Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives

Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity
Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla no Jane Hill
Cupeño yes Jane Hill
Luiseño no Jane Hill
Serrano no Jane Hill
Kitanemuk no Jane Hill
Kawaiisu no Jane Hill
Timbisha no Jane Hill
Western Mono Jane Hill
Chemehuevi no Jane Hill
Southern Paiute no Jane Hill
Southern Ute no Jane Hill
Shoshone no Jane Hill
Comanche no Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone no Jane Hill
Northern Paiute yes Jane Hill
Gabrielino no Jane Hill
Achagua no Wilson & Levinsohn 1992 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro no No articles identified, only demonstratives. Allin, 1976: 198-200 Aimee Lawrence
Bare no Aikhenvald, 1995: 22 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco no Galindo, 2002: 88 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna no info Articles/demonstratives not discussed among other word classes. Shauer & Shauer, 2000 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 50 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu yes Demonstratives are separate words, definite articles are suffixed to the noun or the verb in a relative clause. Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 797, 799 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana no There are "specifier" articles and demnstratives, but no definiteness markers. Aikhenvald, 2003: 204-208 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã no Facundes, 2000: 356 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali yes Payne 1981; Payne 1982; Payne 1983 Amanda Meeks
Maipure no info Zamponi 2003:22 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' no Duff-Tripp 1997:53 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure no te = DEM1m (this [one]); tetʃ = DEM2m (that [one]) Danielsen 2007: p313 Mitz Perez
Nanti no They use the same phonological form. Michael, 2008. p. 304-306 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Palikur no Launey 2003:102 Daniel Smith
Yine yes author only describes one article Matteson 1965:128 Daniel Smith
Añun no Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora yes Seifart - 2005:126 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no info author does not discuss definiteness Hall 1988; Escoriaza 1959 Daniel Smith
Makushi no Carson 1982: 64-68 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa no no marker of definiteness Payne 2012:272 Daniel Smith
Pemon no de Armellada 1999: 151 Shannon Dardis
Guna no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika no Frank 1990:33 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí no Quesada 2008:49-96 Daniel Valle
Damana no info Daniel Valle
Sikuani no demonstrative marks definiteness Queixalós 1998:68 Daniel Smith
Macaguan no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna no Overall 2007:243-69 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá no info Daniel Valle
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá no The third person pronoun can also be used as a marker of definiteness to show respect for the referent Levinson 1974:13 Daniel Valle
Matses no info Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no Zúñiga 2006, p. 87-9 Daniel Valle
Páez no info Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no Parker 1965:32-46 Daniel Valle
Tikuna no Montes 2004b:45-100 Daniel Valle
Urarina no info Daniel Valle
Waunana no info Daniel Valle
Andoke yes if you count 3rd person pn repeated use as a marker of definiteness. Landaburu 1979: 135 Kelsey Neely
Puinave no Giron 2008: p174 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara yes Deza Galindo 1992: 84, 85 Shannon Dardis Indefiniteness is marked by indefinite pronouns
Kakua no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no Minor and Minor 1982. p.10, 94 Christopher Clack There are six classes of pronouns in huitoto: the personal, the indefinite ones, the possessive ones, the demonstrativos, relative and the interrogatory ones.
Hup no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano no Miller 1999, p. 31 Chris Clack
Cubeo no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 82-84 Amanda Novak
Kotiria no re, the object marker, codes definiteness as one of its semantic components Stenzel 2004, p. 223 Amanda Novak
Makuna no Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.33-36 Chris Clack
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.41-42 Chris Clack
Barasano no Jones & Jones 1991, p.32 Chris Clack
Tanimuca no Strom 1992, p.51 Chris Clack
Siona no demonstratives mark definiteness Wheeler 1987:119-120 Daniel Smith
Tukano no no definite marker Ramirez 1997 Kelsey Neely no evidence for this
Yanomami yes indefinite (non-specific) verbal particle/pronoun Ramirez 1994: 177-178 Kelsey Neely
Ninam no info Goodwin-Gomez Kelsey Neely
Sanumá no info Kelsey Neely
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana no info Everett 2006:296-317 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no Cruz 2011:262 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no info Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama no demonstratives used for definiteness Vallejos 2010:218 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu no done 0
Wambaya no done 0
Bunuba no done 0
Walmajarri no Done-Claire 0
Nyulnyul no done? 0
Warrwa no done 0
Worrorra no ms4.1 done 0
Garrwa no info done X
Gooniyandi no done 0
Warlpiri no n24 done 0
Bardi yes done-Claire 1
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no 74 done 0
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi no 71-75 done-Dan 0
Yidiny no done-Catherine 0
Yanyuwa no 7 Done-Austin 0
Yandruwandha no Done-Dan 0
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no Done-Dan 0
Woiwurrung no 67 done-Amalia 0
Wirangu No 87-90 done 0
Wemba-Wemba no H 57-8 done-Amalia 0
Warumungu No 31 done-Amalia 0
Wangkumara no info done X
Uradhi No 357 Y 0
Paakantyi no info Y-Hannah X
Pitta-Pitta No 193 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no info done-Hannah x
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta yes 47, 49, 72 Done-Hannah 1
Ngiyambaa yes 128 Done-Emily 1
Ngayawang No 11 done-Amalia 0
Muruwari yes 50, 80 Done-Dan 1
Mayi-Yapi No 51-52 done 0
Martuthunira no 109-121 done 0
Marrgany No 304 Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 287 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji n/a Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara No 388 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna No 9 done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu yes 96 Done-Dan 1
Jaru no 61-3 Done-Amalia 0
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 72 Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr no 274 done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun no done-Jessica 0
Yuwaalaraay No 91 0
Dyirbal No 44-5 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu no 56 done 0
Djinang Yes 99 Done-Amalia 1
Djabugay done
Diyari no info done-Hannah x
Dharawal no info done-Hannah w Dhurga) x
Darkinyung no 24-25 done 0
Bularnu no Done-Austin 0
Biri n/a done-Jessica 0
Bidjara-Gungabula no info done-Jessica x
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana no Done-Dan 0
Alyawarr no done 0
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija No 32 Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung no 84 done 0
Mathi-Mathi no 92 done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no 35 done-Amalia 0
Thanggati no 30-33 done 0
Katthang no 50 done-Amalia 0
Panyjima no done 0
Ngarinyeri No 30 done-Amalia 0
Kurrama no 82-100 done-Dan 0
Yingkarta no Done-Claire 0
Githabul No 17 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya No 304 Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen No 49 Done- 0
WesternTorres no done 0
Wakaya n/a done 0
Yindjilindji n/a done 0
Bandjalang No 70 Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara No 26 done 0
Arrernte Yes 105 1
Kokatha No 49 0
Karajarri No 246 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara Yes G 33 1
Ritharrngu No 49 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay No 44 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no Done-Amalia 0
Warnman No 41 Done-Amalia 0
Djapu no 0
Bilinarra no 1.1000000000000000888 done 0
Wiradjuri no m286 done 0
Aghu-Tharnggala No 67 Y2 0
Narungga No info done x
Tharrkari No 16 0
Wajarri No 81 0
Warungu no 0
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua yes a set of person enclitics and word order can mark definiteness Payne and Payne 1990:453 Daniel Smith
Baniwa no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps