Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head

Nominal Syntax - Possession
e.g. 'the boy his-dog'


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla yes Jane Hill
Cupeño yes Jane Hill
Luiseño yes Jane Hill
Serrano yes Jane Hill
Kitanemuk yes Jane Hill
Kawaiisu yes Jane Hill
Timbisha no Jane Hill
Western Mono yes Jane Hill
Chemehuevi yes Jane Hill
Southern Paiute yes Jane Hill
Southern Ute yes Jane Hill
Shoshone no Jane Hill
Comanche yes Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone no Jane Hill
Northern Paiute yes Jane Hill
Gabrielino yes Jane Hill
Achagua no postposition between possessor and possessed noun (alienable) Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 65 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Resígaro no See discussion of Limiter tagmeme under "noun phrase." When the possessor is referred to via a pronoun, this is fused to the possessed element, but these do not mark agreement when the possessor is referred to using a full NP. Allin, 1976: 225-227 Aimee Lawrence
Bare yes The possessed item is in possessed form (which coincides with 3rd person possessor without a prefix) Aikhenvald, 1995: 13 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Piapoco yes Alienable nouns take one of three markers when possessed, as well as prefixes referencing possessor. Galindo, 2002: 99 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna yes -te is the marker on animate possessed nouns (with some exceptions), -re and -ne are markers of inanimate possessed nouns, but -re is less frequent. Possessive prefixes also attach to the head. Shauer & Shauer, 1978: 47 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero yes The head gets a marker to agree with the dependent. In the case of alienable nouns, it also gets a marker showing that it's possessed. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 38 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana yes Santos, 2006: 131 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu yes Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 799 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana yes Aikhenvald, 2003: 122-123 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã yes Possessive constructions are formed by juxtaposing two noun phrases, the second of which is the possessed noun, although the possessed noun phrase sometimes receives a possessed marker. The head marker does not agree with possessor. da Silva Facundes, Sidney. (2000). The Language of the Apurinã People of Brazil. Doctoral Dissertation, SUNY Albany: 449 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali yes Payne 1983:49 Amanda Meeks
Maipure yes Zamponi 2003:24 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' yes Duff-Tripp 1997:29 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure yes Danielsen 2007:125 Daniel Valle
Nanti yes Michael, 2008. p. 297-299 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Palikur yes Launey 2003:70 Daniel Smith
Yine no info Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun yes person prefix marked on head, example on text Patte 1989:46, 117 Daniel Smith
Bora yes Seifart - 2005:37,46,52-57 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare yes Hall 1988: 361-371 Melody Ann Ross Examples from texts
Makushi yes Carson 1982:104-112 Amanda Meeks
Eñepa yes Gildea 1993:49 Daniel Valle
Pemon yes de Armellada 1999: 13 Shannon Dardis ri is usually the suffix that shows possession, but sometimes other morphemes are used instead
Guna yes optional for third person Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika no Frank 1985:55 Daniel Valle
Kogi no Ortiz 1994:384 Daniel Valle
Cabecar no Bourland 1976:57 Daniel Valle
Guaymí yes Alphonse 1956:50 Daniel Valle
Damana yes Daniel Valle
Sikuani yes Queixalós 1998:41 Daniel Smith
Macaguan yes not obligatory, often just use pronouns Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna yes Overall 2007:261 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá no info Daniel Valle
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá no ILV 1976:35-6 Daniel Valle
Matses no Fleck:760-1 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no info most likely not Zúñiga 2006, p. 87-102 Daniel Valle
Páez no Jung:121-2 Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no Parker 1965:40 Daniel Valle
Tikuna no Montes 2004b:88-89 Daniel Valle
Urarina no Olawsky:331-41 Daniel Valle
Waunana no info Daniel Valle
Andoke yes Landaburu 1979: 132-133 Kelsey Neely
Puinave yes Giron 2008: p236 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara yes Huayhua Pari 2001: 250 Shannon Dardis
Kakua no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no Minor and Minor 1982. p.90 Christopher Clack
Hup no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect yes only where PR is a pronoun in inalienable construction Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano no Miller 1999, p. 49 Amanda Novak
Cubeo no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 91 Chris Clack
Kotiria yes when the genetive marker is used it is on the possessed thing Stenzel 2004, p. 198 Daniel Smith
Makuna yes Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.36-40 Chris Clack
Koreguaje yes Cook & Criswell 1993, p.45 Chris Clack
Barasano yes Jones & Jones 1991, p.61-62 Chris Clack
Tanimuca no Strom 1992, p.66 Chris Clack
Siona no Wheeler - 1970:78 Amanda Meeks
Tukano yes Ramirez 1997: 324 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami yes Ramirez 1994: 184-189 Kelsey Neely
Ninam yes Goodwin-Gomez, p. 52 Kelsey Neely
Sanumá no info Borgman 1990: p.126-128 Kelsey Neely
Surui yes Van der Meer (?):12 Daniel Smith
Karitiana no info Daniel Valle
Nheengatu yes Cruz 2011:156 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní yes However, it is tricky to establish it because the possessive is an affix which goes in between the possessor and possessum and all these elements form a single word Ayala 1996:85-7 Daniel Valle
Aché no Susnik 1974:101 Daniel Valle
Kokama yes Vallejos 2010:274-276 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu no done 0
Wambaya no done 0
Bunuba no done 0
Walmajarri no Done-Claire 0
Nyulnyul yes done? 1
Warrwa yes done 1
Worrorra yes ms13.1 done 1
Garrwa no? fpro13 done 0
Gooniyandi yes done 1
Warlpiri no? L50 done 0
Bardi yes done-Claire 1
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no 57 done 0
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi no cf texts done-Dan 0
Yidiny no done-Catherine 0
Yanyuwa no info Done-Austin x
Yandruwandha no 79-80 Done-Dan 0
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no 23, 31 Done-Dan 0
Woiwurrung yes 68 done-Amalia 1
Wirangu No 51 done 0
Wemba-Wemba yes H 33 done-Amalia 1
Warumungu No 55 done-Amalia 0
Wangkumara no info done X
Uradhi No 349 Y 0
Paakantyi yes 75 Y-Hannah 1
Pitta-Pitta yes 197 Done-Amalia 1
Pintupi no info done-Hannah x
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta yes 129 Done-Hannah 1
Ngiyambaa no 230 Done-Emily 0
Ngayawang No 12 done-Amalia 0
Muruwari no 67 Done-Dan 0
Mayi-Yapi No 45 done 0
Martuthunira no 91 done 0
Marrgany No 309 Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 173 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji no 52 Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara No 428 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna No 5 done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu no cf 50, (3.78), e.g. Done-Dan 0
Jaru no 194-6 Done-Amalia 0
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 56 Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr no 260 done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun no done-Jessica 0
Yuwaalaraay Yes 49 1
Dyirbal No 105 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu no 36 done 0
Djinang Yes 80, 84 Done-Amalia 1
Djabugay done
Diyari no 140 done-Hannah 0
Dharawal yes 48; 52-53; 64 done-Hannah w Dhurga) 1
Darkinyung no 21, 23 done 0
Bularnu no Done-Austin 0
Biri no 55 done-Jessica 0
Bidjara-Gungabula no done-Jessica 0
Batyala No 5 Done-Amalia 0
Arabana no 72-4 Done-Dan 0
Alyawarr no 75 done 0
Nyikina yes done-Claire 1
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija No 28 Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung yes 74 done 1
Mathi-Mathi yes 89 done-Amalia 1
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no 33 done-Amalia 0
Thanggati no 20-21 done 0
Katthang no 39 done-Amalia 0
Panyjima no 195 done 0
Ngarinyeri No 11 done-Amalia 0
Kurrama no 38 done-Dan 0
Yingkarta no Done-Claire 0
Githabul No 11 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya No 309 Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen No 38 Done- 0
WesternTorres no FO 122 done 0
Wakaya yes done 1
Yindjilindji no info 507 done x
Bandjalang No 70 Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara No 40 done 0
Arrernte No 148 0
Kokatha No 55 0
Karajarri No 142 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara No Y 14 0
Ritharrngu No 35 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay No 31 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no 898 Done-Amalia 0
Warnman No 23 Done-Amalia 0
Djapu no 123 0
Bilinarra no 4.7.2 done 0
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 59 Y2 0
Narungga No 65 done 0
Tharrkari No 26 0
Wajarri No 47 0
Warungu no 636-7 0
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua yes Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Baniwa yes Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps