Causative: serial verb or analytical construction

Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing
Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Timbisha yes
Western Mono
Southern Paiute
Southern Ute
Idaho Shoshone
Northern Paiute
Achagua yes Wilson & Levinsohn 1992:94
Resígaro yes khú (make, do), ooccurs with transitive verbs that have a causative meaning. However, Allin does not describe this as a causative process. Allin, 1976: 206-207
Bare yes the syntactic causative construction implies indirect action of causer over the causee Aikhenvald, 1995: 37
Piapoco no info
Yukuna no info Shauer & Shauer, 2000; Shauer & Shauer, 1978
Yavitero yes Using verbs wé 'let,' má 'make' or wénija, 'order.' Mosonyi, 1987: p. 68, 91
Wapishana no Santos 2006
Wayuu no info
Tariana yes Several constructions, often use verbs -a "do, say", -iɾa "order," and -pala "put", as well as a periphrastic construction using -ni "make." Aikhenvald, 2003: 274
Apurinã yes This verb takes a full sentence complement clause, has the meaning "call someone to do something." Facundes, 2000: 600
Asheninka Apurucayali no Payne 1981:41; Payne 1983:11
Maipure no Zamponi 2003:43
Yanesha' no Duff-Tripp 1997:100-1
Kinikinau no info
Baure yes Analitycal construction. The verb meaning "to send" is used in this construction Danielsen 2007:251
Nanti no Michael, 2008. p. 279
Paresi yes Periprhastic causative Brandão 2010:32
Palikur no info Launey 2003
Yine no info Matteson 1965
Añun no info no info on valence Patte 1989
Bora no Seifart - 2005:59
Makiritare no Hall 1988: 130
Makushi yes A causative is expressed by the transitive verb emapu'ti 'cause' occuring with a subordinate clause. Abbott 1991: 40-41
Eñepa yes Payne 2012:320
Pemon no info
Guna yes Smith texts
Naso yes periphrastic Quesada 2000
Ika yes This construction involves the verb "to cause" guaʔsa Frank 1990:66
Kogi no info
Cabecar no info
Guaymí yes Verbs meaning "put", "send" or "leave" are used as auxiliaries in this construction Quesada 2008:182
Damana no
Sikuani yes Causer gets first reference; verb "exana" (meaning "to make") is serialized with initial verb(s), and verb serialization then takes -ø marking for causer de Kondo (Vol.2) - 1985:43; Queixaós - 2000:122-126
Macaguan no info Buenaventura - 1993
Aguaruna no Overall 2007:302-4
Northern Emberá no Mortensen 1999:62-3 Catío
Waorani no info
Ingá no Levinson 1978:12
Matses no Fleck:887
Mapudungun no Salas 1992, p.186
Páez yes Jung:102
Quechua Ayacuchano no Parker 1965:74
Tikuna no info
Urarina no Olawsky::592-622
Waunana no info
Andoke no Landaburu 1979: 203-204
Puinave no info
Central Aymara no info
Kakua no info Bolaños fieldnotes
Kaingang no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011
Minica Witoto no Minor and Minor 1982. p.101
Hup yes Epps 2008
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no Weir 1984
Dâw yes It can be both, in a serial construction or just preceding a verb. Martins 2004
Desano yes add verb root dore- to another verb root Miller 1999, p. 115
Cubeo no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 57
Kotiria yes construction with yoa codes causation Stenzel 2007:375
Makuna no Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.64
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.70
Barasano yes Jones & Jones 1991,p.102 The verb eka, with a causative suffix, may be preceded by various other verb roots to signify 'to cause to receive'.
Tanimuca no Strom 1992, p.100
Siona no Wheeler - 1987:145-147
Tukano no Ramirez 1997: 271
Yanomami no Ramirez 1994: 245-248
Ninam no Goodwin-Gomez: 101 no evidence for this
Sanumá no Borgman 1990: 47-53
Surui no info
Karitiana yes Used to show that the causee reatins certain degree of contron over the action Everett 2006:442
Nheengatu no Cruz 2011:287
Paraguayan Guaraní no Ayala 1996:233-51
Aché no info
Kokama no Vallejos 2010:373
Nyangumarta no 0
Jingulu yes 1
Wambaya yes 1
Bunuba no info x
Walmajarri no 0
Nyulnyul no info x
Warrwa no info x
Worrorra yes ms11.3.3 1
Garrwa no info X
Gooniyandi yes 1
Warlpiri no info 0
Bardi no 0
Yorta Yorta no info x
Yir Yoront
Yindjibarndi no 0
Yidiny no 0
Yanyuwa no info x
Yandruwandha no info x
Yalarnnga no info x
Woiwurrung no info x
Wirangu No 98-9 0
Wemba-Wemba no H 47-50 0
Warumungu No info x
Wangkumara no 38 0
Uradhi No 376 0
Paakantyi no info X
Pitta-Pitta No 205 0
Pintupi no 0
Nyungar no info x
Nhanta no 0
Ngiyambaa no 163 0
Ngayawang No 14 0
Muruwari no info x
Mayi-Yapi No info x
Martuthunira no 0
Marrgany No 319 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 402-5 0
Kuku Yalanji no 97 0
Kugu-Nganhcara No 412-4 0
Kaurna No 15 0
Kalkatungu no info x
Jaru no info x
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 118 0
Gureng Gureng no info x
Gumbaynggirr no 306 0
Gugu-Badhun no info x
Yuwaalaraay No 84 0
Dyirbal No 91 0
Duungidjawu no 86-7 0
Djinang No 122 0
Diyari no 0
Dharawal no 61 0
Darkinyung no info x
Bularnu no 0
Biri no 40 0
Bidjara-Gungabula no 0
Batyala no info x
Arabana no info x
Alyawarr no info X
Nyikina no 0
Yulparija No 47 0
Wathawurrung no 89-90 0
Mathi-Mathi no 99-101 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no 84 0
Thanggati no 55-6 0
Katthang no 86 0
Panyjima no 188-189 0
Ngarinyeri No 59 0
Kurrama no 153 0
Yingkarta no info x
Githabul No 23 0
Gunya No 329 0
Kunjen No info x
WesternTorres yes FO 130-1 1
Wakaya no 0
Yindjilindji no info x
Bandjalang No 86 0
Ngaatjatjara No 71 0
Arrernte No 193 0
Kokatha no info x
Karajarri No 195 0
Pitjantjatjara No G 224 0
Ritharrngu No 61 0
Warrgamay No 77 0
Warluwarra no info 956 x
Warnman No 44 0
Djapu no 75-6 0
Bilinarra no info x
Wiradjuri no info x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 83 0
Narungga No info x
Tharrkari No 37 0
Wajarri No 108 0
Warungu no 0
Yagua no Payne and Payne 1990
Baniwa no Ramirez 2001