Bora

Family
Boran
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
boa
Location
-2.91°, -68.91°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Data Sources
Aschmann, R. P. 1993. Proto Witotoan, SIL and University of Texas at Arlington Publications in Linguistics, 114. Dallas: SIL and University of Texas at Arlington. Rodriguez, José Vicente, compiler, and others. 1995. Mamíferos colombianos: sus nombres comunes e indígenas. Bogotá: Conservation International, Fundación Mario Santo Domingo. Seifart, Frank. 2005. The structure and use of shape-based noun classes in Miraña (North West Amazon). Hannover. Thiesen, Wesley. 1996. Gramatica del Idioma Bora. Instituto Lingüistico de Verano: Perú. Thiesen, Wesley and Eva Thiesen. 1998. Diccionario bora-castellano, castellano-bora. SLP 46. Lima: ILV.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location caáme (T98) kʰaáme inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
and y e grammar See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment pá-čiíxʸï pá-tʃiíxʲɯ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
at en, a em, a location tsʰatsʰíi tsʰatsʰíi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
back espalda costas body má-ʔačï má-ʔačɯ unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
bad mal mal quality ími-tʰyḯ-ne, ímí-tʰʸḯḯ-pekʰe ími-tʰjɯ́-nɛ, ímí-tʰʲɯ́ɯ́-pɛkʰɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
belly barriga barriga body íʔpáï, méʔpáïḯ íʔpáɯ, mέ-ʔpáɯɯ́ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
below abajo, debajo abaixo location baá (T98) paá inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
big grande grande quality mithya-(ne), čiya-, kʰemï- mitʰʸa-(nɛ), tʃija-, kʰɛmɯ- inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
black negro preto colour kʰɨ́ɨ́βe-ne, kʰḯḯβé-mekʰe, páxtʰïne kʰɨ́ɨ́βɛ-nɛ, kʰɯ́ɯ́βέ-mɛkʰɛ, páxtʰɯnɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
blood sangre sangue body tʰḯ-xpʰakhyo {red-liquid, 'red', ('rainbow'), 'water'} tʰɯ́-xpʰakhjo {red-liquid, 'red' ('rainbow'), 'water') inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body tyóóñojɨ tjóóñojɨ unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
bone hueso osso body páxkʰïḯ páxkʰɯɯ́ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
breast pecho, seno peito body woman's breast: (mé)-mïxpʰánye woman's brɛast: (mέ)-mɯxpʰánʲɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
child niño, niña criança human tsʰɨ́ɨ́-me-ne tsʰɨ́ɨ́-mɛ-nɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
cloud nube nuvem environment ojtso (T98) oxtso unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
cold frío frio quality tsʰ ïḯ kʰo, táɨ́ʔkʰoó tsʰ ɯɯ́ kʰo, táɨ́ʔkʰoó inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality ímí, tʰeʔtḯxïkʰo, tsʰaímiyé ímí, tʰɛʔtɯ́xɯkʰo, tsʰaímijέ unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
day día dia time kʰóóxɨɨ́ kʰóóxɨɨ́ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
dirty sucio sujo quality iinʸḯ-βá-ne, ḯtííkʰʸïḯ, neʔni iinʲɯ́-βá-nɛ, ɯ́tííkʰʲɯ̃ɯ, nɛʔni inheritance cf. 'earth' See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
dry seco seco quality áraaβéne, táárɨne áraaβέnɛ, táárɨnɛ unique; loan Carijona taurune See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality tsʰḯʔɨ́βa-tʰḯ-ne tsʰɯ́ʔɨ́βa-tʰɯ́-nɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
dust polvo poeira environment pʰá-čixʸï pʰá-tʃixʲɯ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
ear oreja orelha body nïïmɨʔo nɯɯmɨʔo inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
earth/soil tierra terra environment íínʸï-xɨ íínʲɯ-xɨ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
egg huevo ovo fauna ííʔyḯï(ḯ) ííʔjɯ́ɯ(ɯ́) inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
eye ojo olho body (me)-ʔáčïï (mɛ)-ʔátʃɯɯ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
far lejos longe quality tsʰíʔyïče, kʰémïéče tsʰíʔjɯtʃɛ, kʰέmɯέtʃɛ inheritance cf. Aschmann See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
fat/grease grasa gordura body tḯḯrïpa tɯ́ɯ́rɯpa inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
father padre, papá pai kinship čiʔí-yo, čiʔí-ï tʃiʔí-jo, tʃiʔí-ɯ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
feather pluma pena fauna ɨ́ʔxɨ́-xɨɨ́, ɨ́ʔxɨ-xɨ, ɨ́ʔxɨ-ne ɨ́ʔxɨ́-xɨɨ́, ɨ́ʔxɨ-xɨ, ɨ́ʔxɨ-nɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
fire fuego fogo environment kʰḯḯxï-kwa kʰɯ́ɯ́xɯ-kwa inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
flower flor flor environment kʷaxkʰo kʷaxkʰo unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment oxtsʰó-tḯ oxtsʰó-tɯ́ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
fruit fruta fruta flora čeéne, imʸéxï, néeβa, neeβa-pa čɛέnɛ, imʲέxɯ, nέɛβa, nɛɛβa-pa unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
good bueno bom quality imí-kwï, ɨ́mɨáá-ne, ɨ́mɨáá-pé imí-kwɯ, , ɨ́mɨáá-nɛ, ɨ́mɨáá-pέ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body nííkwa-kʰo nííkwa-kʰo inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
hand mano mão body (mé)-ʔóxtsʰɨɨ́ (mέ)-ʔóxtsʰɨɨ́ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar he: áá-nïḯ, aá-pʸe, aá-pe, aá-ti, tií-pʸe; she: áá-mʸeé, aá-če, tií-če; it: aá-pʸe hɛ: áá-nɯɯ́, aá-pʲɛ, aá-pɛ, aá-ti, tií-pʲɛ; shɛ: áá-mʲɛέ, aá-tʃɛ, tií-tʃɛ; it: aá-pʲɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
head cabeza cabeça body nííkwaï nííkwaɯ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
heavy pesado pesado quality pʰátïïkʰḯ-ne pʰátɯɯkʰɯ́nɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
how? como como grammar mïʔtï mɯʔtɯ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
1sg yo eu grammar inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
if si se grammar -ʔaxčʰííxʸï, -kʰa -ʔaxtʃʰííxʲɯ, -kʰa See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location pañe, -tu (T98) pañe, -tɯ (T98) inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
intestines intestinos intestinos body iʔpaḯ, méʔpáïḯ iʔpaɯ́, mέʔpáɯɯ́ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
lake lago lago environment ḯneï ɯ́nɛɯ doubtful loan Witoto; prob. loan into Resigaro See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
leaf hoja folha environment ɨ́na-ʔáámɨ, -ʔáámɨɨ́, ḯna-ʔáámɨ, -xḯḯʔoó, mɨ́ɨ́ïmï, xɨ́ʔoó ɨ́na-ʔáámɨ, -ʔáámɨɨ́, ɯ́na-ʔáámɨ, -xɯ́ɯ́ʔoó, mɨ́ɨ́ɯmɯ, xɨ́ʔoó inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body náni-nʸéxkʰï náni-nʸέxkʰɯ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
leg/foot pierna perna body (mé)-tʰáxkʰii (mέ)-tʰáxkʰii unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment roríʔkʰʸo roríʔkʰʲo unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
liver hígado figado body íʔkwá-neé, mé-ʔkʷá-neé, -kʷá-neé(-ne) íʔkwá-nɛέ, mέ-ʔkʷá-nɛέ, -kʷá-nɛέ(-nɛ) inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
long largo comprido, longo quality cámé (T98) kʰámé inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna kwáániʔyo, kʷaʔtʰʸéxɨ kwáániʔjo, kʷaʔtʰjέxɨ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
man/male hombre homem human kwa-xphi, mɨ́amḯnáa-xpʰi {being-male} kwa-xphi, mɨ́amɯ́náa-xpʰi {being-male} inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
meat/flesh carne carne fauna ʔéékʰoó, toó, tʰá-tyo {'my flesh'} ʔέέkʰoó, toó, tʰá-tʲjo {'my flesh'} doubtful loan (into protolanguage?), direction unknown Murui/Minica Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
moon luna lua environment nïʔ-pa pʰéxkʰó-expʰi nɯʔ-pa pʰέxkʰó-ɛxpʰi inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship kwaʔá-ro, kʷaʔá-ï kwaʔá-ro, kʷaʔá-ɯ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
mouth boca boca body íʔxyïḯ, ámexï íʔxjɯɯ́, ámɛxɯ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
name nombre nome human meme mɛmɛ loan into protolanguage, direction unknown Boran, Witotoan, Tukanoan See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
near/close cerca de perto quality pɨɨ́hɨ, pɨɨ́hɨre (T98) pɨɨ́ʔɨ, pɨɨ́ʔɨre inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body métookéu (T98) métookéɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
neck cuello pescoço body (mé)-kʰéxtʰïʔi (mέ)-kʰέxtʰɯʔi inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
new nuevo novo quality péʔne pέʔnɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
night noche noite time pʰexkʰo pʰɛxkʰo inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
no/not no não grammar tsá (T98) tsá doubtful loan, direction unknown Jivaroan See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
nose nariz nariz body tʰḯxï-ʔo, tʰḯḯ-ʔexï {nose-hole} tʰɯ́xɯ-ʔo, tʰɯ́ɯ́-ʔɛxɯ {nose-hole} inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
old viejo velho quality tsʰḯḯkʰáane, kʰeéme tsʰɯɯ́ɯ́kʰáanɛ, kʰɛέmɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
one uno um number tsʰa- tsʰa- doubtful loan (into protolanguage?), direction unknown Witotoan See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
other otro outro grammar tsɨ́-, tsi- (T98) tsɨ́-, tsi- inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body chémé (T98) tʃémé unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
person/human being persona pessoa human mɨ́amḯnaa, mḯnaa {people} mɨ́amɯ́naa, mɯ́naa {people} inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
rain lluvia chuva environment nííxʸa-pa nííxʲa-pa inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
red rojo vermelho colour thɯ́xpha-njɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
right/right hand derecha direita location/body ɨ́mɨá-néxkʰï ɨ́mɨá-nέxkʰɯ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
road/path camino caminho manufacture xïḯβa xɯɯ́βa inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
root raíz raiz flora páxkʰyeé páxkʰjɛέ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
rotten podrido podre quality tʰóókʰï-ne, rááráá, čʰáxaaβé-né tʰóókʰɯ-nɛ, rááráá, čʰáxaaβέ-nέ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
sand arena areia environment nékwa-yḯḯ-ʔa, néékʷa-yï {sing} nέkwa-jɯ́ɯ́-ʔa, nέέkʷa-jɯ {sing} unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality tsʰḯʔxɨβá-ne tsʰɯ́ʔxɨβá-nɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
short corto curto quality páʔrí-nʸeḯβḯ páʔrí-nʲɛɯ́βɯ́ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
shoulder hombro ombro body mé-ḯxɨ-pa mέ-ɯ́xɨ-pa inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental núcójpɨ́tsó (T98) núcóxpɨ́tsó inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
skin piel pele body (mé)-ʔmɨ́ɨ́ʔeé, iáápe mɨ́ɨʔe (mέ)-ʔmɨ́ɨ́ʔɛέ, iáápɛ mɨ́ɨʔɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
sky cielo céu environment níxkʰʸe-xɨ, íéβeʔóókʷa níxkʰʲɛ-xɨ, íέβɛʔóókʷa inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
small pequeño pequeno quality nʸomɨ, aya, áyá-né-kʷï, ïʔxéné-kʷï, čʰoʔxï, ḯḯkḯyïï nʲomɨ, aja, ájá-nέ-kʷɯ, ɯʔxέnέ-kʷɯ, tʃʰoʔxɯ, ɯ́ɯ́kɯ́jɯɯ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
smoke humo fumaça environment oxtsʰo oxtsʰo unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
star estrella estrela environment mɨ́ɨ́kʰḯrï-kwa, mɨ́ɨkʰïrï mɨ́ɨ́kʰɯ́rɯ-kwa, mɨ́ɨkʰɯrɯ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora ḯméʔe-i(tree?), ḯméʔe-kʰo, ḯmé-ne-pa ɯ́mέʔɛ-i(trɛɛ?), ɯ́mέʔɛ-kʰo, ɯ́mέ-nɛ-pa inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
stone piedra pedra environment néékʷa-yï, néékʷá-nʸeï nέέkʷa-jï, nέɛnέέkʷa-jï, nέέkʷá-nʸɛïkʷá-nʲɛɯ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
tail cola, rabo rabo body pókʷaá, kwakwááβye pókʷaá, kwakwááβjɛ unique; unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
that ese/esa esse grammar (tʰ)-eé-ne, (tʰ)-eé-xa, (tʰ)-eé-kʷa, tiípʸe, áánïḯ (tʰ)-ɛέ-nɛ, (tʰ)-ɛέ-xa, (tʰ)-ɛέ-kʷa, tiípʲɛ, áánɯɯ́ unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar aá-tʰʸe, tií-tʰʸe {pl}, aatʰʸé-tsʰi, tiitʰʸé-tsʰi {m.d.}, aatʰʸé-pʰɨ, tiitʰʸé-pʰɨ {f.d.} aá-tʰʲɛ, tií-tʰʲɛ {pl}, aatʰʲέ-tsʰi, tiitʰʲέ-tsʰi {m.d.}, aatʰʲέ-pʰɨ, tiitʰʲέ-pʰɨ {f.d.} unknown; inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality pʰɨɨ́mɨ pʰɨɨ́mɨ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
thin delgado fino quality ani, ïxtsʰ ani, ɯxtsʰ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
this este/esta este grammar ínyeé, áánïḯ, áámʸeé, eéne ínjɛέ, áánɯɯ́, áámʲɛέ, ɛέnɛ unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
2sg xx xx grammar ïḯ ɯɯ́ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
throat garganta garganta body mémehdóu (T98) mémeʔdóɯ unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
three tres tres number pʰápʰiʔčʰḯï (lit. 'algo montado') pʰápʰiʔtʃɯ́ɯ unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
thunder truenos trovão environment čʰixčʰi, taʔnáʔo tʃʰixtʃʰi, taʔnáʔo inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
bite morder morder body ɨʔto, tɨkḯxkʰo, tɨ́čeʔxḯkʰï ɨʔto, tɨkɯ́xkʰo, tɨ́čɛʔxɯ́kʰɯ inheritance; unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
blow soplar soprar body ɨpátʰsïʔxákʰo ɨpátʰsɯʔxákʰo inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
breathe respirar respirar body allíchu (T98) atʃítʃʰɯ unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
burn quemar queimar environment áiiβʰétʸso áiiβʰέtʲso unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body dɨmájco (T98) tɨmáxkʰo unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
climb subir subir motion nériivye, néhriba (T98) nériiβje, néʔripa unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
come venir vir motion tsʰaá, náʔxɨʔe tsʰaá, náʔxɨʔɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
cook cocinar cozinhar impact tuú (T98) tɯɯ́ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
count contar contar mental eéve (T98) eéβe inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
cry llorar chorar mental taá (T98) taá inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
cut/hack cortar cortar impact kʷá-ʔtaʔɨ́nï, tó-iʔyánʸï (several others very similar) kʷá-ʔtaʔɨ́nɯ, tó-iʔjánʲɯ unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
die/be dead morir morrer state tsɨxɨ́-βe, aapátʰe, ɨmoxɨ́ɨ́βe, kʷáyeééβe… (several others) tsɨxɨ́-βɛ, aapátʰɛ, ɨmoxɨ́ɨ́βɛ, kʷájɛέέβe… (several others) inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
dig cavar cavar impact tsʰeʔti, kʰanoxkʰo, kʷanóxkʰo tsʰɛʔti, kʰanoxkʰo, kʷanóxkʰo inheritance; unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
dream soñar sonhar mental tuwa (T98) tʰukʷa inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
drink beber, tomar beber body ato, atḯkʰï, átïkʰḯnï ato, atɯ́kʰɯ, átɯkʰɯ́nɯ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
eat comer comer body toó {meat}, čeéne {fruit}, maxčʰo toó {meat}, tʃɛέnɛ {fruit}, maxtʃʰo inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
fall caer cair motion aakʰítʰʸe aakʰítʰʲɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
fear miedo medo mental iči, ičí-tʰʸe, nïʔnéβe, ápʰiičʰóče, áápimʸéi, ámɨtsʰáraʔkʰóče, nóïʔkʰóče iči, ičí-tʰʲɛ, nɯʔnέβɛ, ápʰiičʰóčɛ, áápimʲέi, ámɨtsʰáraʔkʰóčɛ, nóɯʔkʰóčɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
flow fluir fluir motion kʷaápe kʷaápɛ unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
fly volar voar motion kʷaaméne, kʷaʔpʰe kʷaamέnɛ, kʷaʔpʰɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
grow crecer crescer state piívye (T98) pʰiíβje unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
hear oír ouvir mental čeépo, čínʸémïḯ-kʰïnï, nḯʔéxïḯ-kʰïnï, βɨááβe tʃɛέpo, tʃínʸέmɯɯ́-kʰɯnɯ, nɯ́ʔέxɯɯ́-kʰɯnɯ, βɨááβɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
hide esconder esconder motion paatánu (T98) pʰaatʰánɯ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
hit golpear, pegar bater impact íčaáyo íčaájo inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other ixkʰʸa (exist), kʰátʰóroʔxákʰo, tʰeʔme, maxčʰótsʰo (feed) ixkʰʲa (ɛxist), kʰátʰóroʔxákʰo, tʰɛʔmɛ, maxčʰótsʰo (fɛɛd) inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
kill matar matar impact tsɨ́xɨ-βé-tsʰo, čiiʔyánï, ápʰaxʸḯnï, kʷátsʰïʔkʰáo tsɨ́xɨ-βέ-tsʰo, tʃiiʔjánɯ, ápʰaxʲɯ́nɯ, kʷátsʰɯʔkʰáo inheritance; unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental kʷaaxákʰï kʷaaxákʰɯ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
laugh reír rir mental goóco (T98) koókʰo unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion todsɨ́ɨ́ve, ówaúúve (T98) tʰotsɨ́ɨ́βe, ókʷaɯ́ɯ́βe loan, direction unknown; doubtful loan Ocaina; Arawak kua See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body ijcya (T98) ixkʰja inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
open/uncover abrir abrir other paayúcu, wájɨhtúcu (T98) pʰaajɯ́kɯ, kʷáxɨʔtʰɯ́kɯ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact wápaájco, íllaáyo, wádɨrɨhjáco (beat with stick) (T98) kʷápʰaáxkʰo, ítʃaájo, kʷátɨrɨʔxákʰo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
say decir dizer mental neé (T98) neé inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
scratch rascar rasgar impact dójórɨúcu (T98) tóxórɨɯkʰɯ unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
see ver ver mental axthyḯmɨ, tḯxïḯ-kʰïnï, ïḯxe axthjɯ́mɨ, tɯ́xɯɯ́-kʰɯnɯ, ɯɯ́xɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact neebótso, tábúniáco (T98) neepótsʰo, tʰápúniákʰo unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
sit sentar(se) sentar state ácuu- ákʰɯɯ- inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
sleep dormir dormir body kʰïkʷa kʰɯkʷa inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body árahjúcu (trans), cuva (intrans) (T98) áraʔxɯ́kɯ́ (trans), kʰɯβa (intrans) unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
spit escupir cuspir body ɨ́rípɨáco (trans), uni (intrans) ɨ́ripʰɨákʰo (trans), ɯni (intrans) inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact dówajcáro (T98) tókʷaxkʰáro doubtful loan Arawak See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact aámï aámɯ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact kʰápʰátʰʸïḯkʰï-nï (sprout), kʷáʔexḯro kʰápʰátʰʲɯɯ́kʰɯ-nɯ (sprout), kʷáʔɛxɯ́ro inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state íxʸokʰḯḯβe, kʷaaméne, kʷámenéʔkʰï, kʷámenééβe íxʲokʰɯ́ɯ́βɛ, kʷaamέnɛ, kʷámɛnέʔkʰɯ, kʷámɛnέέβɛ unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
steal robar roubar other nani (T98) nani inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
suck chupar chupar body nʸoʔ-nʸo, nʸoíʔ-kʰʸ (milk), pʰɨ́ʔxa (caramels), ɨɨ́ʔa, tsʰɨɨ́ʔi (the juice out of somethin) tsʰoóʔkʰo (something dry into mouth) nʲoʔ-nʲo, nʲoíʔ-kʰʲ (milk), pʰɨ́ʔxa (caramels), ɨɨ́ʔa, tsʰɨɨ́ʔi (the juice out of somethin) tsʰoóʔkʰo (something dry into mouth) unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
swell hincharse inchar body oóri, kʷaaméne, ɨ́patsʰḯḯβe oóri, kʷaamέnɛ, ɨ́patsʰɯ́ɯ́βɛ loan (into protolg?), direction unknown; unknown Witotoan See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
swim nadar nadar motion ixčʰi ixtʃʰi inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
think pensar pensar mental ɨ́xtsʰaméi, ɨ́xtsʰḯ-kʰïnï, ɨ́xtsʰo ɨ́xtsʰamέi, ɨ́xtsʰɯ́-kʰɯnɯ, ɨ́xtsʰo inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact aámu, tubo (T98) aámɯ, tʰɯpo unique; unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact čʰíxčï, toʔxɨ́nï tʃʰíxtʃɯ, toʔxɨ́nɯ inheritance; inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other vihyo (T98) βiʔjo inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
vomit vomitar vomitar body íllímútuhjáco (T98) ítʃímɯ́tʰuʔxákʰo inheritance? See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
walk caminar, andar andar motion ulle (T98) ɯtʃe inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
work trabajar trabalhar other wákimyéi (T98) kʷákʰimjéi unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
yawn bostezar bocejar body áwacúnu (T98) ákʷakʰúnu doubtful loan Witotoan See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
tongue lengua lingua body nɨ́ɨ́xɨ-kwa, mé-ʔnɨ́xɨ-kwa nɨ́ɨ́xɨ-kwa, mέ-ʔnɨ́xɨ-kwa inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
tooth diente dente body íʔkwáxɨɨ́, mé-ʔkʷáxɨɨ́, íʔ-kʷá-nyeé íʔkwáxɨɨ́, mέ-ʔkʷáxɨɨ́, íʔ-kʷá-nʲɛέ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
two dos dois number mínyéékʰïḯ; mi- + classifier (T98) mínjέέkʰ ɯɯ́ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
water agua agua environment nḯ-xphakhyo nɯ́-xphakhjo inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar mïʔ-tsʰi {m.d.}, mïʔ-pʰɨ {f.d.} mɯʔ-tsʰi {m.d.}, mɯʔ-pʰɨ {f.d.} inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar mïḯʔ-a mɯɯ́ʔ-a unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
wet mojado molhado quality mïrííβye, maxááβe, reʔre, ïḯrï mɯrííβjɛ, maxááβɛ, rɛʔrɛ, ɯɯ́rɯ unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
what? que, qué que grammar ɨɨná ɨɨná unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
when? cuando quando grammar -kʰookʰa, mḯixʸḯʔxáa -kʰookʰa, mɯ́ixʲɯ́ʔxáa inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
where? donde onde grammar kʰía, mḯtsʰií, tsʰátsʰii, kʰétsʰií kʰía, mɯ́tsʰií, tsʰátsʰii, kʰέtsʰií unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
white blanco branco colour tsʰɨ́sʰɨɨ-ne, tsʰɨtsʰɨ tsʰɨ́sʰɨɨ-nɛ, tsʰɨtsʰɨ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
who? quien, quién quem grammar mḯʔa, mḯʔa-xa, kʰaathʸéʔa-(xa) mɯ́ʔa, mɯ́ʔa-xa, kʰaathʲέʔa-(xa) unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
wife esposa esposa kinship tʰaápa, mekʷa, áthyáápaá tʰaápa, mɛkʷa, áthjáápaá inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
wind viento vento environment kʰííxʸ-pa, (x)ióxkʰo kʰííxʲ-pa, (x)ióxkʰo inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
wing ala asa body nḯkʷaá nɯ́kʷaá unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
woman/female mujer mulher human kwa-ĉe kwa-tʃɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
yellow amarillo amarelo colour čí-xkʰyá-ne-ḯβḯ tʃí-xkʰjá-nɛ-ɯ́βɯ́ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
2pl ustedes vocês grammar ámïḯʔ-a {pl}, ámïʔ-tsʰi {m.d.}, ámïʔ-pʰɨ {f.d.} ámɯɯ́ʔ-a {pl}, ámɯʔ-tsʰi {m.d.}, ámɯʔ-pʰɨ {f.d.} inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
foot pie body (mé)-xtʰḯʔaá (mέ)-xtʰɯ́ʔaá inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar tsiíñe (T98) tsʰiíñe unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
all todo todos other pʰáneére, pʰámeére pʰánɛέrɛ, pʰámɛέrɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
ankle tobillo tornozelo body lleebóu (T98) tʃeepóɯ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
armpit axila, sobaco axila body cápihéju (T98) kʰápʰiʔéxu doubtful loan Arawak See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body name (T98) name loan (into protolg?), direction unknown Witotoan See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
lung pulmón pulmão body βaʔβákʷa, βaxɨ́ʔkʰo, maráʔpa, marááʔo βaʔβákʷa, βaxɨ́ʔkʰo, maráʔpa, marááʔo inheritance prob. loan into Ocaina, Resigaro See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
sweat sudar suor, suar body towa (T98) tʰokʷa inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body ajɨ (T98) axɨ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
bark corteza casca environment ḯméʔé ʔačḯe-mɨ́ɨ́ʔo ɯ́mέʔέ ʔatʃɯ́ɛ-mɨ́ɨ́ʔo inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
fingernail uña unha body (mé)-ʔóxtsʰɨ́-kwa-mɨ́ɨ́ʔo (mέ)-ʔóxtsʰɨ́-kwa-mɨ́ɨ́ʔo inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
heart corazón coração body (mé)-ɨ́ɨ́pïï (mέ)-ɨ́ɨ́pɯɯ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
sun sol sol time nïʔ-pa (kʰóóxɨ́-expʰi) nɯʔ-pa (kʰóóxɨ́-ɛxpʰi) inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment kʰáme-kʷáxï, kʷáxïḯ, páïḯ, pʰá-kʷaxï, pʰá-ʔpaï} kʰámɛ-kʷáxɯ, kʷáxɯɯ́, páɯɯ́, pʰá-kʷaxɯ, pʰá-ʔpaɯ inheritance; inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
green verde verde quality axthyḯβa, axthyḯβá-ne axthjɯ́βa, axthjɯ́βá-nɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
hot caliente quente quality ačóókʰo, áčookʰó-né atʃóókʰo, átʃookʰó-nέ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. kʰíkʰiíxye, kikiíye (FS) kʰíkʰiíxjɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna wahpéébe (T98) kʷaʔpʰéépe unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. miíjyo (FS) miíxjo doubtful loan Jivaroan maʃu See Language page Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. nïče, tʰóʔrokʷa, rííoó, perííʔyo nɯtʃɛ, tʰóʔrokʷa, rííoó, pɛrííʔjo inheritance See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans déénehe (T98) tééneʔe unknown loan into Resigaro See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. pʰɨ́ɨ́kʰaxɨ pʰɨ́ɨ́kʰaxɨ inheritance See Language page Different types have different localized ranges Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae ááwáá (FS) áákʷáá (FS) doubtful loan Tukanoan; e.g. Tanimuka ã'kaka See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae pʰáápɨʔo pʰáápɨʔo inheritance See Language page Widespread Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae taáho (FS) taáʔo (FS) inheritance See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes pʰéétsʰoó, pʰeʔtsʰókʰo, póxpoó, pʰïpʰḯxkʰopa pʰέέtsʰoó, pʰɛʔtsʰókʰo, póxpoó, pʰɯpʰɯ́xkʰopa unique; doubtful loan - WW %pupu See Language page Widespread Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. ɨ́ɨ́βaá, ínyaʔa ɨ́ɨ́βaá, ínjaʔa inheritance See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica čoóra, piíʔyo, pʰiʔtʰʸói, tʰárápoï tʃoóra, piíʔjo, pʰiʔtʰʲói, tʰárápoɯ loan, direction unknown; unique Ocaina; possibly from loro See Language page Widespread Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae ɨ́juúu (FS) ɨ́xɯɯ́ɯ (FS) inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae méwaájɨ (generic) (T98) mékwaáxɨ unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae anyï anjɯ inheritance See Language page Widespread South America Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family nɨɨ́jɨ, wáhtsajɨ (T98) nɨɨ́xɨ, kwáʔtsʰaxɨ loan Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba ihchúba (FS) iʔtʃʰúpa (FS) inheritance See Language page Widespread South America Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae tóhmiba tʰóʔmipa unique See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris ooʔíípʸe {= jaguar} ooʔíípʲɛ {= jaguar} semantic shift from jaguar See Language page Not native; widespread Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis úúníjyaba, tsoowáu (FS) ɯ́ɯ́níxjapa, tsʰookwáɯ See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) ɨɨ́xï, tʰoʔxɨ ɨɨ́xɯ, tʰoʔxɨ inheritance See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri čeéï, tóótʰoḯʔaamɨ́ne, kʰáápʰɨ́naï (small sp.) tʃɛέɯ, tóótʰoɯ́ʔaamɨ́nɛ, kʰáápʰɨ́naɯ (small sp.) inheritance č~g correspondence, but looks a bit like Arawak forms See Language page Widespread in Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. adólli, piiyálli (FS) atótʃi, pʰiijátʃi See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. niʔpa, meʔtópa (H&R92) niʔpa, meʔtópa (H&R92) inheritance See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus baaráwa (T98) paarákwa loan Tupi-Guarani purake See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna amóópe amóópɛ unknown possibly Resigaro loan, but probable B > R See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. wajcyo (T98) kwaxkjo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae níjtyajɨ (T98) níxtjaxɨ inheritance See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. ánou (T98) ánoɯ See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura aʔkʰókwa, βḯḯríʔií, mïʔmɨ́pa, muhchíba (FS) aʔkʰókwa, βɯ́ɯ́ríʔií, mɯʔmɨ́pa inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. máányaʔo, mááñaho (FS) máánjaʔo doubtful loan, direction unknown - WW %maɲaʔo See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata tsógooróho (FS), tsóβɨráko (Seifart2011) doubtful loan possibly Carib/Carijona (see WaiWai šukurwa); see also Koreguaje thoʔoroo, Siona See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. bajɨ baxɨ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura nehwáyu neʔkwáju inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes ííkwakhyo, póóaá ííkwakhjo, póóaá doubtful loan Carijona ikoi-mǝ (snake-Augm) See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae téétéjɨ, bóóa (FS) tʰéétʰéxɨ, póóa doubtful loan, direction unknown Ticuna tututʃí See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna íínyimye íínjimjɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox rattlesnake: tʰáákʰaʔe rattlesnake: tʰáákʰaʔɛ See Language page Widespread South America Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria iíβo, cúúmujɨ (all sp.; no generic?) iíβo, kɯ́ɯ́mɯxɨ inheritance See Language page Widespread Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis ámánaá (T98) ámánaá (T98) loan (into protolg?), direction unknown - WW See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) koʔkóxɨ koʔkóxɨ unknown See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba missing See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. tóllií + clas, e.g. tóóllíuu (fruit), tóóllíujɨ (tree) (T98) tʰóótʃí inheritance loan into Resigaro See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa iñe +clas, e.g. íñehe (aguaje tree); íñehe (aguaje fruit) (T98) iñe inheritance See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana ajɨ (T98) axɨ See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea aálla (T98) aátʃa unknown loan into Resigaro See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes meéme mɛέmɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua coómɨ (T98) kʰoómɨ See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca íípií [WW?] íípií loan, direction unknown - WW %hibie See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) aʔti aʔti loan, direction unknown Witotoan; prob original meaning kapok See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra áhdicyo (T98) áʔtikʰjo See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens tɨɨ́ tɨɨ́ inheritance See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea See Language page plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus culli- +class kʰɯtʃi loan (into protolanguage?), direction unknown - WW %koritʃa: Ashuar kuwíʃ, Matses kantʃi, Boran kidʒa, Candoshi koriʃa See Language page plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum néépʰáxʸï-xɨ nέέpʰáxʲɯ-xɨ See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. ujɨ; [types: wáátsɨtrɨ, tséédaco, íñahámuco, naméco, bajɨ́muco, bellááco, daallícyo] (T98), ɯxɨ, ɯ́xɨʔo (H&R92) uhɨ unknown same as maize; may be shift from 'bastard plantain' See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. pooróto (T98) pʰorótʰo loan Quechua (via Spanish?) See Language page plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) pɨɨ́βa, tsʰóxkʰómïxɨ pɨɨ́βa, tsʰóxkʰómïxɨ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays ïxɨ {kernel}, ḯxɨ-ï {ear}, ḯxɨ-ʔo {plant}, ïxɨ-ʔe ɯxɨ {kernel}, ɯ́xɨ-ɯ {ear}, ɯ́xɨ-ʔo {plant}, ɯxɨ-ʔe semantic shift? same as banana, as in Tukanoan and Hup See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum panʸe panʲɛ inheritance See Language page plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna ḯme-ʔe ɯ́mɛ-ʔɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana néépapa nέέpapa inheritance but cf. Witotoan See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. tuútsi, ahrójɨ (T98) tʰɯɯ́tsʰi, aʔróxɨ inheritance See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana coóju (T98) kʰoóxɯ See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala dohjɨ́co (T98) toʔxɨkʰo See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum áñaájɨ áɲaáhɨ loan, direction unknown shared Ocaina, Resigaro, Bora See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana cáátuú (T98) (=Dioscorea) kʰáátʰɯɯ́ (=Dioscorea) inheritance See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. máákiñi (T98) máákʰiñi See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia baáco (T98) baákʰo inheritance See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta paaxḯri-, pʰɨ́ɨ́kʰa paaxɯ́ri-, pʰɨ́ɨ́kʰa inheritance See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta pʰákʰʸoómï pʰákʰʲoómɯ inheritance See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas cuni- (+clas) kʰɯni- (+clas) semantic shift? from Xanthosoma See Language page plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. cáátuú (=jenipap) kʰáátʰɯɯ́ (=jenipap) semantic shift? also means 'jenipap' See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. kʰïni, kʰḯnií-ï kʰɯni, kʰɯ́nií-ɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) tehke (tree calabash) (T98) teʔkʰe (tree calabash) inheritance See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. doóto toótʰo loan into protolanguage, direction unknown Candoshi; cognate in Muinane (meaning unclear) See Language page plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. móóhou (T98) 'vine' móóʔoɯ See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. mújcuri (T98) mɯ́xkʰɯri unique See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi népaxkʰe nέpaxkʰɛ unique See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae generic ant: pʰíímyepa generic ant: pʰíímjɛpa See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata túúpámy- (T98) tʰɯ́ɯ́pʰámj- inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. ííhyuje (T98) ííʔjuxe inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis íímḯʔóexpʰi, téʔtsʰipa íímɯ́ʔóɛxpʰi, tέʔtsʰipa unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria tooró- tʰooro- inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae námoóca námoókʰa inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera doodóba, turáácajɨ (T98) tootóba, tʰuráákʰaxɨ inheritance loan into Witoto; possibly Achagua? See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora maaháne (FS) maaʔáne unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda éihyéba, cahtsówa (species; others also exist) (T98) éiʔjépa, kʰaʔtsʰókwa See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones óóvɨho (T98) óóβɨʔo inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea chiihyéco (T98) tʃiiʔjékʰo doubtful loan (into protolg?) - WW onomatopoeic See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera ḯḯkʰo-kʷa, ïḯkʰo {pl} ɯ́ɯ́kʰo-kʷa, ɯɯ́kʰon {pl} inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera éétʰepa, tsʰïïʔéï, naʔpa έέtʰɛpa, tsʰïïʔέï, naʔpa unknown; loan, direction unknown éétʰepa: loan into Resigaro; tsʰïïʔé shared Andoke See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae tseéreého (T98) tsʰeéreéʔo inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. ajpa (T98) axpa inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae tóménɨ́hjowan(T98) tʰóménɨ́ʔxokwan See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. kʷaá-xʸï, kʷá-mʸḯḯ kʷaá-xʸï, kʷá-mʸḯḯ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera tʰákʰíʔkʰi-pa, máʔarḯmïḯ-pe, mooá-pa tʰákʰíʔkʰi-pa, máʔarɯ́mɯɯ́-pe, mooá-pa unknown; inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea dsɨ́ɨ́dsɨjɨ, llehdójɨ (T98) tsɨ́ɨ́tsɨxɨ, tʃeʔtóxɨ unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita múúmuco- +clas mɯ́ɯ́mɯkʰo- unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda ḯtsʰïkʰo ɯ́tsʰïkʰo inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae pʰaakwá-, toʔkʷá-xɨ pʰaakwá-, toʔkʷá-xɨ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca ooʔíípʸe, tʰḯḯpʰáʔyoóï {=dog}; ookó (R95) ooʔíípʲɛ, tʰɯ́ɯ́pʰáʔjoóɯ, ookʰó unique; loan, direction unknown shared Witotoan, Muinane See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha cuúmu (T98) kʰɯɯ́mɯ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] name (T98) namɛ unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella toopsipa (R95), tsoríri (FS) kʰɯʔtʃípa (H&R92) inheritance; loan, direction unknown Ocaina sooriijo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons úmoba (FS) ɯ́moba inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus kʰïḯmï; vana (R95) kʰɯɯ́mɯ loan, direction unknown Murui Witoto guamɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae óówaá, áájaba (T98) óókwaá, ááxaba inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis tsʰoxkʰo, tsojco (FS) tsʰoxkʰo inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu meéni mɛέni doubtful loan (into protolg?), direction unknown Witoto mɛru See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari pʰáápʰapʸa, mɨ́neépe, mɨ́neébe (FS) pʰáápʰapʲa, mɨ́nɛέpe inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae niijyáu (FS) niixjáu unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua ihlle (FS) iʔtʃe unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. pɨrḯmïxɨ {añuje}; bute (R95), bɨɨrúmujɨ (FS) pɨrɯ́mɯxɨ {aɲuje} unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris oʔpa oʔpa unknown loan into Resigaro See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti úúcume (FS) ɯ́ɯ́kʰɯme inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) tʰaxkʰï, anʸóxkʰóʔekʷa, tajcu (FS) tʰaxkʰɯ, anʲóxkʰóʔekʷa inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus kʰïïβépa, čiʔphye, óhdaco (FS) kʰɯɯβέpa, tʃiʔphjɛ, óhdaco (FS) inheritance; loan, direction unknown Ocaina tsóraaxo; cf. Resigaro tjúukó See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae néépi- (T98) néépʰi- loan, direction unknown Witoto (Murui) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris ókʰáxií, kʰáátʰïxé ɨʔtéexpʰi, pḯḯréenííʔyo, kʰïïβépa, ócájií (FS) ókʰáxií, kʰáátʰɯxέ ɨʔtέɛxpʰi, pɯ́ɯ́rέɛnííʔjo, kʰɯɯβέpa unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus nííβï-kʷa, iípa nííβɯ-kʷa, iípa inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus ɨɨ́ju (T98) (also = anteater; mule) ɨɨ́xu (also = anteater; mule) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material úverújtsi ɯ́βerɯ́xtsʰi unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material ícyááveu íkhjaβeu unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
bed cama cama culture-material kʰïkwá-íʔkhyï {sleep-platform}, kʰḯkʷa-ɨ́ɨ́xɨ́ {sleep-barbacoa} kʰɯkwá-íʔkhjɯ {sleep-platform}, kʰɯ́kʷa-ɨ́ɨ́xɨ́ {sleep-barbacoa} inheritance/ calque See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material kwaá-pya, kʷaá-pa kwaá-pja, kʷaá-pa inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material íxʸa-kʷa, akʰḯḯβe-(kʷa) íxʲa-kʷa, akʰɯ́ɯ́βɛ-(kʷa) inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
canoe canoa canoa transport mɨɨ́ne mɨɨ́nɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture cuúmu-ba kʰɯ́ɯ́mɯ-pa loan - WW %kumu Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology missing See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology ñaamáwa ñaamákwa unique In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology čḯḯβáápeé tʃɯ́ɯ́βáápɛέ Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
broom escoba vassoura culture-material llijyácóóha tʃixjákʰóóʔa unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology wájyamu kwáxjamɯ unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
fence, palisade cerco cerca other mihlle, pámɨjco miʔtʃe, pʰámɨxkʰo unknown may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
firewood leña lenha other kʰoʔ-pa, kʰoó-kwa, kʰó-kʷaxkʰa, kʰó-βïḯrï kʰoʔ-pa, kʰoó-kwa, kʰó-kʷaxkʰa, kʰó-βɯɯ́rɯ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology naavéne, chítyawáyu naaβéne, tʃʰítʰjakwáju unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology Píívyéébéé (piívye 'origin'), Mécáánií (me 'our' caanii 'father'), Niimúhe no discernable etymology) Pʰííβjéépéé, Mékʰáánií, Niimúʔe unique; unknown In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology chiiyóro, péérihyo tʃʰiijóro, pʰéériʔjo doubtful loan, direction unknown Iquito puráaha multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology waána kwaána See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
knife cuchillo faca culture-material nɨɨtsʰḯkwa-(kwï) {machete-(small)} nɨɨtsʰɯ́kwa-(kwɯ) {machete-(small)} unique machete-small' See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
machete machete facão culture-material nɨɨtsú-wa nɨɨtsʰɯ́-kwa inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool ḯkwaá-xɨ ɯ́kwaá-xɨ inheritance especially for clearing fields See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool tubóóco; wáñuú- tɯpóó-kʰo, wáñɯɯ́- inheritance; unknown hunting, warfare See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
spear lanza lança subsistence tool aamú, hójtsɨva aamɯ, ʔóxtsʰɨβa inheritance; unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
bow arco arco subsistence tool tubóówa; tubo (bow & arrows) tɯpoo-kwa inheritance cf. Proto-Arawak *[ta]po arco See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
paddle/oar remo remo transport poʔtó-kwa, poʔtó-xɨ poʔtó-kwa, poʔtó-xɨ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
plate plato prato culture-material bohtájɨ poʔtʰáxɨ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool číyi-ʔčo tʃíji-ʔtʃo inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material táátsaíhllo; cáánuco (made of wood) tʰáátsʰaíʔtʃo; kʰáánɯkʰo (made of wood) loan Spanish See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool úlleba ɯ́tʃepa inheritance agriculture? See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology čʰeʔkʰéï tʃɛʔkʰέɯ doubtful loan onomatopoeia, but cf. Arawak, Cayapa, Bora, Jivaroan (loan INTO Resigaro) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool máánií 'brea' máánií 'brea' loan (into protolg?) Arawak See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
wax cera cera other missing See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
honey miel mel food íímúhojpácyo (from 'bee') íímɯ́ʔoxpákʰjo loan (into protolg?), direction unknown Witotoan only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture kʷáápʸaï, pʰátoʔxɨ kʷáápʸaɯ, pʰátoʔxɨ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology oonóva oonóβa See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material ajɨ axɨ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology ahvówa aʔβokwa See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
school escuela escola acculturation uwááboha (uwaabo 'teach') ɯkwáápoʔa See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
bottle botella garrafa acculturation añúro añɯ́ro See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
paper papel papel acculturation waajácuháámɨ (waajácu 'knowledge) kwaaxákʰɯʔáámɨ unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology tuwa (to dream) tʰɯkwa See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
chicken gallina galinha acculturation caracá kʰarakʰá loan - WW %karaka See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology níjkyeé nixkʰjeé See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation imújtso (v. 'sweeten') imúxtsʰo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material wáyumɨ́ɨ́ho kwájɯmɨ́ɨ́ʔo unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
shoes zapatos sapatos dress túhapáájɨ (túhaá 'foot') tʰɯ́ʔapʰááxɨ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
soldier soldado soldado acculturation tsodáho tsʰotáʔo loan Span/Port soldado See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
cat gato gato acculturation mííchi míítʃʰi loan - WW %miʃi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation añúju (añu 'shoot'), hójtsɨ́vapáájɨ (hojtsɨva 'spear', hojtsɨɨ́ 'hand') añɯxɯ unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
hat sombero chapéu dress watájcojɨ (watajco 'cover') kwatʰáxkʰoxɨ unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology ávyéjuúbe (ávyéju - cf. power, respect) áβjéxɯɯ́pe inheritance/calque See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress waáyu kwaájɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
salt sal sal food cánáámaá (salt); ume (salt made from plants) kʰánáámaá (salt); ume (sal de monte) unknown; inheritance loan into Resigaro? direction uncertain See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology majtsíyu (song); llééneba (insulting); ijchóju (drinking) matsʰíjɯ, tʃéénepa, ixtʃʰóxɯ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool tólliíjyu, tóllií unique currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool aamúíwu aamɯ́íkwu hunting and warfare See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool bojtsójɨ poxtsʰóxɨ inheritance? esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food pijcyu pʰixkʰju See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food wacyu kwakʰju unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
hunt cazar caçar food taáva, lliiñája tʰaáβa, tʃiiñáxa See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food iyáábe ('animal') ijáápe unique Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool tehke (tree calabash) (T98) tehke (tree calabash) (T98) doubtful loan - WW? %koto/matoko See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool caátsoówa (caátso 'grate') kʰaátsʰoókwa unique esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool wáɨjɨ kwáɨxɨ, -ɨɨxɨ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool cáánu kʰáánɯ unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool cáánuco kʰáánɯkʰo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture páaxḯripá, méémepa {peach-palm} páaxɯ́ripá (yuca+CL), mέέmɛpa {peach-palm} unknown; inheritance prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food ítyacollíjyu (ítyaco 'tapioca') íxtjákʰotʃííxjɯ unique agriculture See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food mááhoó; maʔmá-ɯ (Seifart11) mááʔoó; maʔmá-ɯ (Seifart11) inheritance? - loan into JIvaroan? usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food ítyaco ítjakʰo inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food cáhgunu kʰáʔkɯnɯ agriculture See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food booáju, wahmɨ́jɨ booáxɯ, kwaʔmɨ́xɨ unknown word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool námijtya námixtja doubtful loan (into protolg?) - WW? cf. %namo hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool níjtyuba (nijtyu 'wash') níxtjɯpa inheritance agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool worm: ïḯpa; common bait worm: tyuuhúmɨ; bait (in general): tájuta worm: ɯ́ɯ́pa; common bait worm: tjɯɯʔɯ́mɨ; bait (in general): tʰáxɯtʰa can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool pákyeé (type of fish trap in the shape of a funnel) pʰákʰjeé See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
bottom grinding stone manufacture if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
house other xaá, iʔ-xʸa {his-house}, pááe-xa {communal without floor}, kʰáámée-xa {with floor} xaá, iʔ-xʲa {his-house}, pááɛ-xa {communal without floor}, kʰáámέɛ-xa {with floor} inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE


Grammatical Data (226)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. no Seifart 2005 Amanda Meeks
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] yes ʔ, h ʔ, h Seifart - 2005:33 Amanda Meeks
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast yes ɲ, tʲ, dʲ ɲ, tʲ, dʲ According to Thiesen, most stops (along with most consonants) become palatalized after the vowel [i]. Seifart - 2005:33-36; Thiesen - 1996:18-20 Amanda Meeks
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? yes Seifart - 2005:32-33 Amanda Meeks
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels no Seifart - 2005:32-46 Amanda Meeks
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme no Seifart - 2005:34-46 Amanda Meeks
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] no Seifart - 2005:32-46 Amanda Meeks
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? no Seifart - 2005:34-46 Amanda Meeks
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones yes 2 (low and high) Seifart - 2005:39-43 Amanda Meeks
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? no Seifart - 2005:32-46 Amanda Meeks
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments no Seifart - 2005:32-46 Amanda Meeks
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? no Seifart - 2005:32-46 Amanda Meeks
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony yes Seifart - 2005:37-38 Amanda Meeks
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] yes tense, aspect, mood Seifart - 2005: 61 Amanda Meeks
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone yes Seifart - 2005:41,61-62 Amanda Meeks
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word yes Seifart - 2005: 58 Amanda Meeks
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no Seifart - 2005: 58 Amanda Meeks
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes yes Seifart - 2005: 58 Amanda Meeks
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different no Seifart - 2005: 58 Amanda Meeks
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated yes Seifart - 2005:96-100 Amanda Meeks
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated yes Seifart - 2005:96-100 Amanda Meeks
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced no However, there is a very intricate classification system that acts like compounding. Seifart - 2005 Amanda Meeks
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection no Seifart - 2005 Amanda Meeks
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word no Seifart - 2005 Amanda Meeks
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' no Seifart - 2005:58-62 Amanda Meeks
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs no Seifart - 2005:58-62 Amanda Meeks
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment yes Seifart - 2005:62-65 Amanda Meeks
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns no Seifart - 2005:58-65 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP yes Seifart - 2005:77-82 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders 6 Thiesen notes 3 main classes: concrete, abstract, and locative (which includes animates and inanimates). Seifart - 2005: 77; Thiesen - 1996:27 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. yes 66 classifiers. Mainly describe shape, but also include gender and animacy. Seifart - 2005:77 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter yes Seifart - 2005:208 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates no Seifart - 2005:201-222 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human yes Seifart - 2005:77-83 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only no Seifart - 2005:83 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates yes Seifart - 2005:201-222 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates yes Seifart - 2005:201-222 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" yes Seifart - 2005:94 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals yes ,-βɑ ,-βɑ Seifart - 2005:56 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' yes In addition to V+classifier, suffixes can be used on nouns derive new nouns. Since there are 72 classifiers, new nouns can easily be formed. Seifart - 2005:58-59, 201-222 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups yes tsɑ- tsɑ- Seifart - 2005:235; Thiesen - 1996:43 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun yes ,-:nɛ (Seifart); -mu (Thiesen) ,-:nɛ (Seifart); -mu (Thiesen) Thiesen notes that plurality can also be achieved by manipulating the noun classifiers that are chosen. There are also unique plural markers that correspond to specific noun classes. Seifart - 2005: 56; Thiesen - 1996:26-30 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no Seifart - 2005: 56 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun no Seifart - 2005: 56 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic no Seifart - 2005: 56 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only no Seifart - 2005: 56 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns no Seifart - 2005:55 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' no Seifart - 2005:52-57 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only yes tɛ́- tɛ́- Article for definite/indefinite is the same. It can be interpreted as definite or indefinite, depending on the context. Seifart - 2005:125 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness yes Seifart - 2005:126 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker yes tɛ́- tɛ́- Article for definite/indefinite is the same. It can be interpreted as definite or indefinite, depending on the context. Seifart - 2005:125 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you yes Seifart - 2005:52-55 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) no Seifart - 2005:52-55 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system yes ɛː- (that), í- (this/these) ɛː- (that), í- (this/these) 2 contrasts: that, this (as well as these, which is perceived through conext). Thiesen also notes a contrast of "some." Seifart - 2005:126; Thiesen - 1996:36 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) no Seifart - 2005:126 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns yes Seifart - 2005: 52-55 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns yes Seifart - 2005: 52-55 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns yes Seifart - 2005: 52-55 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no Seifart - 2005: 52-55 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix no Use verbal affix instead. Seifart - 2005: 59 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients no Affixes (on NPs and VPs) used to mark. Seifart - 2005:68 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun 8 Seifart - 2005: 68 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are no Seifart - 2005: 68 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) no Seifart - 2005:68 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates yes Seifart - 2005:68 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic yes Seifart - 2005:68 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic no Seifart - 2005:68 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic no Seifart - 2005:68 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change no Seifart - 2005:68 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone no Seifart - 2005:68 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' no Seifart - 2005:68 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 yes Seifart - 2005:54-57 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 yes Seifart - 2005:130-131 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 no Seifart - 2005 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. no Seifart - 2005:130-132 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' no Seifart - 2005:130-131 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no Seifart - 2005:130-132 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no Seifart - 2005:130-132 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival yes Nominal. Seifart - 2005:72-73 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival yes Mostly adjectival. Seifart - 2005:31-73 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? yes taj- (1s) (Thiesen: ta-), di- (2s), mɛ- (1p), i- (3s, 3p) taj- (1s) (Thiesen: ta-), di- (2s), mɛ- (1p), i- (3s, 3p) Seifart - 2005:52; Thiesen - 1996:40 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? no Seifart - 2005:52 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' no Seifart - 2005:37,46,52-57 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' yes Seifart - 2005:37,46,52-57 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities yes Seifart - 2005:197-198 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no Seifart - 2005:64 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) yes ,-di ,-di Seifart - 2005:64 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form yes Marked with accusative case. Seifart - 2005:64 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father no Seifart - 2005:64 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg yes Seifart - 2005:64 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) no Seifart - 2005 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes no The adjectives are classifiers. Seifart - 2005:77-103 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco no Seifart - 2005:77-103 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb no Seifart - 2005:58-63 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb no Seifart - 2005:58-63 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb no In some instances, the nominalization is achieved through tone change. Seifart - 2005:58-63 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective yes ,-βɛ́ ,-βɛ́ Seifart - 2005:58 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' no Seifart - 2005:64-73 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere yes Seifart - 2005:62-72 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past yes Remote, recent. Seifart - 2005:72-73 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future no Seifart - 2005:61 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) yes Seifart - 2005:61 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no Seifart - 2005: 61-62 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes Seifart - 2005: 61-62 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no Seifart - 2005: 61-62 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no Seifart - 2005:61-62 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood no Prefixes that agree with subject used instead. Seifart - 2005:52 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) no Seifart - 2005 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses yes Different affixes are used. Seifart - 2005: 51-61 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' no Seifart - 2005:61 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something no info Seifart - 2005 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction no info Seifart - 2005 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking no info Seifart - 2005 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis no info Seifart - 2005 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction no info Seifart - 2005 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking no info Seifart - 2005 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected no Seifart - 2005 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") yes ,-ɾɑ (Seifart); -ra/-ro (Thiesen) ,-ɾɑ (Seifart); -ra/-ro (Thiesen) Seifart - 2005:61; Thiesen - 1996:71 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality yes ,-ʔíhka (Seifart); -hijcya (Thiesen) ,-ʔíhka (Seifart); -hijcya (Thiesen) Seifart - 2005:61; Thiesen - 1996:70 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' no Seifart - 2005 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' no Seifart - 2005 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative no Seifart - 2005 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. yes Seifart - 2005:59 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker no Seifart - 2005 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) no Seifart - 2005 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. no Seifart - 2005 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' yes ,-βɑ́ ,-βɑ́ Seifart - 2005:73 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse no Seifart - 2005 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above yes ,-nɛkɯ ,-nɛkɯ "Recent past;" what is expressed in the clause took place on the same or previous day. Seifart - 2005:72 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic yes Seifart - 2005:73 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs no Seifart - 2005:72-73 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle no Seifart - 2005:72-73 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme no Seifart - 2005:72-73 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion yes Seifart - 2005:83 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction no Seifart - 2005 Amanda Meeks
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order yes Free word order, with one exception: when using predicate marker on the verb, it must be preceded by an NP subject. Seifart - 2005:68 Amanda Meeks Most common: SOV
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject no Subject usually a verbal affix, but specific subject (e.g. "uncle, friend…") precedes verb. Seifart - 2005:63-68 Amanda Meeks
Word Order VS in transitive clauses no Seifart - 2005:63-68 Amanda Meeks
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object yes Not most common order, however. Seifart - 2005:63-68 Amanda Meeks
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject yes Not most common order, however. Seifart - 2005:63-68 Amanda Meeks
Word Order Preposition-Noun no Seifart - 2005:63-68 Amanda Meeks
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes Seifart - 2005:63-68 Amanda Meeks
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) yes Seifart - 2005:52 Amanda Meeks
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') no Seifart - 2005:52 Amanda Meeks
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun no Seifart - 2005:133-134 Amanda Meeks
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun yes Seifart - 2005:133-134 Amanda Meeks
Word Order Dem-Noun no Seifart - 2005:57 Amanda Meeks
Word Order Noun-Dem yes Seifart - 2005:57 Amanda Meeks
Word Order Num-Noun no Seifart - 2005:230 Amanda Meeks
Word Order Noun-Num yes Seifart - 2005:230 Amanda Meeks
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies yes Seifart - 2005:69-73 Amanda Meeks
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies no Seifart - 2005:69-73 Amanda Meeks
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') yes Seifart - 2005:69-73 Amanda Meeks
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' no Seifart - 2005:69-73 Amanda Meeks
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause yes Seifart - 2005:69 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects yes Seifart - 2005:68 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked no Seifart - 2005:68 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker no Seifart - 2005:68 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no Seifart - 2005:68 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no Seifart - 2005:68 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative yes Seifart - 2005:65-68 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative no Seifart - 2005:65-68 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Seifart - 2005:65-68 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no Seifart - 2005:65-68 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no Seifart - 2005:65-68 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs yes Seifart - 2005:65-68 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Seifart - 2005:65-68 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive no Seifart - 2005:65-68 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) no Seifart - 2005:58-73 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. no Seifart - 2005:58-73 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects yes However, the pronominal subject can also be an affix on the verb, occuring as a classifier. The recipient would then take an accusative affix in the subject position. Seifart - 2005:52-54 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Seifart - 2005:52-54 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) yes Seifart - 2005:52-54 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no Seifart - 2005:52-54 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no Seifart - 2005:52-54 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes yes The affix is a classifier, typically designating gender and number. Seifart - 2005:54-57 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers yes Seifart - 2005:65-68 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers no Seifart - 2005:65-68 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system yes Seifart - 2005:52 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system yes Seifart - 2005:52 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately yes Seifart - 2005:52-56 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes no Seifart - 2005:52 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent yes When necessary/desirable to distinguish gender, the affix is a classifier that accomplishes it. These classifiers are essentially verbal person markers. Seifart - 2005:52-55 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently no Seifart - 2005:65 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives no Seifart - 2005:65 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently yes The object/theme recieves an allative case marking. Seifart - 2005:65 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. yes ,-hkɑtsi ,-hkɑtsi Seifart - 2005:59 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. yes ,-mɛí ,-mɛí Seifart - 2005:59 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb no Seifart - 2005:59 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted no Seifart - 2005:58-73 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no Seifart - 2005:58-73 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency no Seifart - 2005:58-73 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb no info Seifart - 2005 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb no info Seifart - 2005 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb no Seifart - 2005:59 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb yes Seifart - 2005:59 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix no Seifart - 2005:59 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization no Seifart - 2005:59 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' no info Seifart - 2005 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event no Seifart - 2005:59 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency no Seifart - 2005 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element yes Seifart - 2005:72 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element no Seifart - 2005:72 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix yes ,-tɯ (Seifart); -tu (Thiesen) ,-tɯ (Seifart); -tu (Thiesen) Seifart - 2005:72; Thiesen - 1996:70 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle no Seifart - 2005:72 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb no Seifart - 2005:72 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' yes tsɑ́ʔɑ + V-tɯ tsɑ́ʔɑ + V-tɯ Affix "-tɯ" can be used on its own, especially when the object of the phrase is vague or not referred to. Seifart - 2005:72 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' no info Seifart - 2005 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase no info Seifart - 2005 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle yes ,-hɯ (Seifart); A (not an affix, first in sentence) (Thiesen) ,-hɯ (Seifart); A (not an affix, first in sentence) (Thiesen) Seifart - 2005:69; Thiesen - 1996:66 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology no Seifart - 2005:69 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no Seifart - 2005:69 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only no Seifart - 2005:69 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) no Seifart - 2005:69 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position yes Seifart - 2005:133 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position yes Since adjectives are just classifiers, they not only are able to modify nouns, but also act as nouns. Seifart - 2005:77-103 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) yes Seifart - 2005:63-73 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) yes Seifart - 2005:70-71 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. no Seifart - 2005:70-71 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause yes Seifart - 2005:70-71 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix no Seifart - 2005:70-71 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) no Seifart - 2005:70-71 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) no Seifart - 2005 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. yes Seifart - 2005:248-257 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined no Instead, the classifier of the suejct is used as a reference. No special marker. Seifart - 2005:248-257 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence no Seifart - 2005:248-257 Amanda Meeks