scaly lizard flora-fauna Pygopus lepidopodus? car:ngt lizard sp. (CHM confirms Sceloporus 60:109) inheritance *canga Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1331; only other form is Southern Paiute, may be a regionalism, not NUA other complex -t NPN KCHill ms 2001:8 2 2 0 0 0 no
small bird flora-fauna missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
small brown lizard flora-fauna missing missing missing KCHill ms 2001:8 2 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna hyr:ng-t snake, any (CHM confirms) inheritance *sɨwɨn- Takic S2011a (Stubbs 2008:280); not Stubbs' reconstruction, but Kitanemuk, Serrano are conservative in retaining these nasals. other complex -t NPN Merriam 60-109 0 1 0 0 0 no
soaproot flora-fauna Chlorogalum missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
sour berry flora-fauna Rhus trilobata hy:T R. trilobata “for baskets”, CHM's hootsCH; KCH “a kind of basket weed” inheritance *sɨ(ta) Californian Note Cahuilla selet, Gabrielino sorat, Tubatulabal shyl other complex -t NPN Merriam 60:117; Kchill ms 2001:16 2 1 1 0 0 no
sparrow hawk flora-fauna Falco kre'-yu kre'-ets, kre'-yu kre'-yuts Sparrow hawk inheritance *kɨLɨ; *kɨtɨ Uto-Aztecan S721 (Stubbs 2008:131); but very widespread, sound-imitative; /y/ from *L a bit odd although not unknown reduplicated -t NPN Merriam 72-27, 60-101 2 2 0 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae kuka-T spider inheritance *kukkaC- Northern Uto-Aztecan S2057 (Stubbs 2009:285) other complex -t NPN KCHill ms 2001:24 0 0 2 0 0 variable
spotted skunk flora-fauna Spilogale gracilis por:nivyr-T little spotted skunk (same word Merriam) inheritance *po(C)ni Northern Uto-Aztecan S1983 (Stubbs 2008:275); he thinks U-A but I doubt it other complex -t NPN Merriam 72:27 2 2 0 0 0 no
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna Bufonidae missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) wama-t tree(s), woods unique same as “cottonwood”, but this doesn't mean “tree” in Kitanemuk other complex -t NPN KCHill ms 2001:62 0 0 2 0 0 no
tree yucca flora-fauna Yucca schidegera choor'-martR Yucca schidegera unique Serran other complex -t NPN Merriam 60:119 2 1 0 0 0 no
turkey buzzard flora-fauna Cathartes aura wirukt buzzard inheritance *wiLhukuN Uto-Aztecan S335 (Stubbs 2008:36) other complex -t NPN KCHill ms 2001:25 2 2 0 0 0 no
turtle (generic) flora-fauna Testudines qorport-t turtle loan Yuman see Stubbs 2360 (Stubbs 2008:317). These forms are ONLY in Serrano, Kitanemuk (which is same language, really). Possibly the ko- element is related to ko in “back, shell”. But note Yavapai kpít, Mojave kapet other complex -t NPN KCHill ms 2001:50 2 2 0 0 1 no
valley live oak flora-fauna Quercus agrifolia wi7aht mountain Live Oak (Merriam def.) inheritance *wi7aN- Northern Uto-Aztecan S1507b (Stubbs 2009:224) other complex -t NPN KCHill ms 2001: 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley oak flora-fauna Quercus lobata ipaaT CHM says is Valley Oak (cognates are Q. dumosa) inheritance *pawa Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1504 (2008:223); the initial 7i- is obscure, the rest is excellent. other complex -t NPN Merriam 60:113; KCHill ms 2001:18 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley quail flora-fauna Callipepla californica kaka:ta7 quail (CHM confirms valley quail) inheritance *kacaC Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1702a WW %kaka underived KCHill ms 2001:22 2 1 0 0 0 no
Washington clam flora-fauna Saxidomus nuttalli missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
Western Canada goose flora-fauna Branta canadensis ah-chowkt Western Canada goose unique other complex -t NPN Merriam 60-107 0 1 0 0 0 no
whale flora-fauna Eschrichtius robustus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
white pelican flora-fauna Pelicanus erythrorhynchos missing missing missing 0 2 0 0 0 no
wild grapevine flora-fauna Vitis californica nyhnga-T grape, grapes loan Southern Chumash Barbareno, Ineseno , Ventureno nu'nit'; other complex -t NPN KCHill ms 2001:36 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild oats flora-fauna Avena (introduction) missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild rose flora-fauna Rosa californica missing missing missing 0 1 2 0 0 no
wild sunflower flora-fauna Helianthus (and other genera) pa7aqT plant sp. (prob. Helianthus or Encelia farinosa) (CHM confirms Helianthus) inheritance *(pa)7a7ka Uto-Aztecan other complex -t NPN KCHill ms 2001:39 0 1 0 0 0 no
willow flora-fauna Salix spp. haqat willow inheritance *sakat Uto-Aztecan S1023 (Stubbs 2009:166) other complex -t NPN KCHill ms 2001:12 2 2 1 0 0 no
wood rat, round-tail flora-fauna Neotoma spp. qar:-T rat, woodrat inheritance *kawa- Northern Uto-Aztecan S1423 (Stubbs 2009:242) other complex -t NPN KCHill ms 2001:49 2 1 0 0 0 no
worm, hairy caterpillar flora-fauna Arctiidae (many species) missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
worm, smooth caterpillar flora-fauna Trichoplusia ni (?) cabbage looper ku7a:-T mo:caT “worm” worm, maggot inheritance *ku7a- Takic S893 (Stubbs 2008:152) other complex -t NPN KCHill ms 2001:23 2 2 0 0 0 no
yellow jacket flora-fauna Vespula spp., Dolichovespula spp. pahng'-ă-hahts paha:nga-T yellow jacket inheritance *sanga- Takic S160 (Stubbs 2009:62); contains pa- “big” prefix not in Kitanemuk phrase pa: “big” plus bee Merriam 60:111 2 0 0 0 0 no
yellowbird flora-fauna Dendroica petechia missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
yerba santa flora-fauna Eriodictyon californicum oor-hahnt Yerba Santa unique other complex -t NPN Merriam 72:29, 60:117 2 1 1 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna A:nY-ht “large kind of ant” inheritance Jane Hill
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna wici-t inheritance Jane Hill
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna pi:c(i)cua7-T loan direction unknown Jane Hill
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna kuci7 inheritance Jane Hill
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna ha:m-t inheritance Jane Hill
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna hukaht inheritance Jane Hill
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna hY:ng-t “rattlesnake” inheritance Jane Hill
spider araña aranha flora-fauna kukach, kukam “spiders” inheritance R&E2000:215,95 Jane Hill


Cultural Vocabulary (115)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
acorn mush food wič acorn mush inheritance *wiw Takic Stubbs 2011,1557 other complex K. Hill Dict. Jane Hill
ball game food puçahkin to play ball game unknown Serran only simplex root, probably complex origin but unanalyzable K. Hill Dict. (from Miller 1988) Jane Hill
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology to-e'-pe-at tyīpiat final abode, 'all get there' inheritance *tywi- Takic Stubbs 1799 with -piat, what's that other complex K. Hill Dict., Merriam confirms Jane Hill
feather headband dress ah-pootch-kah, ah-pwū'-witch-kah headband unknown the pwu might be the poho feather word??? other complex Merriam 48:173 Jane Hill
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool hūç arrow inheritance *huca Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 63 other complex K. Hill Dict Jane Hill
arrow straightener other missing missing Jane Hill
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
school escuela escola acculturation yskwela7 school loan Spanish WW %escuela simplex K. Hill Dict. Jane Hill
stone bowl culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material nyā' (poss) basket inheritance *nyhaC Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 120 has only as Takic but see T. Shoshone form simplex Jane Hill
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material čiport small round basket inheritance *cippat Takic Stubbs 2011 122 other complex Jane Hill
basketry hat culture-material kumua't (CHM wo-koo'-mut in Yokuts???) basket cap loan Yokuts Yokuts Serran only other complex K. Hill Dict. Jane Hill
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
ochre culture-mythology navjot hematite in R loan Gabrielino also in Luiseno simplex Hill Harrington notes under ohi:t Jane Hill
bow arco arco subsistence tool ă-part'k bow, gun inheritance *pakoti Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 277 other complex Merriam 48:179 Jane Hill
canoe canoa canoa transport missing missing Jane Hill
carrying net subsistence tool kwiht carrying net inheritance *kusa or *kwisa Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 396c,d other complex Jane Hill
bottle botella garrafa acculturation pahat bottle inheritance *paa-*sa7a Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 2497, this is 'carry water' other complex *paa-sa7a, but not synchronically K. Hill Dict. Jane Hill
paper papel papel acculturation papēl paper loan Spanish WW %papel simplex K. Hill Dict. Jane Hill
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology ke'-kah chief inheritance *kika Uto-Aztecan widespread, cf. O'odham kikitam 'residents of a village' derived Merriam 48:193 Jane Hill
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress tahp-row'-wah breechcloth unknown same as Gab phrase Merriam 48:173 Jane Hill
cook food food kwahān cook inheritance *kwasi/aC Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 421 simplex root K. Hill Dict. Jane Hill
corpse food amym7ki7 (sg.), aqor7im (pl) dead person, people inheritance *mukki Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 655 derived, other complex K. Hill Dict. Jane Hill
dance (generic) culture-mythology tuhtu' to dance inheritance *tawiya Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 634 simplex root K. Hill Dict. Jane Hill
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology ny-'ajynu'ç god (literally, 'the one at my right') unique Merriam has tamyat < Ca. 48:191) derived, other complex K. Hill Dict. Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool wān'kinihwa't digging tool, something to dig with unique Stubbs 2011:667 (only Takic, and problematic) is the root of this formation derived, other complex K. Hill Dict. Jane Hill
dipper subsistence tool nŭ-pi'-wah gourd cup or dipper inheritance *pa(wi) Uto-Aztecan denominal on water word simplex Merriam 48:181 Jane Hill
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology kwahčumuk to dream unknown Serran only other complex K. Hill Dict. Jane Hill
drone pipe culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
chicken gallina galinha acculturation gajīna7 chicken, hen loan Spanish WW %gallina simplex K. Hill Dict. Jane Hill
earring other nu-chah-hō''m my ear pendant inheritance *cVLu Takic Cahuilla & Cupeno, Serrano cha-hoom (CHM), Kit. chahuch, not regular, perhaps a loan from somewhere other complex Merriam 48:173 Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology tyīt death spirit, devil inheritance *tywi- Takic Stubbs 1799 other complex Jane Hill
fire drill subsistence tool nŭ-koo-t-kin'-ne-what fire drill (tin/kin as alternate) unique derived, other complex Merriam 48:179 Jane Hill
fire-tender culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
fireplace hogar lareira other noo-koot-tan-noo'-ak fireplace unique phrase Merriam 48:175 Jane Hill
firewood leña lenha other kuçāt firewood inheritance *kutawi Northern Uto-Azteca Stubbs 2011 2409a; S. thinks this is 2408 but loss of w is regular other complex Jane Hill
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing missing Jane Hill
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food missing missing Jane Hill
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fish hook subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
acorn bread food $āwt acorn bread loan into protolanguage *saw- Takic Wintun Stubbs 2011 266c WW %saw other complex K. Hill Dict. Jane Hill
wheat food trīwa7 wheat loan Spanish WW %trigo simplex K. Hill Dict. Jane Hill
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology wīrui'nihwa't, wirui'nit reed flute inheritance *wiLu PNUA Stubbs 912 derived, other complex K. Hill Dict. Jane Hill
gambling sticks other tĕ'-poo-nem, mwo'-aht the counters in the terpwinch gambling game inheritance *typo- Californian see Tubatulabal simplex Merriam 48:195 Jane Hill
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food missing missing Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology tyīt death spirit, devil inheritance *tywi- Takic Stubbs 1799 other complex K. Hill Dict. Jane Hill
glue subsistence tool narčkin to glue, stick together inheritance *nay- Northern Uto-Aztecan na-20, the 'copulate' word; K. Hill says "ch is unexpected" other complex Jane Hill
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology tār'vert want'-kan-neetch; moktCH, mo'ke-haht'r, moo-ke-hat 'burial place' earth dug out, grave unique phrase Merriam 48:189, 191 Jane Hill
alcohol food pā7ia7ç whiskey inheritance *pa Uto-Aztecan water, with embellishments derived, other complex K. Hill Dict. Jane Hill
Datura wrightii narcotics mānič Datura meteloides loan Gabrielino or Cahuilla loan as Serrano should lose the /i/ WW %mani other complex although a loan, has normal ABS K. Hill Dict. Jane Hill
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology hōrmč shaman unique other complex K. Hill Dict. Jane Hill
honey miel mel food pīhč honey inheritance *pisa(L) Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 2259 other complex K. Hill Dict. Jane Hill
house other kīč house inheritance *ki: Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1214 other complex K. Hill Dict. Jane Hill
hunt cazar caçar food hyiñ to hunt inheritance *hya Northern Uto-Aztecan Hill/Miller hy-06 simplex root K. Hill Dict. Jane Hill
initiate boy culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
initiate girl culture-mythology kwa-hahn' puberty dance (literally, 'to cook' JHH) semantic shift *kwasi Uto-Aztecan simplex root, literally 'to cook' Merriam 48:191 Jane Hill
knife cuchillo faca culture-material kavorç knife unknown Serran only; perhaps from ka-32 'cut' other complex K. Hill Dict. Jane Hill
mat culture-material tu-reech tule mat unique other complex Merriam 48:177 Jane Hill
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool too'-e-hwat portable mortar unique formation on 'grind' Stubbs 2011 1086 derived, other complex Merriam 48:179 Jane Hill
necklace other qornqat necklace inheritance *koLoka Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1505 WW %xene other complex K. Hill Dict. Jane Hill
needle/awl subsistence tool ōr' (poss) awl inheritance *7opi Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 92 only second syllable??? Or p > w > 0 other complex K. Hill Dict. Jane Hill
paddle/oar remo remo transport missing missing Jane Hill
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool pāhu't pestle inheritance *paha Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1085 with -wut increment other complex K. Hill Dict. Jane Hill
pinole food hakwei'č pinole with chia unique other complex K. Hill Dict. Jane Hill
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other ah-we'-kah pipe inheritance *wika Takic also in Gabrielino other complex Merriam 48:181 Jane Hill
pitch food ur'-hant resin or pitch inheritance *salaC Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1634 other complex Merriam 48:181 Jane Hill
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool wełtj, pahat dish, cup, bowl, little round pot, cooking vessel inheritance *pasa(-ta) Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1706 other complex K. Hill Dict. Jane Hill
quiver subsistence tool aht-too-kah quiver inheritance *tuka/i Uto-Aztecan Hill/Miller tu-11 'carry on back' other complex Merriam 48:179 Jane Hill
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology ājt rattle (tortoise shell) inheritance *(pa)-7aya-la Cupan Stubbs 2422 but in 'rattle' meaning onlyTakic other complex K. Hill Dict. Jane Hill
red paint culture-mythology u:ha:t (H) same as Gab oyi:', but in "S." inheritance *osa Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 711; CHM 48:175 shu-reen'-kah oosh-niv 'red paint' other complex Hill Harrington notes Jane Hill
salt sal sal food čuka't salt semantic shift *coka Uto-Aztecan Hill/Miller tso-03 'sour' other complex K. Hill Dict. Jane Hill
seed beater subsistence tool chū-wi-hŏt, chow-wē-hwat seed paddle unique other complex Merriam 48:183 Jane Hill
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology havy7 (poss) clothes inheritance *ha-pyt Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 144; absolutive is -t, "blanket" in Merriam 48:173 other complex K. Hill Dict. Jane Hill
sinew-backed bow subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material nowt' skirt formerly worn by women inheritance *nawi Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 485 other complex Merriam 48:173 Jane Hill
snare subsistence tool mĕr'-tah kin'-e-what snare unique phrase Merriam 48:179 Jane Hill
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology čāç song inheritance *cha-ch Takic Hill/Miller tsa-17 other complex K. Hill Dict. Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool nŭ-cher kin'-ne-what spear for hunting unique other complex Merriam 48:179 Jane Hill
stirring stick food missing missing Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture wičua't string inheritance *wik-tu7a Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1843 other complex K. Hill Dict. Jane Hill
bag, sack culture-material taŋat sack inheritance *tanga Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 111 other complex K. Hill Dict. Jane Hill
string of shell money other ŋyçka' beads, ceremonial beads unknown maybe related to Cupeno nengu7ish 'rich'???CHM has oor'-kah pwah'-kak, oor'r-kah 'wampum. Indian money' 48:173 other complex Jane Hill
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation pīhç sugar, sweet semantic shift *pisa(L) Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 2259 other complex K. Hill Dict. Jane Hill
sweathouse other hujačit sweathouse unknown only Serran other complex K. Hill Dict. Jane Hill
tell history culture-mythology āv tell about, recount inheritance *7awa Californian (Takic plus Tubatulabal) Stubbs 2011 1873a simplex root K. Hill Dict. Jane Hill
cremate culture-mythology mah-ho'-nā'm tahCH'-tum cremation (plural JHH) unique phrase Merriam 48:191 Jane Hill
tobacco (native) narcotics pīvt tobacco inheritance *pipaC Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 2348 other complex K. Hill Dict. Jane Hill
tule boat transport missing missing other complex Jane Hill
white paint culture-mythology tyvič, tyvit white clay, lime inheritance *typiC Takic Stubbs 2011 758 nice reflex with vowel retained other complex K. Hill Dict. Jane Hill
winnowing basket culture-material čipat shallow, round basket inheritance *cippat Takic Stubbs 2011 122, but could this be loan from Cahuilla? Do we expect chipt? ; CHM hooe-hooe-kin-ne-hwat 48:183 other complex Jane Hill
wood tray subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
shoes zapatos sapatos dress waqāt shoes inheritance waCci(kaC0 Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1955 has parens around the first C, curse excel other complex K. Hill Dict. Jane Hill
medicine narcotics tiyr'ant medicine unique other omplex K. Hill Dict. Jane Hill
cradleboard culture-material ah-pah'-tom baby basket unique this is a paha basket word that's also with 'bottle' other complex Merriam 48:183 Jane Hill
policeman polícia policía acculturation wyčy:ka7 police officer unique analysis uncertain, root looks like 'man' to me JHH other complex K. Hill Dict. Jane Hill
soldier soldado soldado acculturation suldādu7 soldier loan Spanish WW %soldado simplex K. Hill Dict. Jane Hill
corn food missing missing Jane Hill
beans food rihōl beans loan Spanish WW %frijol simplex K. Hill Dict. Jane Hill
cat gato gato acculturation gātu7 cat loan Spanish also kiri7 WW %gato simplex K. Hill Dict. Jane Hill
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation pārčqt gun unique on pat- like Cu, Lu derived, other complex K. Hill Dict. Jane Hill
hat sombero chapéu dress kumua7t hat loan Yokuts Serran only other complex K. Hill Dict. Jane Hill
clapper acculturation pă-how'-it music sticks, clapper sticks unknown looks a bit like 'big clown'??? other complex Merriam 48:191 Jane Hill
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material missing Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture qai-kwt Poss -ku7 “rope” unknown Jane Hill
bottom grinding stone manufacture pa:hu “bedrock mortar” loan direction unknown R&E2000:420 Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool -hunaqan "ceremonial staff" inheritance R&E2000:62 Jane Hill
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture missing Jane Hill
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture pa:hu7t “pestle” loan direction unknown Jane Hill
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing Jane Hill
spearthrower subsistence tool Suma:n-t bow, arrow, bow-and-arrow inheritance Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool hu:-T “arrow” inheritance Jane Hill
house other ki:-c inheritance Jane Hill


Grammatical Data (226)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] no Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? Jane Hill
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones no Jane Hill
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? Jane Hill
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments Jane Hill
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? Jane Hill
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony Jane Hill
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] Jane Hill
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone no Jane Hill
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word yes Jane Hill
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no Jane Hill
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes no Jane Hill
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different yes Jane Hill
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated yes Jane Hill
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated yes Jane Hill
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced Jane Hill
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection Jane Hill
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word Jane Hill
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' Jane Hill
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs Jane Hill
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment Jane Hill
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders 0 Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system 3 Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun 5 Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? yes Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? no Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' yes Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' yes Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction Jane Hill
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order no Jane Hill
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject no Jane Hill
Word Order VS in transitive clauses Jane Hill
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object Jane Hill
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject Jane Hill
Word Order Preposition-Noun no Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes Jane Hill
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) yes Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') no Jane Hill
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun no Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun yes Jane Hill
Word Order Dem-Noun yes Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Dem no Jane Hill
Word Order Num-Noun Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Num Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies yes Jane Hill
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies no Jane Hill
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') no Jane Hill
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' no Jane Hill
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence Jane Hill


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
medium HG low seasonal no