Arabana

Family
Pama-Nyungan
Region
Australia
ISO 639-3
ard
Location
-31.31°, 138.43°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (186)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar arniri inheritance Claire Bowern
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar arniri inheritance Claire Bowern
1sg yo eu grammar antha semantic shift Claire Bowern
2pl ustedes vocês grammar [missing] missing Claire Bowern
2sg xx xx grammar unpa inheritance Claire Bowern
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar [missing] missing Claire Bowern
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar uka loan Claire Bowern
above encima, arriba acima location arata doubtful loan Claire Bowern
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar yata inheritance Claire Bowern
all todo todos other pratjanta loan Claire Bowern
and y e grammar njurdu unique Claire Bowern
ankle tobillo tornozelo body muku-thiri inheritance Claire Bowern
armpit axila, sobaco axila body kilji-kilji inheritance Claire Bowern
ashamed xx xx mental mangarnda unknown Claire Bowern
ashes xx xx environment pudnhu loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
at en, a em, a location [missing] missing Claire Bowern
back espalda costas body kuku inheritance Claire Bowern
bad mal mal quality kurlu-kurlu unique Claire Bowern
be alive xx xx body angka doubtful loan Arandic Claire Bowern
belly barriga barriga body kudnardi semantic shift Claire Bowern
below abajo, debajo abaixo location thuRu unique Claire Bowern
big grande grande quality katjiwiRi unique Claire Bowern
bite morder morder body purrtha- unique Claire Bowern
black negro preto colour pirla unique Claire Bowern
blood sangre sangue body kubmarri inheritance Claire Bowern
blow soplar soprar body witjikura unique Claire Bowern
blunt xx xx quality pudlu unique Claire Bowern
bone hueso osso body walpu loan Thura-Yura Claire Bowern
boomerang xx xx manufacture kira loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
breast pecho, seno peito body ngama inheritance Claire Bowern
breathe respirar respirar body ngaruwaluwalunkata inheritance Claire Bowern
burn quemar queimar environment marra- inheritance Claire Bowern
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body [missing] missing Claire Bowern
child niño, niña criança human arluwa doubtful loan Arandic? Claire Bowern
climb subir subir motion ta-wonkata inheritance? Claire Bowern
cloud nube nuvem environment kurarapalku unique Claire Bowern
cold frío frio quality madli inheritance Claire Bowern
come venir vir motion wonkakata unique Claire Bowern
cook cocinar cozinhar impact tilitilinkata unique Claire Bowern
count contar contar mental dimpata unique Claire Bowern
cry llorar chorar mental dudninta unique Claire Bowern
cut xx xx impact mardura- unique Claire Bowern
die/be dead morir morrer state kumpira unique Claire Bowern
dig cavar cavar impact paka- inheritance Claire Bowern
dingo/wolf fauna madla unique Claire Bowern
dirty sucio sujo quality jankatara unique Claire Bowern
dream soñar sonhar mental apalka loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
drink beber, tomar beber body puntha- inheritance Claire Bowern
dry seco seco quality murrilha unique Claire Bowern
dust polvo poeira environment puthurru inheritance Claire Bowern
ear oreja orelha body yarri doubtful loan Claire Bowern
earth/soil tierra terra environment wadlu inheritance Claire Bowern
eat comer comer body tharni- semantic shift Claire Bowern
egg huevo ovo fauna papu inheritance Claire Bowern
eye ojo olho body milki inheritance Claire Bowern
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body kudna inheritance Claire Bowern
fall caer cair motion ngopanangaritjinta semantic shift Claire Bowern
far lejos longe quality paRantja-lhi inheritance Claire Bowern
fat/grease grasa gordura body marni inheritance Claire Bowern
father padre, papá pai kinship apitji inheritance Claire Bowern
fear miedo medo mental thadlara waya- inheritance Claire Bowern
feather pluma pena fauna yathi- unique Claire Bowern
fire fuego fogo environment maka inheritance Claire Bowern
fish xx xx fauna markara unique Claire Bowern
flow fluir fluir motion kiRa- inheritance Claire Bowern
flower flor flor environment punpu inheritance Claire Bowern
fly volar voar motion nguRi-nguRi inheritance? Claire Bowern
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment tataru unique Claire Bowern
foot pie body thidna inheritance Claire Bowern
fruit fruta fruta flora kati unique Claire Bowern
good bueno bom quality alju doubtful loan Claire Bowern
grow crecer crescer state woninta inheritance? Claire Bowern
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body wulpuru unique Claire Bowern
hand mano mão body maRa inheritance Claire Bowern
head cabeza cabeça body kardapu inheritance Claire Bowern
hear oír ouvir mental ngawi- unique Claire Bowern
heavy pesado pesado quality tjurkukarla unique Claire Bowern
hide esconder esconder motion winta-witji- unique Claire Bowern
hit golpear, pegar bater impact palka-palka- inheritance Claire Bowern
hit (with hand) xx xx impact panti- inheritance Claire Bowern
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other parda- inheritance Claire Bowern
how? como como grammar thiyara unique Claire Bowern
if si se grammar [missing] missing Claire Bowern
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location pungaworla loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
intestines intestinos intestinos body alingkiringkiri unique Claire Bowern
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body mankatjinta unique Claire Bowern
kill matar matar impact kumpira-ma- unique Claire Bowern
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental ngurka- loan Claire Bowern
lake lago lago environment panto loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
laugh reír rir mental wijanta inheritance Claire Bowern
leaf hoja folha environment kadlha unique Claire Bowern
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body warrangka unique Claire Bowern
leg/foot pierna perna body parda unique Claire Bowern
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion kurda- unique Claire Bowern
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment piljpa inheritance Claire Bowern
liver hígado figado body kadlhu inheritance Claire Bowern
long largo comprido, longo quality paRantja-lhi inheritance? Claire Bowern
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna kata inheritance Claire Bowern
lung pulmón pulmão body bunnga inheritance Claire Bowern
man/male hombre homem human karna inheritance Claire Bowern
meat/flesh carne carne fauna kathi inheritance Claire Bowern
moon luna lua environment ngarkani unique Claire Bowern
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship lhuka unique Claire Bowern
mouth boca boca body murna inheritance Claire Bowern
name nombre nome human pidla unique Claire Bowern
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body wokara inheritance Claire Bowern
near/close cerca de perto quality itjarda unique Claire Bowern
neck cuello pescoço body [missing] missing Claire Bowern
new nuevo novo quality marra inheritance Claire Bowern
night noche noite time miljaru loan Claire Bowern
no/not no não grammar padni inheritance Claire Bowern
nose nariz nariz body midla inheritance Claire Bowern
old viejo velho quality parnda unique Claire Bowern
one uno um number nguju inheritance Claire Bowern
open/uncover abrir abrir other parlu unique Claire Bowern
other otro outro grammar nguru inheritance Claire Bowern
person/human being persona pessoa human nharla unique Claire Bowern
pimple xx xx body widi inheritance Claire Bowern
rain lluvia chuva environment tjilti unique Claire Bowern
red rojo vermelho colour arkapa unique Claire Bowern
right/right hand derecha direita location/body aratja loan Claire Bowern
road/path camino caminho manufacture wati- unique Claire Bowern
roof xx xx manufacture pungangalpa loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
root raíz raiz flora winjiwinjiri unique Claire Bowern
rotten podrido podre quality murlu unique Claire Bowern
sand arena areia environment wadlijuralja unique Claire Bowern
say decir dizer mental jeninta inheritance Claire Bowern
scratch rascar rasgar impact mirra- inheritance Claire Bowern
see ver ver mental kanpa- unique Claire Bowern
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality yati-yati unique Claire Bowern
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact [missing] missing Claire Bowern
short corto curto quality parla-parla inheritance Claire Bowern
shoulder hombro ombro body pilpiri doubtful loan Diyari Claire Bowern
sick xx xx body ngulpa unique Claire Bowern
sit sentar(se) sentar state thangka- semantic shift Claire Bowern
skin piel pele body patha inheritance Claire Bowern
sky cielo céu environment kadlara unique Claire Bowern
sleep dormir dormir body kudna-la- unique Claire Bowern
small pequeño pequeno quality kupa inheritance Claire Bowern
smell (tr/intr) xx xx body waRu-waRa- inheritance Claire Bowern
smoke humo fumaça environment thupu inheritance Claire Bowern
spit escupir cuspir body ngaltja inheritance Claire Bowern
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact palka-palka- inheritance Claire Bowern
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact tarpanta unique Claire Bowern
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact [missing] missing Claire Bowern
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state tharka- inheritance Claire Bowern
star estrella estrela environment kardipila inheritance Claire Bowern
steal robar roubar other jeljatirimaninta unique Claire Bowern
stone piedra pedra environment kadnha loan Claire Bowern
suck chupar chupar body puntha- inheritance Claire Bowern
sun sol sol time muju unique Claire Bowern
sweat sudar suor, suar body pulju unique Claire Bowern
swell hincharse inchar body waruterkanta unique Claire Bowern
swim nadar nadar motion tarakanta inheritance Claire Bowern
tail cola, rabo rabo body ingka doubtful loan Claire Bowern
that ese/esa esse grammar awarda unique Claire Bowern
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality tjurkukarla unique Claire Bowern
thin delgado fino quality iranja loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
think pensar pensar mental manungkarda unique Claire Bowern
this este/esta este grammar kayi unique Claire Bowern
three tres tres number kulpari inheritance Claire Bowern
throat garganta garganta body piltji unique Claire Bowern
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact thawi- inheritance Claire Bowern
thunder truenos trovão environment kuraradunjinta unique Claire Bowern
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact karra- inheritance Claire Bowern
tongue lengua lingua body thanganha unique Claire Bowern
tooth diente dente body yakarra unique Claire Bowern
true xx xx quality arla unique Claire Bowern
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other kalja unique Claire Bowern
two dos dois number parkulu inheritance Claire Bowern
vomit vomitar vomitar body kawa- inheritance Claire Bowern
walk caminar, andar andar motion karndi-karndi- unknown Claire Bowern
water agua agua environment kutha inheritance Claire Bowern
wet mojado molhado quality kuthaljuru unique Claire Bowern
what? que, qué que grammar minha inheritance Claire Bowern
when? cuando quando grammar unkulu unique Claire Bowern
where? donde onde grammar intja-li inheritance Claire Bowern
white blanco branco colour waru inheritance Claire Bowern
who? quien, quién quem grammar waRa inheritance Claire Bowern
wife esposa esposa kinship nupa inheritance Claire Bowern
wind viento vento environment warpa doubtful loan Claire Bowern
wing ala asa body palja unique Claire Bowern
woman/female mujer mulher human uljurla unique Claire Bowern
work trabajar trabalhar other irtji- unique Claire Bowern
yawn bostezar bocejar body manaterkanta loan Claire Bowern
yellow amarillo amarelo colour miRaka unique Claire Bowern


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (9)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna mupu unique Claire Bowern
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna piyarri loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna paya inheritance Claire Bowern
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna maRa-malka unique Claire Bowern
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna madla inheritance Claire Bowern
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna kantjarra inheritance Claire Bowern
kangaroo (generic) flora-fauna kungarra loan Claire Bowern
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna alakura unique Claire Bowern
spider araña aranha flora-fauna maRangkara doubtful loan Claire Bowern


Cultural Vocabulary (8)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture mati inheritance Claire Bowern
bottom grinding stone manufacture [missing] missing Claire Bowern
digging stick subsistence tool wana inheritance Claire Bowern
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture [missing] missing Claire Bowern
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture [missing] missing Claire Bowern
spearthrower subsistence tool amira inheritance Claire Bowern
spear lanza lança subsistence tool katji loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
house other ngura inheritance? Claire Bowern


Grammatical Data (295)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. no 26 Done-Dan 0
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] no 26 Done-Dan 0
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast yes 26, 44 Done-Dan 1
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? no? 48, 51 Done-Dan 0
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels no Done-Dan 0
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme no Done-Dan 0
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] no Done-Dan 0
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? no 25 Done-Dan 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones no Done-Dan 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? no Done-Dan 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments no Done-Dan 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? no 57-9 Done-Dan 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony yes 48-52 Done-Dan 1
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] no Done-Dan 0
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone no Done-Dan 0
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word yes 130 Done-Dan 1
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no 61, 130 Done-Dan 0
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes yes 61, 130 Done-Dan 1
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different no 61, 130 Done-Dan 0
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated yes 135 Done-Dan 1
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated yes 97 Done-Dan 1
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced yes 100 Done-Dan 1
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection no 210-12 Done-Dan 0
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word yes 204-5 Done-Dan 1
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' no info Done-Dan x
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs yes 206 Done-Dan 1
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment no info Done-Dan x
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns no info Done-Dan x
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP no 61 Done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders no Done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. no 102 Done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter no Done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates no Done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human yes 60-61 Done-Dan 1
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only n/a 110-119 Done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates n/a Done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates n/a Done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" n/a Done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals n/a Done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' n/a Done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups no 64-5 Done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun yes 63 Done-Dan 1
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no 63-5 Done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun no 63-5, 98-9 Done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic no 65 Done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only yes 65 Done-Dan 1
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns no 110, 113 Done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' no Done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only n/a Done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness no Done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker no Done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you yes 112 Done-Dan 1
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) no 130 Done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system yes 120, 122 Done-Dan 1
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) no Done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns no 110-113 Done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns no 110-113 Done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no 110-113 Done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no 117-8 Done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix no 116 Done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients no 61 Done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun yes 61 Done-Dan 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are no 60-88 Done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) no 60-61 Done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates yes 60-61 Done-Dan 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic yes 61 Done-Dan 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic no 61 Done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic no 61 Done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change no 61 Done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone no 61 Done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' no 69 Done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 yes 103-4 Done-Dan 1
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 no 103-4 Done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 no 103-4 Done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. no 103-4 Done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' no 103-5 Done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no 104 Done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used yes 103-5 Done-Dan 1
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no 292 Done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no 287-296 Done-Dan 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? n/a Done-Dan 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? n/a Done-Dan 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' yes 72-4 Done-Dan 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' no 72-4 Done-Dan 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities no 102 Done-Dan 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no 95 Done-Dan 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) yes 72-4, 90-6 Done-Dan 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form no 95-6 Done-Dan 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father no? 95-6 Done-Dan 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg no? 95-6 Done-Dan 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) no Done-Dan 0
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes yes 60 Done-Dan 1
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco n/a Done-Dan 0
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb no info Done-Dan x
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb no info Done-Dan x
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb no info Done-Dan x
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective yes 137-40 Done-Dan 1
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' yes 90-96, texts Done-Dan 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere yes 163 Done-Dan 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past yes 163-75 Done-Dan 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future no 183 Done-Dan 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) yes 183 Done-Dan 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no 130 Done-Dan 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes 130 Done-Dan 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no 130 Done-Dan 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no Done-Dan 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood yes /-Ru/ 180 Done-Dan 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) yes /-parra/ 182-3 Done-Dan 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses yes 236 Done-Dan 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' yes 182 Done-Dan 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something no 238 Done-Dan 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction no 238 Done-Dan 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking yes /panta/ 238 Done-Dan 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis yes /-kali/ 258 Done-Dan 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction no Done-Dan 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking no info Done-Dan x
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected yes? 247-8 Done-Dan 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") yes /panta/ 238 Done-Dan 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality yes /-li/ 191 Done-Dan 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' yes /-lira/ 188 Done-Dan 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' yes 187 Done-Dan 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative no Done-Dan 0
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. yes 204-9 Done-Dan 1
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker no Done-Dan 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) no Done-Dan 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. no Done-Dan 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' no Done-Dan 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse no Done-Dan 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above yes /-pinthi/, /-kali/ 257, 258 Done-Dan 1
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic yes 258 Done-Dan 1
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs no 130 Done-Dan 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle no Done-Dan 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme no Done-Dan 0
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion n/a Done-Dan 0
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction no info Done-Dan x
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order yes 261; personal communication Done-Dan 1
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject no 306: cf text 9.2.3, sentence 1 Done-Dan 0
Word Order VS in transitive clauses no 311: cf text 9.2.5, sentence 16 Done-Dan 0
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object yes 260: example 941, 264: example 957; personal communicatio Done-Dan 1
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject no 264: example 958 Done-Dan 0
Word Order Preposition-Noun n/a Done-Dan 0
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes 61 Done-Dan 1
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) no info Done-Dan x
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') no info Done-Dan x
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun no 60 Done-Dan 0
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun yes 60 Done-Dan 1
Word Order Dem-Noun yes 124: cf sentence 275 Done-Dan 1
Word Order Noun-Dem yes 126: cf sentence 279 Done-Dan 1
Word Order Num-Noun yes 103 Done-Dan 1
Word Order Noun-Num no? 103 Done-Dan 0
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies no info Done-Dan x
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies no 266 Done-Dan 0
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') no 266 Done-Dan 0
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' yes 266 Done-Dan 1
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause yes 126-7 Done-Dan 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects no 65-6 Done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked no 65-6 Done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker yes 65-6 Done-Dan 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no 65-6 Done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no 65-6 Done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative yes 66 Done-Dan 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative no 66 Done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no 66 Done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no 66 Done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no 66 Done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs n/a Done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other n/a Done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive n/a Done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) n/a Done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. n/a Done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects yes examples throughout Done-Dan 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no Done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects N/A Done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes no Done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers no Done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers no Done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system n/a Done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system n/a Done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately n/a Done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes n/a Done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent no Done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently no info Done-Dan x
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives no info Done-Dan x
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently no info Done-Dan x
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. yes /-la-mintya-nta/ 152-3 Done-Dan 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. yes /-nta/ 152-3 Done-Dan 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb no 152-3 Done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted no Done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no Done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency no Done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb yes /-la/ 148-52 Done-Dan 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb no Done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb no 146-8 Done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb yes /-la/ 147 Done-Dan 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix yes 146 Done-Dan 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization no info Done-Dan x
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' no 146-8 Done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event no 146-8 Done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency no 148-52 Done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element yes 236-41 Done-Dan 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element no 236-41 Done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix yes 94 Done-Dan 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle yes 236-41 Done-Dan 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb no Done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' no Done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' no Done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase yes /Anhaku/ 241 Done-Dan 1
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle no info Done-Dan x
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology no info Done-Dan x
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no info Done-Dan x
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only no info Done-Dan x
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) no info Done-Dan x
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position no 287-90 Done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position yes 287-90 Done-Dan 1
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) yes 288-90 Done-Dan 1
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) yes 267 Done-Dan 1
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. yes 267 Done-Dan 1
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause n/a Done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix yes 269 Done-Dan 1
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) no info Done-Dan x
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) no info Done-Dan x
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. yes 266-82 Done-Dan 1
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined yes 266-82 Done-Dan 1
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence yes 269 Done-Dan 1
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have an iterative function? yes 136 Done-Dan 1
Morphology - General Does noun root reduplication have a plural/pluractional function? no 98-9 Done-Dan 0
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘real’ X? no 99 Done-Dan 0
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have a distributive function? yes 136 Done-Dan 1
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have a pluractional function? no 136 Done-Dan 0
Morphology - General Does noun root reduplication have an iterative function? no 98-9 Done-Dan 0
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘fake’ X? no 99 Done-Dan 0
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘very’ X? yes 99 Done-Dan 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does the language have ergative and instrumental syncretism? yes 61, 69 Done-Dan 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does the language have a distinct genitive case? no 61 Done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is the locative related to the ergative with vowel change? no 61 Done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is case marked on just one word in an NP? yes 60-88, 282-4 Done-Dan 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is case marked on all (non-pronominal) words in an NP? yes 60-88, 282-4 Done-Dan 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Are any subordinate verbs (or whole clauses) marked with case to indicate their function? yes 267 Done-Dan 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does ergative mark discourse functions of focus/unexpectedness? no Done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Derivation Is there a evidence for derivational morphology being distinct from inflectional on nouns? yes to any of HG 95-97 entails yes to this; yep; this is more general but not just about derivation (would also include proprietive, for example, not necessarily derivation that changes word class) yes 61, 90-96 Done-Dan 1
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have a minimal/augment system? no Done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have a unit augment system? no Done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language mark dual on nouns? yes 63 Done-Dan 1
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language mark plural on nouns? yes 63 Done-Dan 1
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have group/collective nominal suffixes? no Done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have suppletive plural verbs? no Done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have suppletive plural adjectives? no info Done-Dan x
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language have bound pronouns? yes to any of HG 173-175 entails yes to this; not necessarily? - CB no Done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are the bound pronouns distinct from the free pronouns? n/a 117-8 Done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language mark moiety distinctions in pronouns? yes 117-8 Done-Dan 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language mark generational distinctions in pronouns? yes 117-8 Done-Dan 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are 'who' and 'what' distinct words? yes 126 Done-Dan 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there an inclusive/exclusive distinction in the dual? yes 111-2 Done-Dan 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there an inclusive/exclusive distinction in the plural? yes 113 Done-Dan 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there a gender distinction in third person dual pronouns? no 113 Done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there clitic pronouns? no Done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there object clitic pronouns? no Done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there distinct possessive and IO pronouns? no 114 Done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories When there are both object and subject clitic pronouns, does the object pronoun follow the subject one? n/a Done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Discourse Is there a focus position? include the position in the ‘form’ notes yes Verb-initial, object-final are "emphatic" postions 263-4 Done-Dan 1
Simple Clauses - Discourse Is there a topic position? include the position in the ‘form’ notes no info Done-Dan x
Simple Clauses - Negation Is verbal negation a separate word? related to, and maybe equivalent to, HG 206-207 (not equivalent if verbal negation is being treated separately from clausal negation) yes 236-41 Done-Dan 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Does the negative marker precede the verb? related to, and maybe equivalent to, HG 203 (not equivalent if verbal negation is being treated separately from clausal negation) yes 236-41 Done-Dan 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Are there second position clausal clitics? no Done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Is tense marked on pronouns? no Done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Are there predicative clitics (e.g. Darkinyung grammar p35) no 287 Done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Tense Does the language have tense/mood/etc particles (free words)? no 156-88 Done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is reflexive/reciprocal marked on the verb? =yes to any of HG 188-190; not necessarily; e.g. YN has a reflexive marker but it doesn’t go on the verb. yes 152 Done-Dan 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Does reflexive/reciprocal change the conjugation class? no info 152 Done-Dan x
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is there a reflexive/reciprocal particle? no Done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is the passive typically used only with adversative semantics? n/a Done-Dan 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there an inchoative suffix? yes /-thi/ (w. /-wityi/) 140 Done-Dan 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a distinct present tense verbal suffix? yes 156-160 Done-Dan 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a continuous aspect suffix? yes 176-9 Done-Dan 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a punctual aspect suffix? yes 156-160 Done-Dan 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Can tense and aspect cooccur? yes 195 Done-Dan 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is tense marked on nouns? no Done-Dan 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Do positive commands take the same morphology as negative commands? no 180, 236 Done-Dan 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Is a negative command formed from a nominalised verb (eg. "no talking!")? no 180, 236 Done-Dan 0
Verbal Categories - Other Is the verb ‘say’ the same as the verb ‘do’? no info Done-Dan x
Verbal Categories - Other Does the language have body part compound verbs? yes 139 Done-Dan 1
Verbal Categories - Other Are there verbal agreement clitics? no 130 Done-Dan 0
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a verb 'be'? no 287-8 Done-Dan 0
Verbal Categories - Other Are there verb conjugation classes? no 131 Done-Dan 0
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a conjugation for uninflecting verbs? no 131 Done-Dan 0
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a grammatical category of associated motion? yes 205-9 Done-Dan 1
Verbal Categories - Other Does the language have kinship verbs? That is, are the words which designate kinship relations such as ‘mother’ and ‘father’ verbs in the language? no info Done-Dan x
Verbal Categories - VerbalNumber Does the language have suppletive plural nouns? no 63 Done-Dan 0
Word Order Are there discontinuous NP constituents? no 282, 124-126 Done-Dan 0
Word Order Is word order fixed in noun phrases? yes 282-4 Done-Dan 1
Word Order Is word order fixed in verb phrases? no? 261 Done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: second position clitics Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no Done-Dan 0
Phonology - Segmental Prestopped segments list which segments in the ‘form’ column yes intervocalic laterals, nasals 37 Done-Dan 1


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
small HG low mobile yes