Yanomami

Family
Yanomaman
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
wca
Location
2.49°, -62.85°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
Finkers, Juan. 1986. Los Yanomami y su sistema alimenticio. Vicariato Apostolico de Puerto Ayacucho. Mattéi-Müller, Marie-Claude 2007. Lengua y cultura Yanomamï. Diccionario ilustrado Yanomamï-Español, Español-Yanomamï. Caracas: Epsilon Libros. Lizot, Jacques. 1996. Introducción a la lengua yanomami: Morfología. Caracas: Vicariato Apostólico de Puerto Ayacucho/UNICEF. Migliazza, Ernest C. 1972. Yanomama grammar and intelligibility. PhD diss, Indiana University. Ramirez, Henri. 1994. Le Parler Yanomamɨ des Xamatauteri. PhD diss, University of Aix-en-Provence.


Basic Vocabulary (192)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location ɨsɨ ha(mɨ) ɨsɨ ha(mɨ) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
all todo todos other kõmi, haikiwë, hɨtɨtɨwë kõmi, haikiwə, hɨtɨtɨwə inheritance; unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
and y e grammar missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
ankle tobillo tornozelo body missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
armpit axila, sobaco axila body hãkãmi hãkãmi missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment ushipë, yupu shi(pë), yupu una(pë) uʃipə, jupu ʃi(pə), jupu una(pə) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
at en, a em, a location iha, ihamɨ iha, ihamɨ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
back espalda costas body humapɨ, yaipë humapɨ, jaipə doutbful loan Guahiban húma See Language page Kelsey Neely
belly barriga barriga body pei yɨmotʰakɨ (navel), pei maka (stomach), pei hərãsi (waist), pei na-ka (womb), pusi (EM72) pei jɨmotʰakɨ (navel), pei maka (stomach), pei həɾãsi (waist), pei na-ka (womb), pusi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
below abajo, debajo abaixo location yahatoto ha(mɨ) jahatoto ha(mɨ) unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
big grande grande quality pata (animate), prewə pata, pɾewə inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
bite morder morder body wëtɨ-aɨ wətɨ-aɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
black negro preto colour iši iʃi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
blood sangre sangue body ɨ̃yə̃-ɨ̃yə̃-pə, ĩyə (EM72) ɨ̃jə̃-ɨ̃jə̃-pə, ĩjə inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
blow soplar soprar body horashiaɨ, horashimaɨ hoɾaʃiaɨ, hoɾaʃimaɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body pare, shãã, yuu paɾe, ʃãã, juu unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
bone hueso osso body pei ũ, ũ (EM72) pei ũ, ũ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
breast pecho, seno peito body pei hãkãmi (breast), pei suhe-kɨ (udder), pei suhe pə u-ka (nipple), suhe upə (EM72) pei hãkãmi (breast), pei suhe-kɨ (udder), pei suhe pə u-ka (nipple), suhe upə (EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
breathe respirar respirar body ũkũkaɨ ũkũkaɨ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
burn quemar queimar environment fraamaɨ fɾaamaɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body oaɨ oaɨ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
child niño, niña criança human mãrãnãpɨ (boy), suwə hərɨ (girl), ihiru (child), ihiru oše (infant), , suwə hərɨ (EM72 "girl"), moko (EM72 "girl") mãɾãnãpɨ, suwə həɾɨ, ihiɾu, ihiɾu osʃe, suwə həɾɨ, moko inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
climb subir subir motion tuo, torekaɨ, torekeaɨ, torekou tuo, toɾekaɨ, toɾekeaɨ, toɾekou inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
cloud nube nuvem environment ɨhrashi ɨhraʃi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
cold frío frio quality si ahi, siãhi (EM72) si ahi, siãhi (EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
come venir vir motion kõõ kõõ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
cook cocinar cozinhar impact rɨpɨ-aɨ, rɨpɨpraɨ ɾɨpɨ-aɨ, ɾɨpɨpɾaɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality peheti peheti unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
count contar contar mental imɨkɨ kutou, imɨkɨ kuprou, imɨkɨ owëo, imɨkɨ wapëo imɨkɨ kutou, imɨkɨ kupɾou, imɨkɨ owəo, imɨkɨ wapəo unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
cry llorar chorar mental ɨkɨɨ ɨkɨɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
cut/hack cortar cortar impact hanɨ-aɨ, hanɨpraɨ hanɨ-aɨ, hanɨpɾaɨ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
day día dia time haru ha, mɨharu (EM72 "light time") haɾu ha, mɨhaɾu inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
die/be dead morir morrer state noma-ɨ noma-ɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
dig cavar cavar impact hurëshaɨ, hurëshëaɨ huɾəʃaɨ, huɾəʃəaɨ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
dingo/wolf fauna missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
dirty sucio sujo quality shami, toteshi ʃami, toteʃi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
dream soñar sonhar mental maharimou mahaɾimou inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
drink beber, tomar beber body ko-aɨ ko-aɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
dry seco seco quality weheti-wə, wehi (EM72) weheti-wə, wehi (EM7) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality he hihothowë, he hohotowë, he kõhõwë, he pohotowë, he wahotowë, pruekewë he hihotʰowə, he hohotowə, he kõhõwə, he pohotowə, he wahotowə, pɾuekewə unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
dust polvo poeira environment hekãhekã hekãhekã unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
ear oreja orelha body pei yɨmɨ-ka-kɨ, yɨ̃məkə (EM72) pei jɨmɨ-ka-kɨ, jɨ̃məkə inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
earth/soil tierra terra environment mašitha (EM72 "earth") maʃitʰa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
eat comer comer body iya-ɨ; wa-ɨ, watɨ (bite, EM72), wa (EM72, transitive), ia (EM72, intransitive) ija-ɨ; wa-ɨ, watɨ, wa, ia inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
egg huevo ovo fauna natʰe (egg), šãhe natʰe (yolk) natʰe (egg), ʃãhe natʰe (yolk) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
eye ojo olho body pei mamo pei mamo inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body shii ʃii unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
fall caer cair motion ke-aɨ ke-aɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
far lejos longe quality prahawë, payëkëwë pɾahawə, pajəkəwə inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
fat/grease grasa gordura body tapɨ-tapɨ tapɨ-tapɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
father padre, papá pai kinship hayë, ha- (EM72) hajə, ha- inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
fear miedo medo mental kiri-aɨ kiɾi-aɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
feather pluma pena fauna pei hekɨ pei hekɨ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
fire fuego fogo environment koa wakə koa wakə inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
fish xx xx fauna yuri juri inheritance See Language page Epps Research Team
flow fluir fluir motion karë-aɨ kaɾə-aɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
flower flor flor environment horehore hoɾehoɾe inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
fly volar voar motion yə-ɨ jə-ɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
foot pie body pei mamikɨ pei mamikɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
fruit fruta fruta flora himo, himohimo himo, himohimo inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
good bueno bom quality totihita-wə, šariri-wə (right, correct), totihi (EM72), topra (EM72) totihita-wə, ʃaɾiɾi-wə (right, correct), totihi, topɾa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
grow crecer crescer state pataɨ pataɨ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body pei hetʰãnãu, hethanaɨ (EM72) pei hetʰãnãu, hetʰanaɨ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
hand mano mão body pei imɨkɨ, ikɨkɨ (EM72) pei imɨkɨ, ikɨkɨ (EM72) doubtful loan (into protolg?) Panoan See Language page Kelsey Neely
head cabeza cabeça body pei he, pei nakɨ-tʰə-kɨ (temple), pei hesi (skull), pei heyõšI (brain), pei mohekɨ (face) , he (EM72 "head") pei he, pei nakɨ-tʰə-kɨ (temple), pei hesi (skull), pei hejõʃi (brain), pei mohekɨ (face) , he inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
hear oír ouvir mental wã hiri-aɨ (hear), yɨmɨka ta-aɨ (listen) wã hiɾi-aɨ (hear), jɨmɨka ta-aɨ (listen) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
heavy pesado pesado quality hute, hutǝa hute, hutǝa missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
hide esconder esconder motion he shãhõaɨ, shãhõmaɨ he ʃãhõaɨ, ʃãhõmaɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
hit golpear, pegar bater impact shë-aɨ ʃə-aɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other tëaɨ təaɨ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
how? como como grammar wet naha wet naha inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
if si se grammar missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location ha hamɨ ha hamɨ inheritance metathesis? See Language page Kelsey Neely
intestines intestinos intestinos body shikɨ ʃikɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body shihiti, shiki ʃihiti, ʃiki inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
kill matar matar impact šə-ɨ ʃə-ɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
lake lago lago environment wawëwawë, mono u wawəwawə, mono u unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
laugh reír rir mental ĩkãɨ ĩkãɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
leaf hoja folha environment yãã hena jã: hena inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body hai hai inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion përɨamaɨ pəɾɨamaɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment yamira, tãhimɨ jamiɾa, tãhimɨ unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body kuo kuo unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
liver hígado figado body pei ãmoku, amokɨ (EM72) pei ãmoku, amokɨ (EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
long largo comprido, longo quality rape ɾape inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna noma noma inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
lung pulmón pulmão body herekɨ heɾekɨ unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
meat/flesh carne carne fauna pei yãhi, yãhi (EM72) pei jãhi, jãhi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
moon luna lua environment peripo peɾipo inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship nayë, na- (EM72) najə, na- inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
mouth boca boca body pei kahikɨ pei kahikɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
name nombre nome human pei a wãhã pei a wãhã inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body he maka, he makasi orahi he maka, he makasi oɾahi unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
near/close cerca de perto quality aheti ha(mɨ) aheti ha(mɨ) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
neck cuello pescoço body orahitho oɾahitʰo inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
new nuevo novo quality tute (new), oše (young) tute (new), oʃe (young) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
night noche noite time titi ha, titi (EM72 "dark time"), rua (EM72 "dark time") titi ha, titi, ɾua inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
no/not no não grammar ma ma doubtful loan Arawak See Language page Kelsey Neely
nose nariz nariz body pei hu, hũšipə (EM72) pei hu inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
old viejo velho quality pata; wãrõ pata; suwə pata; hote pata; wãrõ pata; suwə pata; hote inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
one uno um number tahiapɨ (unique, some, afew); mori (only), mahu (one) (all MM07) tahiapɨ; moɾi, mahu inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
open/uncover abrir abrir other (mɨ) hape-aɨ (mɨ) hape-aɨ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
other otro outro grammar ai ai inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body nini (painful), hariri (sick) nini (painful), haɾiɾi (sick) unique; inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
person/human being persona pessoa human yãnõmãmɨ jãnõmãmɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact shë-aɨ ʃʃ-aɨ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
rain lluvia chuva environment maa ma: inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
red rojo vermelho colour wakə wakə inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
right/right hand derecha direita location/body timi timi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
road/path camino caminho manufacture pei yo; pei yoka, [karo] a no mãyõ (road), ihirãkɨ (bridge) pei jo; pei joka, [kaɾo] a no mãjõ (road), ihiɾãkɨ (bridge) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
root raíz raiz flora pei nasikɨ, nasiki (EM72) pei nasikɨ, nasiki inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
rotten podrido podre quality horepɨ, horepɨano hoɾepɨ, hoɾepɨano inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
sand arena areia environment mrakatahu mɾakatahu inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
say decir dizer mental kuu inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
scratch rascar rasgar impact (si) hukëkaɨ, hukëkëaɨ, (si) tikokaɨ, tikokoaɨ (si) hukəkaɨ, hukəkəaɨ, (si) tikokaɨ, tikokoaɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
see ver ver mental mɨ-ɨ, ta (EM72) mɨ-ɨ, ta (EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality hiroroa, hirorano, hirorowë hiɾoɾoa, hiɾoɾano, hiɾoɾowə unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact tishikaɨ, tishikiaɨ tiʃikaɨ, tiʃikiaɨ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
short corto curto quality yahatotoa, yahatotowë, hatakawë, jahatotoa, jahatotowə, hatakawə, inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
shoulder hombro ombro body hako hako inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental kiri kiɾi unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
sit sentar(se) sentar state ro-aɨ ɾo-aɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
skin piel pele body pei si, si (EM72) pei si, si inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
sky cielo céu environment hetu hetu inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
sleep dormir dormir body mi-õ, mi (EM72) mi-õ, mi (EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
small pequeño pequeno quality ihiru-pɨ, wãisipɨ (EM72) ihiɾu-pɨ, wãisipɨ (EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
smoke humo fumaça environment koa wakə ši, wakeši (EM72) koa wakə ʃi, wakeʃi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body ũkũkaɨ, ũkũkũaɨ, ũkũkũmaɨ ũkũkaɨ, ũkũkũaɨ, ũkũkũmaɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
spit escupir cuspir body hoaɨ, hopraɨ hoaɨ, hopɾaɨ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact hahathoaɨ, hahathomaɨ, hahathopraɨ hahatʰoaɨ, hahatʰomaɨ, hahatʰopɾaɨ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact ãkɨkaɨ, ãkɨkɨaɨ ãkɨkaɨ, ãkɨkɨaɨ doubtful loan Maybe: Makiritare eʔkukã See Language page Kelsey Neely
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact tiwëhaɨ, tiwëhëaɨ tiwəhaɨ, tiwəhəaɨ unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state upra-aɨ upɾa-aɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
star estrella estrela environment šitikari, širikari (EM72), purima ãhu (EM72) ʃitikaɾi, ʃiɾikaɾi, puɾima ãhu loan (into protolanguage?) Carib, e.g. Pemon sírikɨ́ See Language page Kelsey Neely
steal robar roubar other thomɨaɨ tʰomɨaɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora kõã ãsho kõã ãʃo unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
stone piedra pedra environment maa ma, maakəma (EM72) ma: ma, ma:kəma (EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
suck chupar chupar body wapumɨaɨ, ikikimou wapumɨaɨ, ikikimou inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
sweat sudar suor, suar body heõshi-aɨ, heõshi haɨ heõʃi-aɨ, heõʃi haɨ unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
swell hincharse inchar body eueuamaɨ eueuamaɨ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
swim nadar nadar motion karə-ɨ (swim), niya-prao (dive), pokə-ɨ (float) kaɾə-ɨ (swim), nija-pɾao (dive), pokə-ɨ (float) inheritance; inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
tail cola, rabo rabo body pei šina pei ʃina inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
that ese/esa esse grammar ei, hei (MM07), mihi, kihi (both EM72) ei, hei (MM07), mihi, kihi (both EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality pata prewë pata pɾewə unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
thin delgado fino quality prowëhëwë pɾowəhəwə unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
think pensar pensar mental puhii, puhi aayëaɨ, puhi huu, puhi kuu puhi:, puhi a:jəaɨ, puhi hu:, puhi ku: unknown; inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
this este/esta este grammar ei, hei (MM07) ei, hei (MM07) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
2sg xx xx grammar wa, kahə (EM72) wa, kahə (EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
three tres tres number yãmi (EM72 "few"), (according to MM07 no term exists, instead porakapi or pruka (many) is used) jãmi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
throat garganta garganta body õramɨ õɾamɨ unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact shëyë-aɨ ʃəjə-aɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
thunder truenos trovão environment yãru jãɾu inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact hãõaɨ, hãõmaɨ, hãõpraɨ hãõaɨ, hãõmaɨ, hãõpɾaɨ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
tongue lengua lingua body pei aka pei aka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
tooth diente dente body pei nakɨ, na (EM72) pei nakɨ, na (EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other shimore-aɨ, shimoremou ʃimoɾe-aɨ, ʃimoɾemou inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
two dos dois number horohopɨ (two, in a pair,in a small amount MM07), porakapɨ (two, a few, poraka=in pair MM07 ) (EM72) hoɾohopɨ, poɾakapɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
vomit vomitar vomitar body ho-aɨ, hopraɨ ho-aɨ, hopɾaɨ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
walk caminar, andar andar motion hu-u hu-u inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
water agua agua environment maũ ũ, maaupə (EM72) maũ ũ, ma:upə (EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
wet mojado molhado quality here heɾe inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
what? que, qué que grammar weti (MM07) weti inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
when? cuando quando grammar weti tëhë weti təhə inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
where? donde onde grammar weti hamɨ weti hamɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
white blanco branco colour au, auši (EM72) au, auʃi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
who? quien, quién quem grammar weti-nɨ (MM07) weti-nɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
wife esposa esposa kinship suwëbɨyë suwəbɨjə inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
wind viento vento environment watori, yari watoɾi, jaɾi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
wing ala asa body hãtãtãmãpɨ hãtãtãmãpɨ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
woman/female mujer mulher human suwə suwə inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
work trabajar trabalhar other ohotamou, ohoteaɨ ohotamou, ohoteaɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
yawn bostezar bocejar body kahikɨ rere-aɨ kahikɨ ɾeɾe-aɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
yellow amarillo amarelo colour frãre fɾãɾe inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
bad mal mal quality wãriti-wə, wãritiwə (EM72) wãɾiti-wə, wãɾitiwə inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar a, kama (he/she, EM72), thə (it, inanimate EM72) a, kama, tʰə inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
1sg yo eu grammar ya, kamiyə (EM72) ja, kamije inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
leg/foot pierna perna body matha matʰa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
man/male hombre homem human wãrõ wãɾõ doubtful loan (into proto-language?) MAYBE Carib source; cf. warawok in Akawaio, warayoʔ in Macushi, warato in Pemon See Language page Kelsey Neely
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar pə; tʰə pə, kama kə kɨbɨ (kama pə kɨbɨ, kama thə kɨbɨ) (dual EM72), kama thəpə (kama pə) (pl. non-dist. EM72) pə; tʰə pə, kama kə kɨbɨ (kama pə kɨbɨ, kama tʰə kɨbɨ), kama tʰəpə (kama pə) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental ta-ɨ (know), puhi ku-u (believe), ta-ra-rei (understand), ta (EM72) ta-ɨ (know), puhi ku-u (believe), ta-ɾa-ɾei (understand), ta (EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar kamiyə pəhəkɨ (dual incl. EM72), kamiyə pəmakɨ (pl. incl. EM72) kamijə pəhəkɨ, kamijə pəmakɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar pə-makɨ, ya-makɨ, kamiyəyahəkɨ (dual excl. Em72), kamiyə yamakɨ (pl. excl. EM72) pə-makɨ, ja-makɨ, kamijəjahəkɨ, kamijə jamakɨ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
2pl ustedes vocês grammar wa-makɨ, kahə wahəkɨ (dual EM72), kahə wamakɨ (pl. EM72) wa-makɨ, kahə wahəkɨ (dual EM72), kahə wamakɨ (pl. EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
bark corteza casca environment pei sisi, hisi (EM72) pei sisi, hisi (EM72) inheritance; inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
fingernail uña unha body pei imisikɨ, imisi (EM72, "nail, claw") pei imisikɨ, imisi (EM72, "nail, claw") inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
heart corazón coração body pei koko pata, koko (EM72) pei koko pata, koko (EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
sun sol sol time motʰoka, motoka (EM72) motʰoka, motoka (EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment hehu, makɨ (EM72) hehu, makɨ (EM72) inheritance; inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
green verde verde quality riyə ɾijə unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
hot caliente quente quality heyõšI, yopri (EM72) hejõʃi, jopɾi inheritance; inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (138)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana nara, nana, nara shi hi, yamaro si hi, jono mosi naɾa, nana, naɾa ʃi hi, jã̃mãɾo si hi, jono mosi inheritance cf. Witoto Witoto nonó-, hi= CLF "tree", ʃi = CLF associated with gnats and cypress-type tubers serving as magical plants underived N+CLF hi= CLF "tree" (Ramirez 94), ʃi = CLF associated with gnats and cypress-type tubers serving as magical plants (Ramirez 94) See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no shrub Kelsey Neely
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. kepõ, krepo (HR94) kepõ, kɾepo inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) no Kelsey Neely
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. thõmɨ, thõmɨmorewë, amotha (JF86) tʰõmɨ, tʰõmɨmoɾewə (also means thief), amotʰa inheritance see also tʰõmɨmoɾewə (also means thief), amotʰa underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. iwa iwa (general term) unknown cf. Carib 'iguana' iwana generic underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Throughout Amazonia no? Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Kelsey Neely
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis torina toɾina unique underived See Language page 1 0 0 0 0 Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls no Kelsey Neely
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus thoropo tʰoɾopo inheritance missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes wãkõya wãkõja unique underived See Language page 2 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia yes Kelsey Neely
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae kashi, pore mo, suri na, šĩho (EM72), koye (EM72) (both species unknown) kaʃi (fire ant), poɾe mo (warrior ant; pore = spirit, aparition; mo= penis; note: it's said the bite can cause swelling of the penis), suɾi na (worker ant) inheritance na = CLF "ant, stinging insect/plant" missing N+CLF na = CLF "ant, stinging insect/plant" (Ramirez 94) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) shoko, aroto, masihoto (JF86) ʃoko, aɾoto, masihoto inheritance also ʃoko, masihoto underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonian lowlands no Kelsey Neely
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri opo (EM72), morõ (Cabassous unicinctus), pruʃiima (Dasypus kappleri), opo (Dasypus novemcinctus), waka (priodontes maximus), marëa (JF86) moɾõ (Cabassous unicinctus), pɾuʃiima (Dasypus kappleri), opo (Dasypus novemcinctus), waka (priodontes maximus), maɾəa inheritance Also moɾõ (Cabassous unicinctus), pɾuʃiima (Dasypus kappleri), waka (priodontes maximus), maɾəa Narrower underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread in Amazonia no Kelsey Neely
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum mokoro sikɨ mokoɾo sikɨ unique sikɨ = CLF (only association listed in Ramirez is with a yellow snake species) underived N+CLF sikɨ = CLF (only association listed in Ramirez is with a yellow snake species) (Ramirez 94) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 tropical regions, especially river banks no plant Kelsey Neely
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana ahai hi, ẽhẽi kë hi (JF86) ahai hi, ẽhẽi kə hi inheritance hi = CLF "generic tree" underived N+CLF hi = CLF "tree" (Ramirez 94) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no tree Kelsey Neely
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. kuratha [also: paushimɨ, ãsikiɨ, hatuhaturimɨ, tapɨta pɨrimɨ, raparimɨ, rõkõmɨ, shinapemɨ, pareamɨ, pakatarimɨ, monarimɨ, hohorimɨ] kuɾatʰa [also: pauʃimɨ, ã̃sikɨ(JL72), hatuhatuɾimɨ, tapɨta pɨɾimɨ, ɾapaɾimɨ, ɾõkõmɨ, ʃinapemɨ (all M. acuminata); paɾeamɨ, pakataɾimɨ, monaɾimɨ, hohoɾimɨ (all M. Paradisiaca)] loan (into protolanguage?) Carib, prob. original meaning 'bastard plantain (sororoca?)' Yukpa Carib kuratana; see also si (nominal classifier for bananas); pauʃimɨ, ã̃sikɨ(JL72), hatuhatuɾimɨ, tapɨta pɨɾimɨ, ɾapaɾimɨ, ɾõkõmɨ, ʃinapemɨ (all M. acuminata); kuɾatʰa, paɾeamɨ, pakataɾimɨ, monaɾimɨ, hohoɾimɨ (all M. Paradisiaca) no info underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Kelsey Neely
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. hewë, washo hewə (small), waʃo (large; similar to waʃə "wound") doubtful loan into protolanguage, direction unknown Guahiban hewə (small), waʃo (large; similar to waʃə "wound") underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Kelsey Neely
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis himoto, ahamɨ, akosho, amɨ kë hu, bahari, puu na (EM72) himoto, ahamɨ, akosho, amɨ kë hu, bahari, puu na (EM72) inheritance see also ahamɨ (bittersweet honey)(JL75), akoʃo (sweet, abundant honey)(JL75), amɨ kə hu (sweet honey)(JL75), bahaɾi (JL75); na = CLF "ant, stinging insect/plant" underived N+CLF na = CLF "ant, stinging insect/plant" (Ramirez 94) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna -seimɨ seimɨ (noun class for birds)MM07 unique underived this is a classifier (?) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forests, native to Brazil no tree Kelsey Neely
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba hoko mahi (HR94) hoko mahi (HR94) inheritance underived second word is probably a classifier mahi unknown, may be ma+hi 'CLF fruit' + 'CLF tree' See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon no may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Kelsey Neely
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae hetu këkɨ, hokoto këkɨ hetu kəkɨ (hetu= sky, above; keki = nom. class.), hokoto kəkɨ ( ,kəkɨ is a nominal classifier specifying that things are of the same species) inheritance hetu= sky, above; keki = nom. class.); also hokoto kəkɨ underived N+CLF kəkɨ is a nominal classifier specifying that things are of the same species See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) maukəhesi ('calabash' EM72), horokoto ('gourd' EM72), hishima (JF86) maɾaka hi, hoɾokoto , hiʃima inheritance also hishima (JF86); words also found in 'squash' terms; hi = CLF "tree" underived N+CLF hi = CLF "tree" (Ramirez 94) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 indigenous gardens no plant; tree Kelsey Neely
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] hawari kohi hawaɾi kohi (B. excelsa) inheritance underived N+CLF+CLF ko = round, hi = tree See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. no tree Kelsey Neely
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata warrior ant (not clear whether this is the same thing) poɾe mo missing pore = spirit, aparition; mo= penis; note: it's said the bite can cause swelling of the penis compound spirit+penis See Language page 2 0 0 0 0 yes Kelsey Neely
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera uwãuwãmɨ uwãuwãmɨ unique underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris kayori (EM72) kajoɾi loan (into protolg?) North Arawak e.g. Wapishana kaʃu underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum wito hi wito hi unknown cf. Wari' hi = CLF "tree" underived N+CLF hi = CLF "tree" (Ramirez 94) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Kelsey Neely
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium giganteum witowito hi witowito hi unique hi = CLF "tree" reduplicated N-N+CLF hi = CLF "tree" (Ramirez 94) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Brazil, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela, Guyana no
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda kumarawë kumaɾawə unique underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea seiseimɨ kona seiseimɨ kona doubtful loan - WW %tʃijai kona = CLF also associated with an anthill of a certain ant species underived N+CLF kona = CLF also associated with an anthill of a certain ant species (Ramirez 94) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. masimasi tʰotʰo masimasi tʰotʰo unique tʰotʰo = CLF "climbing plants/vines" underived N+CLF tʰotʰo= CLF "climbing plant/vine" (Ramirez 94) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forest, floodplain no vine Kelsey Neely
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca missing missing See Language page 1 0 0 1 1 secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes no plant Kelsey Neely
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria hõrahesi hõɾahesi unknown underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu poshe, warë (JF86) poʃe, warə inheritance also inherited: warə underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua yarushe jaɾuʃe inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) shinari ũ hi, šinani (EM72) ʃinaɾi ũ hi (G. barbadense) doubtful loan Arawak: Piapoco sáawali also šinani, ũ = CLF associated with fuzzy things, hi = CLF associated with some plants (but I'm not sure why there would be two CLFs one after the next like this) underived N+CLF+CLF also šinani, ũ = CLF associated with fuzzy things (Ramirez 94), hi = CLF associated with some plants (Ramirez 94) (but I'm not sure why there would be two CLFs one after the next like this) See Language page 0 0 0 0 1 secondary scrub vegetation no plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Kelsey Neely
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura oko oko inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae kirikirimɨ, sikisikimɨ (HR94) kiɾikiɾimɨ, sikisikimɨ doubtful loan Carib; onomatopoeic Pemon kɾitʃa; kiriʔtʃa or Panare kïrïsa; may also be onomatopoeic. (Chance resemblance?) kiri means fearful or is a verbal directional suffix that means from below. See also sikisikimɨ reduplicated or onomatopoeic See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. paruri paɾuɾi inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Amazonia no Kelsey Neely
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus haya, preri haja, pɾeɾi inheritance also pɾeɾi underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris thãri, hiima (EM72) tʰãɾi (affectionate term), hi:ma unique (shared Yan-Yanmi) also tʰãɾi (affectionate term), Broader (generic 'dog') underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Not native; widespread no Kelsey Neely
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis hiima hi:mã (general term "dog") unique Broader (generic 'dog') underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Kelsey Neely
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae hoya hoja (general term) unknown generic underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family sapai sapai unique underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. ou, mati (ou) ou (Rhynchoporus palmarum L.), mati (ou) (R. palmarum ?) unknown also mati (ou) (R. palmarum ?) underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus yahetipa jahetipa unique underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 yes Kelsey Neely
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna yuri juɾi inheritance subgroup underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
fish (large type) paiche, pirarucú o arapaima pirarucu flora-fauna Arapaima gigas missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 big rivers only no
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. yaraka henakɨ jaɾaka henakɨ unique hena = CLF "magic/useful plants", kɨ = CLF "serpentiform beings" phrase small sardines + leaves of various plants See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation yes [used to poison people] shrub/tree Kelsey Neely
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera kopatashima, rihuuna (EM72) kopataʃima, ɾihu:na inheritance also kopataʃima underived N-CLF.'stinging insect' See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera mrõõ mɾõõ inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana tana hi tana hi (Genipa americana) loan North Arawak e.g. Baniwa dáːna; hi = CLF "tree" underived N+CLF hi = CLF "tree" (Ramirez 94) See Language page 1 0 0 0 0 widespread lowland SA no shrub Kelsey Neely
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis hetehia hetehia unique underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) moimoima moimoima (MM07) unique underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans yapi japi unique underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões no Kelsey Neely
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba kono, koriuna (JF86) kono, koɾiuna unique underived N, N+CLF una una = egret, certain long beaked birds See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread South America no Kelsey Neely
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti shihena ʃihena unique underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. mãrãshi, kuremɨ mãɾãʃi, kuɾemɨ loan - WW %mare Yavitero matʃi, Baniwa mare; or Carib, Waimiri Atroari mareʔe; see also Yan. kuɾemɨ WW %mare underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Different types have different localized ranges no Kelsey Neely
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi mokohiɾo mokohiɾo unknown missing See Language page 1 0 0 1 0 semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW no vine Kelsey Neely
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae wiiwiimɨ wi:wi:mɨ doubtful loan Carib, esp. Mapoyo wirihpaya esp. WaiWai wi-koko; Mapoyo wirihpaya underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens praki pɾaki inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden no plant Kelsey Neely
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] iro (alouatta seniculus) iɾo (alouatta seniculus) inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae tesho teʃo inheritance siemaɾi (large), siɾamɨ (large), siemato (small) underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread no Kelsey Neely
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. iwawa sikɨ iwawa sikɨ (iwa= alligator, si= nom. Class.) doubtful loan - WW %jiwana? see 'caiman' iwa= alligator, sikɨ= nom. class. underived possibly, not fully clear, N+CLF sikɨ = CLF associated with yellow serpents (Ramirez 94) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Kelsey Neely
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing no generic? see kaʃi (fire ant), poɾe mo (warrior ant; pore = spirit, aparition; mo= penis; note: it's said the bite can cause swelling of the penis), suɾi na (worker ant); šĩho (EM72), koye (EM72) (both species unknown) missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca ɨra, washaẽma ɨɾa, waʃaẽma inheritance underived See Language page 1 2 0 0 0 yes Kelsey Neely
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no large tree Kelsey Neely
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra wari ma hi waɾi ma hi unique hi = CLF "tree" underived N+?+CLF hi = CLF "tree" (Ramirez 94) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas no tree Kelsey Neely
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. waima si, mai masi (both HR94) ʋaima si, mai masi inheritance but cf. North Arawak manáka also mai masi, si = nom. classifier underived N+CLF si=CLF associated with beings with feathers/fur, certain grasses, and basketry with a large surface (Ramirez 94) See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia no Kelsey Neely
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. ahë (D. trifida), karpiromɨ ahə (D. trifida), karpiromɨ inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings no plant Kelsey Neely
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae siemari, siramɨ, siemato siemaɾi (large), siɾamɨ (large), siemato (small) unknown underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Kelsey Neely
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. koye koje (leaf-cutter) unknown cf. Carib Yukpa keyabu; Carijona kokoyo underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae prima ãhu pɾima ãhu unknown ãhu = CLF also associated with a certain glowing worm underived N+CLF ãhu = CLF also associated with a certain glowing worm (Ramirez 94) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. ara, ara, ashiashirimɨ, kurikaya (EM72, blue), ara (EM72, red) aɾa (general term "macaw"), aɾa aʃiaʃiɾimɨ(Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus, ashiashiɾimi = yellow), kuɾikaja, aɾa loan into protolanguage - WW %arara Panare ara; see also Arawak, e.g. Mandawaka adáːlu. Means generic macaw; see also aɾa aʃiaʃiɾimɨ(Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus, ashiashiɾimi = yellow), kuɾikaja, aɾa WW %ara underived See Language page 1 1 0 0 1 Widespread Amazonia no Kelsey Neely
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays yono mosi jono mosi unique mosi = CLF underived N+CLF mosi = CLF (class isn't well defined) (Ramirez 94) may actually be mo "CLF edible grain" and si "CLF ~grass" See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 widespread, esp. in river floodplains no plant Kelsey Neely
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Kelsey Neely
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta mashi kõamirimɨ sikɨ, našikoko (EM72) naʃi kõamiɾimɨ sikɨ (M. esculenta), naʃikoko inheritance phrase yuca+bitter-nominalizer+CLF sikɨ See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. no Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Kelsey Neely
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta nashi mɨhɨtarimɨ sikɨ, naʃi mɨhɨtaɾimɨ sikɨ (M. dulcis) unique phrase yuca+not.bitter-nominalizer+CLF sikɨ See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere no No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Kelsey Neely
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa eteweshi eteweʃi loan - WW North Arawak e.g. Yucuna itewí underived See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps no trunks contain sago-like starch Kelsey Neely
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. pareto paɾeto (MM07) unique underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera huramahe huɾamahe unique underived possibly derived or phrase, but semantics of possible morphemes make this seem unlikely See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) ara amou, atama, haya henakɨ, mahekomɨ, pokoramɨ, sikõmɨ asi, tohotoho (all edible) aɾa amou, atama, haja henakɨ, mahekomɨ, pokoɾamɨ, sikõmɨ asi, tohotoho unknown amo=CLF associated with some mushrooms. See also atama, haja henakɨ, mahekomɨ, pokoɾamɨ, sikõmɨ asi, tohotoho (all edible) Narrower? underived N+CLF amo=CLF associated with some mushrooms (Ramirez 94) See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Kelsey Neely
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis proro pɾoɾo inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae aware, nẽro (JF86) awaɾe, nẽɾo loan - WW %jawari, via Venezuelan Carib Carijona, Akawaio, Pemon aware; alternative term nẽɾo WW %jaware underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes krukukumɨ kɾukukumɨ loan - WW? onomatopoeic %murukutu / kurukutu curucucúuni; onomatopoeia? WW %kuruku Broader (generic owl) onomatopoeic See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread no Kelsey Neely
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) amota, amotha (both HR94) amota, amotha (both HR94) inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. paromena paɾomena (Mylossoma duriventre or aureum) unique underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana kohere, ikiyare koheɾe, ikijaɾe unique underived si CLF associated with beings with feathers/fur, certain grasses, and basketry with a large surface (Ramirez 94) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests no palm Kelsey Neely
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica werehi (koko) weɾehi (koko) doubtful loan - WW %awaro maybe loan into protolg; Arawak variants waru; Macushi woroké underived N+CLF koko koko= rounded objects See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 Widespread no Kelsey Neely
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea konopo (I. deltoidea) konopo (I. deltoidea) unknown underived si CLF associated with beings with feathers/fur, certain grasses, and basketry with a large surface (Ramirez 94) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no palm Kelsey Neely
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes rasha ɾaʃa inheritance underived See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Kelsey Neely
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus yamaa shikɨ jama: ʃikɨ (Ananas parhuasensis) unique underived N+CLF ʃikɨ refers to magic plants (polysemous with the word for intestines) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Kelsey Neely
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae siparariwë sipaɾaɾiwə (sipara = machete, -riwe = nom. Suff. For masc. ancestral spirits) unique formed from loan 'machete' (sipara = machete, -riwe = nom suffix for masc. ancestral spirits) compound sipara = machete, -riwe = nom suffix for masc. ancestral spirits See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no [not in this region] Kelsey Neely
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae hiwara hiwaɾa inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum hukomo (HR94) hukomo inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation no compare entries for sweet potato Kelsey Neely
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. kanimari ãhi kanimaɾi ãhi unique phrase N+'thick, muddy' (ostensibly making reference to the thick sap) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no tree Kelsey Neely
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones suhi (IDS) suhi (IDS) unknown underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 yes Kelsey Neely
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua hoko (JF86) hoko (JF86) inheritance related to 'black palm' underived ma CLF 'fruit' See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia no may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Kelsey Neely
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. šɨmɨ (EM72) ʃɨmɨ inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Kelsey Neely
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata waraima akatʰo waɾaima akatʰo (generic term; wara= skin disease, -ima= verbal suff. Denoting from below, akatho= nom. Class. Denoting reptiles living below the ground) (IDS) doubtful loan Carib, esp. Makushi wairore wara= skin disease, -ima= verbal suffix denoting from below, akatho= nom. classifier denoting reptiles living below the ground derived questionable: N-Orientational.suffix+CLF, but orientational suffixes usually only affix to verbs. However, the meaning of the clitic is related to the meaning of the classifier, so it seemed worth noting. See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda warora (IDS) waɾoɾa (IDS) loan North Arawak, e.g. Yukuna waroro See Yucuna waɾoɾo underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna oru oɾu inheritance underived kəkɨ is a nominal classifier specifying that things are of the same species See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox aroamɨ këkɨ aɾoamɨ kəkɨ (bothrops sp.) inheritance underived kəkɨ is a nominal classifier specifying that things are of the same species See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread South America yes Kelsey Neely
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. araremɨ aɾaɾemɨ unique underived possibly derived: ara- = to smoke/be smoked (as in fish), -remi (similar to ending on term) = suffix forming a noun from a verb denoting the female agent of the action. See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Kelsey Neely
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae wariomɨ kohesi (IDS) waɾiomɨ kohesi (IDS) unknown underived koheki/kohesi probably a CLF = 'spider', etc. See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. hishima thotho, horokoto thotho, kõa hesi thotho, orakama thotho hiʃima tʰotʰo, hoɾokoto tʰotʰo, kõa hesi tʰotʰo, oɾakama tʰotʰo semantic shift from Crescentia? also kõa hesi tʰotʰo, oɾakama tʰotʰo; tʰotʰo= CLF "climbing plant/vine" underived N+CLF tʰotʰo= CLF "climbing plant/vine" (Ramirez 94) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Kelsey Neely
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae wayapashi, kario wajapaʃi (amazonian), kaɾio (guianan) inheritance Carib Mapoyo wayari; or? Quechua waywash, see also Ashuar (Q loan). Also kaɾio (guianan squirrel) Narrower underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. yãmãru jãmãɾu (IDS) loan (into protolanguage?), direction unknown North Arawak: Baniwa, Tariana Tariana, Baniwa ɲámaɻo underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas hukomo (thotho) hukomo (tʰotʰo) inheritance tʰotʰo= CLF "climbing plant/vine" underived N+(CLF) tʰotʰo= CLF "climbing plant/vine" (Ramirez 94) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Kelsey Neely
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris shama, hayakoari ʃama, hajakoaɾi inheritance also hajakoaɾi underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera ãrepo (kona shi), oshe mape ã̃ɾepo (kona ʃi), oʃe mape (winged, also generic term) unique also ã̃ɾepo (kona ʃi) phrase oshe=small one, mahe = feather/wing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea tori toɾi unique underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. jeikarari, mashapi jeikaɾaɾi (H. macrophthalmus), maʃapi (H. malabaricus) unique see also maʃapi (H. malabaricus) Narrower underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Kelsey Neely
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae yoohoamɨ, hãshimo, horohoromɨ joohoamɨ (tinamus guttatus), hãʃimo (tinamus major), hoɾohoɾomɨ ( tinamus tao) unknown joohoamɨ (tinamus guttatus), hãʃimo (tinamus major), hoɾohoɾomɨ ( tinamus tao) Narrower (species) underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Kelsey Neely
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura yoyo jojo inheritance underived See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum pẽẽ nahe, pẽek nahe (EM72) pẽ: nahe, pẽek nahe inheritance nahe = CLF "tobacco" underived N+CLF nahe = CLF "tobacco" (Ramirez 94) See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 no plant Kelsey Neely
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria totori totoɾi unknown underived See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Widespread no Kelsey Neely
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. mayepɨ, mayopɨ (EM72), kretori (JF86), Kreomari (JF86) majepɨ, majopɨ, kɾetoɾi, kɾeomaɾi inheritance also kɾetoɾi, kɾeomaɾi underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Kelsey Neely
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna hii hi hi: hi inheritance hi = CLF "generic tree" underived N+CLF hi= CLF "tree" (Ramirez 94) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella hõsõmɨ hõsõmɨ (mono negro) unknown also hoaʃi? underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
cunuri (tree) cunuri cunuri flora-fauna Cunurea spruceana missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Amazonia no
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui makararowë (JF86), apia (HR94, pouteria sp.) makaɾaɾowə, apia unique also makararowë (JF86) underived hi = 'tree' See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions no other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Kelsey Neely
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae watupa watupa doubtful loan (into protolg?) - WW Arawak, e.g. Wapishana watʰu (Wapishana, Mandawaka wathu, wadu) underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread South America no Kelsey Neely
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita kõpina kõpina (IDS) inheritance underived na stinging insect' See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons hoashi hoaʃi loan North Arawak, prob. Yavitero huatsĩ Yavitero huatsĩ 'tufted capuchin' underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus pasho paʃo inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari warë waɾə inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia kõmõra si kõmõɾa si loan North Arawak see Baniwa kamhéɻo; si=CLF associated with beings with feathers/fur, certain grasses, and basketry with a large surface underived N+CLF si=CLF associated with beings with feathers/fur, certain grasses, and basketry with a large surface (Ramirez 94) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times no a tree; not a true grape Kelsey Neely
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae eshãmɨ, toromɨ, shuririãmɨ, thëëthëëmɨ eʃãmɨ (camepephilus sp., dryocopus lineatus), toɾom ɨ (camepephilus sp., d. lineatus), ʃuɾiɾiã̃mɨ (celeus elegans, c. grammicus), tʰəətʰəəmɨ (celeus flavus, c. torquatus) unknown See also toɾomɨ (camepephilus sp., d. lineatus), ʃuɾiɾiã̃mɨ (celeus elegans, c. grammicus), tʰəətʰəəmɨ (celeus flavus, c. torquatus) Narrower underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Kelsey Neely
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. kapiriomɨ, haimarimi (JF86), ohina mo (HR94), aria mo (HR94) kapiɾiomɨ, haimaɾimi, ohina mo, aɾia mo unique also kapiriomɨ, haimarimi (JF86), mo = edible grain/ things shaped like a grain underived N+CLF mo = edible grain/ things shaped like a grain (Ramirez 94) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola epena hi, hisiomɨ hi epena hi, hisiomɨ hi See Language page Kelsey Neely
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna thãri, hiima tʰãri, hiima inheritance See Language page Epps Research Team
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna haya, preri haja, preri inheritance See Language page Epps Research Team


Cultural Vocabulary (106)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool shereka ʃeɾeka inheritance Proto-Yanomamo Simplex hunting, warfare See Language page Kelsey Neely
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool poo, poo porepɨ po:, po: poɾepɨ (made of stone) inheritance Proto-Yanomamo Alternate: po: Simplex especially for clearing fields See Language page Kelsey Neely
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool yuri yãhi juɾi jãhi unknown Compound juɾi, “fish” can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Kelsey Neely
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material toutou, parankana toutou, paɾankana unknown Unknown Alternate: paɾankana (Spanish loan).May be a WW; compare Hodï tota; Wai Wai tutum (under bowl); Orejón toto deo ja; Cocama tutu (DRUM) Reduplicated See Language page Kelsey Neely
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material pako basket, for transportation Doubtful loan Nheengatu Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material mora, wɨɨ (EM72) moɾa, wɨ: unknown Alternate: wɨ: Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material topë topə inheritance Proto-Yanomami/Yanomam Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
bed cama cama culture-material missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material roomamotima (neol. : ro-aɨ = "to sit") ɾo:mamotima unique neologism Phrase ɾoo-mamotima, sit-thing See Language page Kelsey Neely
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool arõkõhiriwë aɾõkõhiɾiwə unknown Simplex currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Kelsey Neely
bottle botella garrafa acculturation mathono (MM07) motʰono (MM07) unique neologism Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
bow arco arco subsistence tool hatõ nahi, tisho hi, nahi (EM72) hatõ nahi, tiʃo hi (ceremonial) unique Alternate: tiʃo hi (ceremonial) Other complex No info arco See Language page Kelsey Neely
broom escoba vassoura culture-material shikishiki, hõamotima ʃikiʃiki, hõamotima unique Alternate: hõamotima Reduplicated See Language page Kelsey Neely
canoe canoa canoa transport kanawa kanawa loan - WW Proto-Yanomami/Yanomam? %kanawa Could be loan into protolanguage. WW occurs in e.g. Wapishana, khanawa; various Carib (kanau, kanawa, kanowa, kanáw); Guayabero, kanáw; Candoshi, kánó; Jivaro, kán; Matses, cano; Napo Lowland Quichua, kanu; Siriano, cũma; Yanomam (kanaw, kanae). Ultimate WW %kanawa Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
cat gato gato acculturation mishi, yaomɨ, henapë (domestic cats), thoropowarewë (rat eater), ira tikëkërimɨ (mountain cat), irimɨ (si), tururumɨ (mosi) (black tiger) miʃi, yaomɨ =, henapə (domestic cats), tʰoropowarewə (rat eater), ɨra tikəkərimɨ (mountain cat), irimɨ (si), tururumɨ (si) (black tiger) loan - WW; unique %miʃi Quechua source? mishi; Bora míichi; Yucuna, michi; Resígaro, miishí; Eсepa,miǩi; Makiritari, mēši; Orejon, michi agu; Yanomami mishi, Sikuani mitsi WW %miʃi Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
chicken gallina galinha acculturation kakara (MM07) kakara (MM07) loan - WW %karaka Loan + metathesis; Probably Arawak origin (see Nordenskiold 1922). Tukanoan, e.g. Wanano karaka; Arawak, e.g. Baniwa kaláka; Yanomamo, Nadeb; Macaguan takra, Sikuani wakara WW %karaka Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology kapitani (MM07) kapitani (MM07) loan Spanish also Nheengatu kapitão Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool himo, naprushi, parimi, hipë (MM07) himo, napruʃi, parimi, hipə (MM07) inheritance Proto-Yanomami/Yanomam Alternate: napruʃi, parimi, hipə Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
coca narcotics Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
cook food food ɾɨpɨ-aɨ Inheritance Proto-Yanomami Alternate: ɾɨpɨpɾaɨ Simplex aɨ looks like some sort of verbal marker See Language page Epps Research Group
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology missing malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Kelsey Neely
dance (generic) culture-mythology praia ritual dance form in center of plaza Inheritance Proto-Yanomami Alternate: shiwahio (terms for ritual dance for presentation in the central plaza); hẽri (ritual dance), imɨkɨ yokoaɨ and imɨkɨ yokoyokomou (dance involving raising and lowering of the arms) Simplex -i marker of verbs? See Language page Epps Research Group
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool rahaka ɾahaka unknown Simplex hunting and warfare See Language page Kelsey Neely
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology missing In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Kelsey Neely
digging stick subsistence tool Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology maharishi (MM07) mahariʃi (MM07) inheritance Proto-Yanomamo Derived mahari, “to dream” + some kind of nominalizer? See Language page Kelsey Neely
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology shuu huku hi (regular drum) shuu huku hi (regular drum) regular drum, (palo de monte) unknown Other complex See Language page Kelsey Neely
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool shuhema, yahuha (EM72) ʃuhema, jahuha inheritance Proto-Yanomamo Alternate: jahuha Simplex esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Kelsey Neely
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology sikɨ sikɨ unknown Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology hërɨ̃ (HR94) həɾɨ̃ unknown Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
fireplace hogar lareira other missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
firewood leña lenha other kõã ãsho kõã ãʃo inheritance Proto-Yanomami/Yanomam Compound kõã, “fire” See Language page Kelsey Neely
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food yuri shëaɨ juɾi ʃəaɨ unknown Compound See Language page Kelsey Neely
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food yuri rëkaɨ, rəka (EM72) juɾi ɾəkaɨ, ɾəka inheritance Proto-Yanomamo Alternate: ɾəka (juɾi ɾəka? not clear from original spreadsheet) Compound See Language page Kelsey Neely
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool jaɾaka henakɨ Unknown Other complex No info See Language page Epps Research Group
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool ɑ̃sithɑ, uhea ɑ̃sithɑ [fishhook line], yuri yokɑmotimɑ, materiɑwë [Pt/Sp loan] (MM07) ã̃sitʰa, uhea ã̃sitʰa, juri jokamotimɑ, materiawə (MM07) inheritance Proto-Yanomami/Yanomam Alternate: uhea ã̃sitʰa, juri jokamotima, materiawə Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool sharapi, nomohõri ʃaɾapi, nomohõɾi unknown Alternate: nomohõɾi. Compare Yucuna tʃaʔawí Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food nashi hikɨ naʃi hikɨ unique/semantic shift? Proto Ninam/Yanomami/Yanomam from 'manioc' usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Kelsey Neely
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food mayoko hĩkɨ (MM07) majoko hĩkɨ (MM07) loan Tupi-Guarani 'manioc' A loanblend. Also Baniwa, matsóka; Warekena, matsuka; Mandawaka, matʃúka; Puinave, masuká; Nadeb ma WW %matsuka Compound mayoko, “manioc” + hĩkɨ, “flour” agriculture See Language page Kelsey Neely
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology horamamotima hoɾamamotima doubtful loan Eñepa aramataimə Maybe borrowing + native nominalizer? Derived nominalizer -amotima? multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Kelsey Neely
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food yaro (EM72) jaɾo inheritance Proto-Yanomamo Simplex Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Kelsey Neely
genipap culture-mythology tana hi Loan Proto-Yanomami/Yanomam North Arawak Could be loan into protolanguage Simplex hi some sort of classifier for plants? Also found in items for “tree,” “acouchi tree,” achiote” See Language page Epps Research Group
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool maukəhesi ('calabash' EM72), horokoto ('gourd' EM72), hishima (JF86) maɾaka hi, hoɾokoto, hiʃima doubtful loan; doubtful loan (into protolg?) - WW *fesi Proto-Yanomamo Spanish (calabash); %koto/matoko inherited form is 'gourd' Compound hesi 'gourd' See Language page Kelsey Neely
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool hɨrɨkamotima, hɨrɨka (EM72) hɨɾɨkamotima inheritance Proto-Yanomamo Derived hɨɾɨk-amotima, grate-nominalizer esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Kelsey Neely
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool rãmamotima (MM07) rãmamotima (MM07) unknown Derived rãmɨ-aɨ “to roast,” -amotima, nominalizer agriculture? See Language page Kelsey Neely
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation kopeta (little used terms: amarõkõma, arakusa, hiihi, hõmomamɨ, mokawa, tãhimi hi, yoroa) kopeta (little used terms: amarõkõma, arakusa, hiihi, hõmomamɨ, mokawa, tãhimi hi, yoroa) loan; loan - WW Spanish escopeta; %mukawa; arcabuz (via Carib) Compare Makiritare kapuuctʃa; Alternates: amarõkõma, arakusa, hiihi, hõmomamɨ, mokawa, tãhimi hi, yoroa (little used terms) Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material yɨɨ këkɨ, mrakamathoto (EM72) jɨ: kəkɨ, mɾakamatʰoto inheritance Proto-Yanomamo Alternate: jɨ: kekɨ Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
hat sombero chapéu dress he yoa he joa semantic shift? Proto Ninam/Yanomami/Yanomam Other complex related to “to cover” See Language page Kelsey Neely
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology shapori, hekura ʃapoɾi, hekuɾa inheritance Proto-Yanomamo Alternate: hekuɾa (shaman); haɾo-, oʋəh- (healer, to heal?) Simplex In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Kelsey Neely
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
honey miel mel food puu puu inheritance Proto-Yanomami/Yanomam Alternate: puu u(ku) Simplex only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Kelsey Neely
hunt cazar caçar food ramɨ huu (individual, daily trip), henimou (collective, longer trip) ɾamɨ hu:, henimou inheritance Proto-Yanomamo Alternate: henimou Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
knife cuchillo faca culture-material akuri, thõmɨna (EM72) akuɾi (shamanic), tʰõmɨna unknown; inheritance Proto-Yanomamo Alternate: sipaɾa si, akuɾi (shamanic) Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress wayuko (MM07) wajuko (MM07) loan Carib Pemon wajiku Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
machete machete facão culture-material sipara sipaɾa loan - WW %sipara/sapere Carib (e.g. Pemon kusupará); Urarina sa:beɽe; Iquito sáhuiri; Sikuani sipari (axe) WW %sapara Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool hii hi ka hi: hi ka (for grinding bones of the dead) for grinding bones of the dead unknown Phrase for grinding bones of the dead?, unclear what the parts mean See Language page Kelsey Neely
fence, palisade cerco cerca other arana aɾana doubtful loan Spanish corral, via Arawak kurara Simplex may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Kelsey Neely
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
paper papel papel acculturation onimamotima (lit. draw + Nominalizer, anything that can be used for drawing or writing), papeo, papeyo (MM07) onimamotima (lit. draw + nominalizer, anything used for drawing/writing), papeo, papejo (MM07) unique; loan Span/Port 'papel' Spanish/Portuguese > Nheengatu > others? Ninam liplo (metathesis); Arawak (e.g. Yucuna papera); Macaguan papéna; Tukanoan (Cubeo papela, Wanano papera pû, Tukano papéra); Nheengatu papera; Yanomam, papʰeo WW %papera Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool poo (for grinding halucinogens) po: unknown Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other mokohiɾo tube for inhaling snuff Unknown Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
plate plato prato culture-material iyamamotima ijamamotima unique Derived eat-NMLZ; ijam-amotima See Language page Kelsey Neely
policeman polícia policía acculturation missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool hapoka hapoka inheritance Proto Ninam/Yanomami/Yanomam Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool husuhusu (particularly the Caucho tree), warapa ko hi husuhusu (particularly the Caucho tree), warapa ko hi unknown; unknown Reduplicated See Language page Kelsey Neely
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
salt sal sal food mositima, mitirimɨ, sayu (MM07) mositima, mitirimɨ, saju (MM07) unique; loan Span/Port (via Carib?) Alternate: mitirimɨ, saju Derived mositi “to salt”, -ma nominalizer? See Language page Kelsey Neely
school escuela escola acculturation jahi hiramamotima unique Phrase yahi 'collective house', hira 'teach' + NMLZ See Language page Kelsey Neely
shoes zapatos sapatos dress mamikɨtitioma (MM07) mamikɨtitioma (MM07) unique neologism Phrase literal translation “to put the foot (in)”, gloss not given See Language page Kelsey Neely
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material horotorimɨsikɨ (MM07) horotorimɨsikɨ (MM07) unique neologism Other complex Unclear: the word is variously analyzed as two words (Spanish-Yanomami side) or one word (Yanomami-Spanish portion), sikɨ is an element also found in the word for “sugar cane” See Language page Kelsey Neely
soldier soldado soldado acculturation missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology amoa (M72) amoa (M72) song (not necessarily ritual) inheritance Proto Ninam/Yanomami/Yanomam Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
spear lanza lança subsistence tool šokopi (EM72) ʃokopi inheritance Proto Ninam/Yanomami/Yanomam Possibly loaned into Makiritari sukuhi Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation kretetiwë (sweet), puu sikɨ (sugar cane) (MM07) kretetiwə (sweet), puu sikɨ (sugar cane) (MM07) sugar cane unique Alternate: kretetiwə (sweet) Compound honey/bee ? See Language page Kelsey Neely
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food missing agriculture See Language page Kelsey Neely
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material kohere, ikiyare koheɾe, ikijaɾe unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food kotoma kotoma inheritance? Proto-Yanomami/Yanomam Simplex word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Kelsey Neely
tobacco (native) narcotics pẽ: nahe Inheritance Proto-Yanomamo Alternate: pẽek nahe Other complex No info See Language page Epps Research Group
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool missing agriculture See Language page Kelsey Neely
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool wayu, mamokorima (HR94) waju, mamokoɾima unknown Alternate: mamokoɾima Simplex hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Kelsey Neely
wax cera cera other puu nasi (beeswax) (MM07) puu nasi (beeswax) (MM07) unknown Derived puu na “bee,” -si some sort of classifier/derivation See Language page Kelsey Neely
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool kamamoma kamamoma unknown Simplex agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Kelsey Neely
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology missing a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Kelsey Neely
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material wɨɨ, yorehi, pako (for transportation) wɨ:, joɾehi, pako (for transportation) inheritance; unique; doubtful loan - WW %panaku See Language page Kelsey Neely
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture missing Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Kelsey Neely
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology haro- ("to heal" HR94), owëh- ("to heal"HR94) haɾo-, oʋəh- inheritance Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Kelsey Neely
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology iro sikɨ iɾo sikɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology yai jai inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
paddle/oar remo remo transport yakoremamotima, kanareto jakoɾemamotima, kanaɾeto inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture ãsitha ãsitʰa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology paushi (also denotes other types of body adornment pauʃi See Language page Kelsey Neely
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other mokohiro (tube for inhaling snuff) mokohiɾo unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture yarakuri jaɾakuɾi loan - WW %jalaki, MM attributes to Yekuana prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Kelsey Neely
bottom grinding stone manufacture hii hi ka (bottom) hi: hi ka unique if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Kelsey Neely
digging stick subsistence tool missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture poo (top, for hallucinogens) po: unique use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Kelsey Neely
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
spearthrower subsistence tool missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
house other shapono, yahi (EM72) ʃapono (collective), jahi unique; inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely


Grammatical Data (226)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. no Migliazza 1972: p.38-39 Kelsey Neely
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] no Migliazza 1972: p.38-39 Kelsey Neely
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast no Migliazza 1972: p.38-39 Kelsey Neely
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? no Migliazza 1972: p.38-39 Kelsey Neely
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels no Migliazza 1972: p.38-39 Kelsey Neely
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme yes CCV - first C is [-cor] Migliazza 1972: p.201 Kelsey Neely
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] yes Migliazza 1972: p.201 Kelsey Neely
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? no Migliazza 1972: p.201 Kelsey Neely
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones no Migliazza 1972: p. 38-39 Kelsey Neely
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? no Migliazza 1972: p.203 Kelsey Neely
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments yes Migliazza 1972: p.154 Kelsey Neely
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? yes Nasality can spread throughout the morphemes of a word if one of the morphemes is nasalized. Migliazza 1972: p.158, Ramirez 1994: 69 Kelsey Neely
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony yes regressive, usually involves change in rounding. Lizot 1996: p.26-27; Ramirez 1994: 82-83 Kelsey Neely
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] no Ramirez 1994: p.240 Kelsey Neely The table on this page provides many examples of the most common verbal suffixes. While Ramirez doesn't state that there is no fusion, there is none indicated by this comprehensive table.
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone no Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely no evidence for this anywhere in the text
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word yes Ramirez 1994: p.236 Kelsey Neely
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no Ramirez 1994: p.92 Kelsey Neely Ramirez only says that an affix is "generally a suffix", but from looking at the rest of the examples in the book, I think it's obvious that there are far more suffixes (incorporated proclitics (typically just marking agreement) are the only exceptions to
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes yes Ramirez 1994: p.92 Kelsey Neely Ramirez only says that an affix is "generally a suffix", but from looking at the rest of the examples in the book, I think it's obvious that there are far more suffixes (incorporated proclitics (typically just marking agreement) are the only exceptions to
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different no Ramirez 1994: p.92 Kelsey Neely Ramirez only says that an affix is "generally a suffix", but from looking at the rest of the examples in the book, I think it's obvious that there are far more suffixes (incorporated proclitics (typically just marking agreement) are the only exceptions to
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated yes has the effect of deverbalizing a stative verb, but with other verbs it expresses rapid, periodic repetition of an action without interruption Ramirez 1994: p.365 Kelsey Neely
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated no Ramirez 1994: p.364-366 Kelsey Neely
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced yes Ramirez 1994: p.330 Kelsey Neely somewhat unclear if it's compounding or serialization
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection no Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely see p.330. probably not serialization because verbs (all in one phonological word) take different morphology. 1st has VCRM w/ aspect, and 2nd has aspect and tense.
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word yes occurs with a variety of verbs, typically those which express adverbial-type concepts Ramirez 1994: p.364 Kelsey Neely it's not clear how productive this is.
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' no info Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely no examples of these
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs yes /ku/ /ku/ /ku/ is the only auxiliary, and it's use is not restricted to aux. functions. Often occurs after the main verb Ramirez 1994: p.350 Kelsey Neely
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment yes doesn't have the effect of intransitivizing Ramirez 1994: p.221 Kelsey Neely various examples of this and other incorporation of nouns throughout book.
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns yes can incorporate noun classifiers, AUG/DIM; "adjectives" pattern verbally, and so they may seem "incorporated" but this might be better classified as a kind of verb serialization. Ramirez 1994: p.130; Lizot 1996: p.32-33 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP no noun clasifiers, but not classes Ramirez 1994: p.123-124 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders no noun clasifiers, but not classes Ramirez 1994: p.123-124 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. yes 100+ Ramirez 1994: p.123-124 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter no Ramirez 1994: p.142-151; p.112 Kelsey Neely no gender distinctions in person/number clitics (p.112), no indication of gender distinctions in classifiers list starting on p.142
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates no Ramirez 1994: p.142-151 Kelsey Neely no indication of gender distinctions in noun classifier list
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human no there are many noun classes with both animates and inanimates Ramirez 1994: p.124 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only no Ramirez, 1994: p.112 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates yes many of these classes apply equally to inanimates Ramirez 1994: p.124 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates yes many of these classes apply equally to animates Ramirez 1994: p.124 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" no info Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely From my observations, there are hardly any words that don't have a classifier associated with them.
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals no info Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely There don't seem to be any special numeral classifiers. At least none are mentioned by Ramirez. The three numbers in Yanomami (for person/number marking : sg, dual, plural) correspond directly to Yanomami's only numerals: 'one', 'two', and '3 or more'
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' no info Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups no info Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun no Ramirez 1994: 195 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no Ramirez 1994: 195 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun no Ramirez 1994: 195 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic yes plural: /pə/, collective: /kɨ/, dual: /kɨ . .pɨ/ or /kɨpɨ/ plural: /pë/, collective: /kɨ/, dual: /kɨ . .pɨ/ or /kɨpɨ/ various clitics for sg, dual, pl; other clitics can intervene between the noun and the number marking Ramirez 1994: 195 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only no plural can be marked on inanimates also at least using the incorporated number markers Ramirez 1994: 195, and other examples throughout text Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns no no number marked on non-possessive forms, number marked on 1st person inclusive dual and plural and on second person dual and plural with suffixes that are unique to possessive pronouns Ramirez 1994: 209-210 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' no info Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only no Ramirex 1994 Kelsey Neely no mention of these
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness yes /tə/ /të/ indefinite (non-specific) verbal particle/pronoun Ramirez 1994: 177-178 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker no not an article so much as a pronoun Ramirez 1994: 177-178 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you no incl/excl is distinguished, however, in the possessive pronouns Ramirez 1994: 209 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) yes 1dual.excl: /jahə/, 1dual.incl: /pəhə/, 1pl.excl: /jama/, 1pl.incl: /pəma/ 1dual.excl: /yahë/, 1dual.incl: /pëhë/, 1pl.excl: /yama/, 1pl.incl: /pëma/ Ramirez 1994: 101 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system yes, 3 speaker proximal: /hei/, /ei/, addressee proximal: /mihi/, /ei/, /kiha/, far: /kihi/, /kiha/ speaker proximal: /hei/, /ei/, addressee proximal: /mihi/, /ei/, /kiha/, far: /kihi/, /kiha/ Ramirez 1994: 210 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) yes visible: /hei/, /mihi/, kihi/, non-visible: /ei/, /kiha/ visible: /hei/, /mihi/, kihi/, non-visible: /ei/, /kiha/ visibility Ramirez 1994: 210 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns no Ramirez 1994: 209-210 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns no Ramirez 1994: 209-210 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no Ramirez 1994: 209-210 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no Ramirez 1994: 209-210 Kelsey Neely no mention of polite pronouns
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix no Ramirez 1994: 101-105, 209-222 Kelsey Neely no mention of reflexive pronoun in discussion
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients no Ramirez 1994: 195-198 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun 2 /-nɨ/ marks ergative and instrumental (possibly distinct because ins. Can be used with an intrans. Verb), and clitic /=e/ marks 'oblique' and possessive/possessed case /-nɨ/ marks ergative and instrumental (possibly distinct because ins. Can be used with an intrans. Verb), and clitic /=e/ marks 'oblique' and possessive/possessed case could be interpreted as 4 cases. suffix -nɨ marks ergative and instrumental (possibly distinct because ins. Can be used with an intrans. Verb), and clitic =e marks 'oblique' and possessive/possessed case (can appear with either head or dependent in Yanom Ramirez 1994: 195-198, 179-180 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are no Only the absolutive is not marked Ramirez 1994: 195-198, 179-180 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) yes except absolutive, which is not marked Ramirez 1994: 195-198, 179-180 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates no Ramirez 1994: 195-198, 179-180 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic yes Ramirez 1994: 195-198, 179-180 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic no Ramirez 1994: 195-198, 179-180 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic no Ramirez 1994: 195-198, 179-180 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change no Ramirez 1994: 195-198, 179-180 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone no Ramirez 1994: 195-198, 179-180 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' no Ramirez 1994: 195-198, 156-157 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 no Mattei-Muller 2007 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 no Mattei-Muller 2007 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 no Mattei-Muller 2007 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. no Mattei-Muller 2007 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' no Mattei-Muller 2007 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used yes see numerals data Mattei-Muller 2007 Kelsey Neely No numerals over 2
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used yes see numerals data Mattei-Muller 2007 Kelsey Neely No numerals over 2
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely no evidence of this
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely no evidence of this
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? no Ramirez 1994: 189 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? yes 1st person: /-jə/, 2nd person /-hə/ 1st person: /-yë/, 2nd person /-hë/ Ramirez 1994: 189 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' no you can also get Pr=POSS=Pd, but all strategies must have POSS in some way bound to the Pd, and never to the Pr alone Ramirez 1994: 184-189 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' yes Ramirez 1994: 184-189 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities no Ramirez 1994: 184-189 Kelsey Neely no evidence for these
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no no marking in existential sentences w/o verb (Pr-Pd), but inalienably possessed is incorporated in sentences involving a verb Ramirez 1994: 184-192 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) yes incorporation or /-pɨ/ for kin incorporation or /-pɨ/ for kin inalienable is incorporated or uses /-pɨ/ with kin terms Ramirez 1994: 184-192 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form yes prefix: /pei/ prefix: /pei/ Ramirez 1994: 118 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father yes Ramirez 1994: 189-192 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg yes Ramirez 1994: 117-119 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) no Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely no discussion, but there are many examples that simply have "man"
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes no no true adjectives Lizot 1996: 32-3, Ramirez 1994: various examples Kelsey Neely Terribly confusing. There's not a lot of good, direct discussion of adjectives. They pretty much are only either verbs or get incorporated
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco no Lizot 1996: 32-3, Ramirez 1994: various examples Kelsey Neely evidenced by various examples in Lizot and Ramirez
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb no Ramirez 1994: 363-378 Kelsey Neely no mention of this, but there is one that derives a location
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb yes suffix: /-timi/ or /-ɾewə/ suffix: /-timi/ or /-rewë/ Lizot says this kind of derivational morphology is not very productive Lizot 1996: p.227 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb no Ramirez 1994: 363-378 Kelsey Neely no evidence for this
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective yes /=mo/ /=mo/ Ramirez 1994: 367 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' yes commitative: /=kaĩ/, coordinator: /-ʃo/ commitative: /=kaĩ/, coordinator: /-xo/ Ramirez 1994: 204, 156 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere yes past /-ma/ past /-ma/ Ramirez 1994: 240 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past yes recent /-ha, -he/, hodiernal: /-pɾe/, prehodiernal: /-pəɾa, -ɾa/, distant: /-pəɾa, -(ɾo)ɾa/ recent /-ha, -he/, hodiernal: /-pre/, prehodiernal: /-përa, -ra/, distant: /-përa, -(ro)ra/ Ramirez 1994: 295 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future no Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely no evidence of this
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) yes future /-pə/ future /-pë/ Ramirez 1994: 240 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no Ramirez 1994: 240 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes continuous: /-ta/, discontinuous: /-pɾa/, perfective: /-a/, telic /-ɾe/, durative: /-ti/, dynamic: /-ɨ/, completive: /-no/, continuous: /-ta/, discontinuous: /-pra/, perfective: /-a/, telic /-re/, durative: /-ti/, dynamic: /-ɨ/, completive: /-no/, Ramirez 1994: 240, 254-258, 262-263, 273 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no Ramirez 1994: 240 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no Ramirez 1994: 240 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood no Ramirez 1994: 324-329 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) no Ramirez 1994: 324-329 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses yes prohibitive: /-hə/ prohibitive: /-hë/ Ramirez 1994: 240 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' no Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely no examples of this
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something yes suffix /-ta/ suffix /-ta/ Ramirez 1994: 325 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction no Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking no Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis no Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction no Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking no Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected yes /ma/ /ma/ Ramirez 1994: 319 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") yes /moɾi-/ /mori-/ occurs directly before the verb root Ramirez 1994: 160 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality yes /ʃiɾõ-/ /xirõ-/ occurs directly before the verb root Ramirez 1994: 160 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' no Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely no evidence of this
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' yes irrealis: /-pi/ irrealis: /-pi/ Ramirez 1994: 318 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative no Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely no evidence of this
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. yes limit: /-hV/, downward:/-pa/, extensive: /-ɾa/, upward: /-pe/, bottom: /-je/, far: /-tayo/, near: /-joɾu/, downriver: /-kiɾio/, limit: /-hVɾajo/, w/ reference to house: /-hVɾo/, outward: /-həɾɨ/, inward: /-ima/ limit: /-hV/, downward:/-pa/, extensive: /-ra/, upward: /-pe/, bottom: /-ye/, far: /-tayo/, near: /-yoru/, downriver: /-kirio/, limit: /-hVrayo/, w/ reference to house: /-hVro/, outward: /-hërɨ/, inward: /-ima/ Ramirez 1994: 240; 273-274 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker yes /-i/, add 2ndary form /-i/, add 2ndary form Ramirez 1994: 316-317 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) yes /no=. . .-ʃi/, add 2ndary form /no=. . .-xi/, add 2ndary form Ramirez 1994: 317 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. yes /manaʃi=/ /manaxi=/ Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' yes /hoɾã=/ /hoɾã=/ Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse no Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above no Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic yes Ramirez 1994: 316-317 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs no Ramirez 1994: 316-317 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle no Ramirez 1994: 316-317 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme no Ramirez 1994: 316-317 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion no Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely no evidence for this
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction no Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely no evidence for this
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order no absolutive always precedes verb, but ergative can be anywhere Ramirez 1994: 98 Kelsey Neely
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject no Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely based on a frequency count of basic declarative clauses with full NPs
Word Order VS in transitive clauses no Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely based on a frequency count of basic declarative clauses with full NPs
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object no Ramirez 1994: 98 Kelsey Neely
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject no Ramirez 1994: 98 Kelsey Neely
Word Order Preposition-Noun no Ramirez 1994: 193, 202, 223 Kelsey Neely
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes Ramirez 1994: 193, 202, 223 Kelsey Neely
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) yes Ramirez 1994: 179 Kelsey Neely
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') no Ramirez 1994: 179 Kelsey Neely
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun n/a no true adjectives Ramirez 1994: 202 Kelsey Neely
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun n/a no true adjectives Ramirez 1994: 202 Kelsey Neely
Word Order Dem-Noun yes demonstratives can sometimes follow noun, but this is less common Ramirez 1994: 210 Kelsey Neely
Word Order Noun-Dem no demonstratives can sometimes follow noun, but this is less common than the opposite order Ramirez 1994: 210 Kelsey Neely
Word Order Num-Noun no info Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely
Word Order Noun-Num no info Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies yes Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely evidenced by what few relative examples I could find
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies no Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') no info Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' no info Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause yes Ramirez 1994: 217 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects no Lizot 1996: 51 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked no Lizot 1996: 51 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker yes Lizot 1996: 51 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no Lizot 1996: 51 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no Lizot 1996: 51 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative no Ramirez 1994: 209-213 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative no Ramirez 1994: 209-213 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other yes Ramirez 1994: 209-213 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no Ramirez 1994: 209-213 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no Ramirez 1994: 209-213 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs no Ramirez 1994: 112-114 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other yes Ramirez 1994: 112-114 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive no Ramirez 1994: 112-114 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) yes Ramirez 1994: 112-114 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. yes ergative-absolutive is primary for person-marking, but if one argument is 1st or 2nd person it can exhibit hierarchical, and if both are 1st/2nd there are special forms to denote which is ergative and which is absolutive (There is only split marking in th Ramirez 1994: 112-114 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects yes not obligatory as free pronouns Ramirez 1994: 209-213 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) yes clitics, not prefixes; obligatory (person marking takes special forms relating the relative roles of two different arguments) Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely evidenced by examples throughout
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) yes 3rd person dual and plural are often marked as a suffix, but most person markings are clitics preceding the verb Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely evidenced by examples throughout
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes yes Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely evidences by examples throughout
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers yes Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely evidenced by examples throughout
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers yes Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely evidenced by examples throughout
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no ergative 3rd person will be marked, an inversion morpheme is required between a 1st or 2nd person absolutive (which must always be marked 1st on the verb) and a 3rd person ergative Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system yes absolutive 3rd person arguments will be marked, unless there is a 1st or 2nd person ergative. Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately yes number is often marked with a separate clitic that can either come directly after the person marking clitic, or sometimes occurs as a suffix on the verb Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes no there are only possessive suffixes for 1st and 2nd person Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent no but 'less-animate' animals or inanimates will more commonly be marked with a noun classifier instead of the 3rd person marker (used for humans and higher animates like tapirs, dogs, jaguars, etc.) Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently yes Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely evidenced by examples
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives no Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely evidenced by examples
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently no Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely evidenced by examples
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. yes /-jo/ suffix /-yo/ Ramirez 1994: 253 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. no no dedicated morpheme, discussions of reflexive uses are not clear Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb no Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely no evidence for this
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted n/a ergative-absolutive; no passive Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely no evidence of this
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency yes /-o/; /-mo/ suffix /o/, often combines with causative suffix /ma/ to form /mo/ Ramirez 1994: 247-249 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb no Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb no Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb no Ramirez 1994: 245-248 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb yes /-ma/ /-ma/ Ramirez 1994: 245-248 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix no Ramirez 1994: 245-248 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization no Ramirez 1994: 245-248 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' yes /-mo/ (verbal suffix) /-mo/ (verbal suffix) Ramirez 1994: 248- 252 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event no Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely no evidence of this
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency yes /-a/ (suffixed to verb root) /-a/ (suffixed to verb root) Ramirez 1994: 238 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element no Ramirez 1994: 313-314 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element yes Ramirez 1994: 313-314 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix yes suffix /-mi/ or /-pə/ (the latter is a stronger negation: 'never') (suffixed to verb) suffix /-mi/ or /-pë/ (the latter is a stronger negation: 'never') (suffixed to verb) Ramirez 1994: 313-314 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle no Ramirez 1994: 313-314 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb yes /ma/ /ma/ used with the negated future Ramirez 1994: 313-314 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' no Ramirez 1994: 313-314 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' no Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely evidenced by examples
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase no info Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle no Ramirez 1994: 219 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology no Ramirez 1994: 219 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no Ramirez 1994: 219 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only yes Ramirez 1994: 219 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) no Ramirez 1994: 217 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position yes no true adjectives Ramirez 1994: 202 Kelsey Neely see examples
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position no Ramirez 1994: 202 Kelsey Neely see examples
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) yes Ramirez 1994: ch.4 Kelsey Neely evidenced by examples
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) no Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely no examples of this
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. no Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely no examples of this
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause no info I would actually suspect this is possible, but I don't have the data to back it up Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely no examples of this
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix no pronoun retention Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely from examples (there were only 3 or 4)
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) no Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely from examples (there were only 3 or 4)
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) yes /no= . . .-pɨ/ /no= . . .-pɨ/ 1st part comes after person marking clitics, second part comes after aspect (and tense? Ramirez 1994: 311 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. no info Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined no info Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence yes simultaneous: /təhə/ (post-verbal), sequential: /ha/ pre verbal clitic simultaneous: /tëhë/ (post-verbal), sequential: /ha/ pre verbal clitic Ramirez 1994: 320, 167 Kelsey Neely


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
18000 large HG medium seasonal Interfluvial