Causative: serial verb or analytical construction

Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing
Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla Jane Hill
Cupeño Jane Hill
Luiseño Jane Hill
Serrano Jane Hill
Kitanemuk Jane Hill
Kawaiisu Jane Hill
Timbisha yes Jane Hill
Western Mono Jane Hill
Chemehuevi Jane Hill
Southern Paiute Jane Hill
Southern Ute Jane Hill
Shoshone Jane Hill
Comanche Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute Jane Hill
Gabrielino Jane Hill
Achagua yes Wilson & Levinsohn 1992:94 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Resígaro yes khú (make, do), ooccurs with transitive verbs that have a causative meaning. However, Allin does not describe this as a causative process. Allin, 1976: 206-207 Aimee Lawrence
Bare yes the syntactic causative construction implies indirect action of causer over the causee Aikhenvald, 1995: 37 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Piapoco no info Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna no info Shauer & Shauer, 2000; Shauer & Shauer, 1978 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero yes Using verbs wé 'let,' má 'make' or wénija, 'order.' Mosonyi, 1987: p. 68, 91 Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu no info Aimee Lawrence
Tariana yes Several constructions, often use verbs -a "do, say", -iɾa "order," and -pala "put", as well as a periphrastic construction using -ni "make." Aikhenvald, 2003: 274 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã yes This verb takes a full sentence complement clause, has the meaning "call someone to do something." Facundes, 2000: 600 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali no Payne 1981:41; Payne 1983:11 Amanda Meeks
Maipure no Zamponi 2003:43 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' no Duff-Tripp 1997:100-1 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure yes Analitycal construction. The verb meaning "to send" is used in this construction Danielsen 2007:251 Daniel Valle
Nanti no Michael, 2008. p. 279 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi yes Periprhastic causative Brandão 2010:32 Daniel Valle
Palikur no info Launey 2003 Daniel Smith
Yine no info Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun no info no info on valence Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora no Seifart - 2005:59 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no Hall 1988: 130 Melody Ann Ross
Makushi yes A causative is expressed by the transitive verb emapu'ti 'cause' occuring with a subordinate clause. Abbott 1991: 40-41 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa yes Payne 2012:320 Daniel Smith
Pemon no info Daniel Valle
Guna yes Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso yes periphrastic Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika yes This construction involves the verb "to cause" guaʔsa Frank 1990:66 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí yes Verbs meaning "put", "send" or "leave" are used as auxiliaries in this construction Quesada 2008:182 Daniel Valle
Damana no Daniel Valle
Sikuani yes Causer gets first reference; verb "exana" (meaning "to make") is serialized with initial verb(s), and verb serialization then takes -ø marking for causer de Kondo (Vol.2) - 1985:43; Queixaós - 2000:122-126 Amanda Meeks
Macaguan no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna no Overall 2007:302-4 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá no Mortensen 1999:62-3 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá no Levinson 1978:12 Daniel Valle
Matses no Fleck:887 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no Salas 1992, p.186 Daniel Valle
Páez yes Jung:102 Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no Parker 1965:74 Daniel Valle
Tikuna no info Daniel Valle
Urarina no Olawsky::592-622 Daniel Valle
Waunana no info Daniel Valle
Andoke no Landaburu 1979: 203-204 Kelsey Neely
Puinave no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no info Shannon Dardis
Kakua no info Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no Minor and Minor 1982. p.101 Christopher Clack
Hup yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw yes It can be both, in a serial construction or just preceding a verb. Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano yes add verb root dore- to another verb root Miller 1999, p. 115 Amanda Novak
Cubeo no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 57 Amanda Novak
Kotiria yes construction with yoa codes causation Stenzel 2007:375 Daniel Smith
Makuna no Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.64 Chris Clack
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.70 Chris Clack
Barasano yes Jones & Jones 1991,p.102 Chris Clack The verb eka, with a causative suffix, may be preceded by various other verb roots to signify 'to cause to receive'.
Tanimuca no Strom 1992, p.100 Chris Clack
Siona no Wheeler - 1987:145-147 Amanda Meeks
Tukano no Ramirez 1997: 271 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami no Ramirez 1994: 245-248 Kelsey Neely
Ninam no Goodwin-Gomez: 101 Kelsey Neely no evidence for this
Sanumá no Borgman 1990: 47-53 Kelsey Neely
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana yes Used to show that the causee reatins certain degree of contron over the action Everett 2006:442 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no Cruz 2011:287 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no Ayala 1996:233-51 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama no Vallejos 2010:373 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu yes done 1
Wambaya yes done 1
Bunuba no info done x
Walmajarri no Done-Claire 0
Nyulnyul no info done? x
Warrwa no info done x
Worrorra yes ms11.3.3 done 1
Garrwa no info done X
Gooniyandi yes done 1
Warlpiri no info done 0
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no info done x
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi no done-Dan 0
Yidiny no done-Catherine 0
Yanyuwa no info Done-Austin x
Yandruwandha no info Done-Dan x
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no info Done-Dan x
Woiwurrung no info done-Amalia x
Wirangu No 98-9 done 0
Wemba-Wemba no H 47-50 done-Amalia 0
Warumungu No info done-Amalia x
Wangkumara no 38 done 0
Uradhi No 376 Y 0
Paakantyi no info Y-Hannah X
Pitta-Pitta No 205 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no done-Hannah 0
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta no Done-Hannah 0
Ngiyambaa no 163 Done-Emily 0
Ngayawang No 14 done-Amalia 0
Muruwari no info Done-Dan x
Mayi-Yapi No info done x
Martuthunira no done 0
Marrgany No 319 Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 402-5 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji no 97 Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara No 412-4 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna No 15 done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu no info Done-Dan x
Jaru no info Done-Amalia x
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 118 Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr no 306 done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun no info done-Jessica x
Yuwaalaraay No 84 0
Dyirbal No 91 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu no 86-7 done 0
Djinang No 122 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari no done-Hannah 0
Dharawal no 61 done-Hannah w Dhurga) 0
Darkinyung no info done x
Bularnu no Done-Austin 0
Biri no 40 done-Jessica 0
Bidjara-Gungabula no done-Jessica 0
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana no info Done-Dan x
Alyawarr no info done X
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija No 47 Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung no 89-90 done 0
Mathi-Mathi no 99-101 done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no 84 done-Amalia 0
Thanggati no 55-6 done 0
Katthang no 86 done-Amalia 0
Panyjima no 188-189 done 0
Ngarinyeri No 59 done-Amalia 0
Kurrama no 153 done-Dan 0
Yingkarta no info Done-Claire x
Githabul No 23 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya No 329 Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen No info Done- x
WesternTorres yes FO 130-1 done 1
Wakaya no done 0
Yindjilindji no info done x
Bandjalang No 86 Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara No 71 done 0
Arrernte No 193 0
Kokatha no info x
Karajarri No 195 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara No G 224 0
Ritharrngu No 61 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay No 77 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no info 956 Done-Amalia x
Warnman No 44 Done-Amalia 0
Djapu no 75-6 0
Bilinarra no info done x
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 83 Y2 0
Narungga No info done x
Tharrkari No 37 0
Wajarri No 108 0
Warungu no 0
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Baniwa no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps