Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative)

Verbal Categories - Mood
as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing'


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla Jane Hill
Cupeño Jane Hill
Luiseño Jane Hill
Serrano Jane Hill
Kitanemuk Jane Hill
Kawaiisu Jane Hill
Timbisha Jane Hill
Western Mono Jane Hill
Chemehuevi Jane Hill
Southern Paiute Jane Hill
Southern Ute Jane Hill
Shoshone Jane Hill
Comanche Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute Jane Hill
Gabrielino Jane Hill
Achagua yes Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 101 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Resígaro no Allin notes that the subject of an imperative clause must be 2nd person. Allin, 1976: 353-355 Aimee Lawrence
Bare no Aikhenvald, 1995: 33 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco no Galindo, 2002: 270-271 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna no Not mentioned overtly, but the first example in the second column on page 523 of Shauer & Shauer (2000) has "exhortative morpheme." However, the example is translated with a second-person subject, and carries a second-person subject prefix, although it's Shauer & Shauer, 2000: 523 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no Imperatives in general do not make use of special morphology, so a hortative meaning is expressed using the relevant person-marking. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 64 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no Santos, 2006:164 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu no Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 800 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana yes Referred to as a "cohortative," this is rather rare and is only use with the first person plural. Aikhenvald, 2003: 378 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã yes Exact form depends on speech register and rate of speech. Facundes, 2000: 374 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali no info Payne 1981; Payne 1982:910 Amanda Meeks
Maipure no Zamponi 2003:39-42 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' no Duff-Tripp 1997:113-5 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau yes Although there is not a particular suffix indicating this, the verb is inflected for third person plural and the "subjunctive" suffix is also added Souza 2008:129 Daniel Valle
Baure yes It is a preverbal particle Danielsen 2007:291 Daniel Valle
Nanti no Michael, 2008. p. 399-401 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no Brandão 2010:47-8 Daniel Valle
Palikur no Launey 2003 Daniel Smith
Yine no Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun no info Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora no Seifart - 2005:61 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no Similar semantics are conveyed by using the future tense, but there is no evidence of the hortative morpheme. Hall 1988; Escoriaza 1959:16 Melody Ann Ross, Amanda Meeks
Makushi yes Abbott 1991: 49 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa no Payne 2012 Daniel Smith
Pemon yes de Armellada 1999: 125 Shannon Dardis
Guna no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika yes Frank 1990:88 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí no info Daniel Valle
Damana yes suffix: -uzhi Daniel Valle
Sikuani no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000 Amanda Meeks
Macaguan no info Buenaventura 1993 Daniel Smith
Aguaruna yes Overall 2007:353 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá no A declarative or a verification mood marker is used instead Mortensen 1999:85 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá yes Levinson 1978:21 Daniel Valle
Matses no Fleck:443 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no But there is marking of imperatives for 1, 2 and 3 person (and number is not distinguished) Zúñiga 2006, p.106-11 Daniel Valle
Páez yes Jung:88 Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no info Daniel Valle
Tikuna no Montes 2004b:80-87, 101-120 Daniel Valle
Urarina yes Olawsky:573 Daniel Valle
Waunana yes Loewen 1954:65 Daniel Valle
Andoke yes for 1pl only, no simple morphemic form for 3rd person Landaburu 1979: 226 Kelsey Neely
Puinave yes "same suffix as exhortative" D Valle Giron 2008: p395 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no Huayhua Pari 2001: 135 to 140 Shannon Dardis
Kakua no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no not indicated/expected Minor and Minor 1982.
Hup yes same as Declarative suffix Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no any person/ number can occur in imperative constructions but there is no dedicated marker. Weir 1984:120 Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw yes Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano yes called exhortative Miller 1999, p. 72 Amanda Novak; edited by Chris Clack exhortative (p); -rã 'Let's', -biri-kã-rã 'Let's not…'
Cubeo no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 24 Amanda Novak
Kotiria yes Stenzel 2004, p. 389 Amanda Novak
Makuna yes Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.62 Chris Clack
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.59 Chris Clack
Barasano yes The present plural imperative construction may employ verbs of boh motion and nonmotion to express hortatory commands by the use of -to (second person imperative.) Jones & Jones 1991, p.79-80 Chris Clack
Tanimuca no Strom 1992, p.137 Chris Clack
Siona yes Further, each form can also carry differing "reasons" for the action to be done, such as moral obligation or urgency out of necessity. Wheeler - 1987:158-159 Amanda Meeks
Tukano yes Ramirez 1997: 145, 147 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami no Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely no examples of this
Ninam yes first person only Goodwin-Gomez, p.106 Kelsey Neely
Sanumá yes desiderative Borgman 1990: 79 Kelsey Neely
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana no Landin 1980:16-17 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no Cruz 2011:406-408 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no info Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta yes done 1
Jingulu no done 0
Wambaya no info done x
Bunuba no info done x
Walmajarri yes Done-Claire 1
Nyulnyul no info done? x
Warrwa no info done x
Worrorra yes 62-3 done 1
Garrwa no info done X
Gooniyandi no done 0
Warlpiri no info done 0
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no 86-87 done 0
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi yes 168 done-Dan 1
Yidiny no done-Catherine 0
Yanyuwa no info Done-Austin x
Yandruwandha yes 66 Done-Dan 1
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga yes 44 Done-Dan 1
Woiwurrung no 75 done-Amalia 0
Wirangu No info done x
Wemba-Wemba no H 44 done-Amalia 0
Warumungu No 34 done-Amalia 0
Wangkumara no info done X
Uradhi No 363 Y 0
Paakantyi no info Y-Hannah X
Pitta-Pitta yes 203 Done-Amalia 1
Pintupi yes 174; 197 done-Hannah 1
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta no info Done-Hannah x
Ngiyambaa no 159 Done-Emily 0
Ngayawang Maybe 15 done-Amalia 1
Muruwari no Done-Dan 0
Mayi-Yapi No 56 done 0
Martuthunira yes 186 done 1
Marrgany No 315 Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre Yes 385 Done-Amalia 1
Kuku Yalanji no 93 Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara yes 443 done-Amalia 1
Kaurna yes 17 done-Amalia 1
Kalkatungu no Done-Dan 0
Jaru yes 79 Done-Amalia 1
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 92 Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr yes 295 done-Amalia 1
Gugu-Badhun no 154 done-Jessica 0
Yuwaalaraay No 61 0
Dyirbal No 110-2 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu no 82 done 0
Djinang No 191 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari no info done-Hannah x
Dharawal no info done-Hannah w Dhurga) x
Darkinyung no 44 done 0
Bularnu yes 76 Done-Austin 1
Biri no info done-Jessica x
Bidjara-Gungabula no info done-Jessica x
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana yes 182 Done-Dan 1
Alyawarr yes 54 done 1
Nyikina yes done-Claire 1
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija Yes 39 Done-Amalia 1
Wathawurrung no 80 done 0
Mathi-Mathi no 98 done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie yes 75-6 done-Amalia 1
Thanggati yes 50 done 1
Katthang no 80-82 done-Amalia 0
Panyjima yes 175 done 1
Ngarinyeri yes 42 done-Amalia 1
Kurrama no 213 done-Dan 0
Yingkarta no Done-Claire 0
Githabul yes 24 Done-Amalia 1
Gunya No 325 Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen No 130 Done- 0
WesternTorres no done 0
Wakaya yes 208 done 1
Yindjilindji no info done x
Bandjalang No 95 Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara No 95 done 0
Arrernte No 172 0
Kokatha No 30 0
Karajarri No 177 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara No G 188 0
Ritharrngu No 76 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay No 53 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no info Done-Amalia x
Warnman no info Done-Amalia x
Djapu yes 142 1
Bilinarra yes done 1
Wiradjuri yes 17 done 1
Aghu-Tharnggala No 70 Y2 0
Narungga No info 75 done x
Tharrkari No 41 0
Wajarri No 96 0
Warungu no 281-2, 319 0
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Baniwa no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps