Waunana

Family
Chocoan
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
noa
Location
6.10°, -77.45°
Notes
Features
Grammatical Data
Data Sources
Binder, Ronald, Philip Lee and Chindío Peña. 1995. Vocabulario ilustrado. Wounmeu - Español - Epena pedee, Tomo 2. ILV, Bogotá. Loewen, Jacob. 1954. Waunana grammar: a descriptive analysis. PhD Dissertation, University of Washington. Mejía Fonnegra, Gustavo. 2000. Presentación y descripción morfosintáctica del waunana. In González de Pérez, María and Rodríguez de Montes, María Lenguas indígenas de Colombia:una visión descriptiva, pp.85-96. Instituto Caro y Cuervo, Santafé de Bogotá. Sanchez, Micaela and Castro, Olga. 1977. Una gramatica pedagogica del waunana. Lenguas de Panama. Tomo III. ILV, Panama.


Grammatical Data (226)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. no Loewen 1954:7-10 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] yes glottalized stops Loewen 1954:7 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast no Loewen 1954:7 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? no However, Binder et all (1995:172) suggest that length is constrastive. This is also suggested by Sanchez and Castro (1977:33) Loewen 1954:7 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels no However, Binder et all (1995:172) suggest that there are aspirated voiceless stops Loewen 1954:7 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme yes they only occur in word medial and word final position Loewen 1954:22-24 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] no codas are allowed Loewen 1954:18 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? no Loewen 1954:18 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones no Loewen 1954 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? yes Binder et all (1995:173) suggest that stress is not contrastive Loewen 1954:17 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments no Nasalization is property of segments Binder et all 1995:172 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? yes Loewen 1954:36, 39 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony no info Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] yes At least person and tense/aspect are fused in verbal markers Loewen 1954:62 Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone no info Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word no info Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no info Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes no info Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different no info Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated no info Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated yes Loewen 1954:47 Daniel Valle
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced no info Daniel Valle
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection no info Daniel Valle
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word no info Daniel Valle
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' no info Daniel Valle
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs yes Loewen 1954:40 Daniel Valle
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment no info Daniel Valle
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. yes The author does not talk about noun classifiers but it does look like that Loewen 1954:72-76 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only no Gender is not distinguished in pronouns Mejía 2000:91 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates yes Loewen 1954:72-76 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' yes Loewen 1954:72-76 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups no Sánchez and Castro 1977:117-8 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun yes /-na; -ena/ Loewen 1954:78-79 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no Loewen 1954:78-79 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun no Loewen 1954:78-79 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic no Loewen 1954:78-79 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only yes Plural is only distinguished for humans and certain animals (which are not specified) Sánchez and Castro 1977:117 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns no Mejía 2000:90; Loewen 1954:83-84 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns no Mejía 2000:90; Loewen 1954:83-84 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no Mejía 2000:90; Loewen 1954:83-84 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix no There are possessives and allatives pronouns but there are not reflexive pronouns Mejía 2000:90 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients no Case is marked by suffixes Mejía 2000:88-89 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun 6 ergative/instrumental, absolutive, dative/allative, commitative, locative and genitive Mejía 2000:88-89 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are no Mejía 2000:88-89 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) no info Mejía 2000:88-89 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates no info Mejía 2000:88-89 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic yes Mejía 2000:88-89 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic no Mejía 2000:88-89 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic no Mejía 2000:88-89 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change no Mejía 2000:88-89 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone no Mejía 2000:88-89 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' no The ergative and the instrumental cases are marked with the same suffix {-au, -iu, --eu, -u} Mejía 2000:89 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 no Loewen 1954:97-98 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 yes Loewen 1954:97-98 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 no Loewen 1954:97-98 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. no Loewen 1954:97-98 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used yes Loewen 1954:97-98 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used yes Loewen 1954:97-98 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival yes In nominal predicates tense is marked Mejía 2000:88 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? yes /-din/ Loewen 1954:79-80 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) yes In Loewen (1954:82) it is said that kinship and body-part terms take the "indefinite personal possessor" /-mãʃ/ when they appear without a definite possessor. This suggests that the answr to this question is yes. However, Mejia (2000:90) suggests a no an Loewen 1954:82 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) yes /-din/ Mejía 2000:90 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg yes Mejía 2000:90 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb yes /-u/ /-mia/ is also used Loewen 1954:36, 73 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere yes /hi/ Based on the examples. It also seems to be a sort of continuous/non-continuous aspect distinction (Loewen 1954:42) Mejía 2000:89; Loewen 1954:66 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past no Sánchez and Castro 1977:57 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future no Sánchez and Castro 1977:57 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) yes /-huh/ future time Loewen 1954:66 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no Loewen 1954:53, Sánchez and Castro 1977:80-2 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes Loewen 1954:53 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no Loewen 1954:53, Sánchez and Castro 1977:80-2 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no Loewen 1954:53, Sánchez and Castro 1977:80-2 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood yes /-ba/ http://wals.info/static/descriptions/72/wals_feature_72.pdf Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses yes Loewen 1954:53, 61 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' yes /-rau/ Loewen 1954:65 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality yes {-he} But this is a verba suffix instead of a modal Sánchez and Castro 1977:57 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction no info Daniel Valle
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order yes Based on the list of possible or attested orders in the language Mejía 2000:90 Daniel Valle
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject no Mejía 2000:90 Daniel Valle
Word Order VS in transitive clauses no It is only possible in derived passive sentences Mejía 2000:90 Daniel Valle
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object yes Mejía 2000:90 Daniel Valle
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject yes Mejía 2000:90 Daniel Valle
Word Order Preposition-Noun no Mejía 2000:89-90 Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes Mejía 2000:89 Daniel Valle
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) yes Mejía 2000:90 Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') no Mejía 2000:90 Daniel Valle
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun no info Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun no info Daniel Valle
Word Order Dem-Noun no info Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Dem no info Daniel Valle
Word Order Num-Noun no info Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Num no info Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies no info Daniel Valle
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies no info Daniel Valle
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') no info Daniel Valle
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' no info Daniel Valle
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause yes Based on examples Sanchez and Castro 1977:26 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker yes Mejía 2000:88-9 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs yes I have deduced this from the fact that person pronouns refer to the subject (instead of refering to the ergative NP) Mejía 2000:90 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects yes Loewen 1954:83-84 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Mejía 2000:90 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) yes Mejía 2000:90 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. yes Loewen 1954:83-84 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes no Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers no Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers no Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no Verbal person markers distinguish between first person and non-first person Mejía 2000:90 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent yes Only for the non-first person markers Mejía 2000:90 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently yes The direct object takes the dative marker while the direct object goes in absolutive case Mejía 2000:89 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives no Mejía 2000:89 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently no Mejía 2000:89 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb no Mejía 2000:90 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb yes /-pi/ It is only used with underived intransitive verbs Mejía 2000:90 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix no Mejía 2000:90 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency yes /-poj/, /-koj/ These are transitivizing verbal suffixes. The first is for singular subject; the seconf, for plural. Loewen 1954:53 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element no Sánchez and Castro 1977:66 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element no Sánchez and Castro 1977:66 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix yes /-ba/ It is a verbal suffix Loewen 1954:53 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle no Sánchez and Castro 1977:66 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb yes Sánchez and Castro 1977:66 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' no Sánchez and Castro 1977:66 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle no Sánchez and Castro 1977:65 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology yes /-ma/ Loewen 1954:39 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no Sánchez and Castro 1977:65 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only yes Sánchez and Castro 1977:65 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) no Sánchez and Castro 1977:65 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence yes Loewen 1954:61-62 Daniel Valle