Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative

Simple Clauses - Alignment


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla yes Jane Hill
Cupeño yes Jane Hill
Luiseño yes Jane Hill
Serrano yes Jane Hill
Kitanemuk yes Jane Hill
Kawaiisu yes Jane Hill
Timbisha yes Jane Hill
Western Mono yes Jane Hill
Chemehuevi yes Jane Hill
Southern Paiute yes Jane Hill
Southern Ute yes Jane Hill
Shoshone no Jane Hill
Comanche yes Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone yes Jane Hill
Northern Paiute yes Jane Hill
Gabrielino yes Jane Hill
Achagua no Wilson & Levinsohn 1992 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro no Subject pronouns can be fused with the verb, but object pronouns are not. Allin, 1976: 176-179 Aimee Lawrence
Bare no Aikhenvald, 1995: 22 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco no Galindo, 2002: 157-159 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna n/a No case marking on A/O. Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 37 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no No case marking on pronouns. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 36-49 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana yes Santos, 2006: 187 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu n/a No case marking on pronouns in subject/object position. Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 798, 800 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana yes Pronouns with a human referent mark object case. Aikhenvald, 2003: 204 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã no Pronouns not case marked, the same forms used for both subjects and objects. Facundes, 2000: 346 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali no No apparent case markings on pronouns. Pronouns appear as verbal markings rather than free pronouns. Payne 1983:1619, 2325, 9096 Amanda Meeks
Maipure no Zamponi 2003:21-37 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' no subjects and objects do not get case Duff-Tripp 1997:67 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure no Danielsen 2007:100-1 Daniel Valle
Nanti n/a Only one case marker (locative), so no marking of core arguments on pronouns. Grammatical relations are marked on the verb. Michael, 2008. p. 340 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Palikur no Green and Green 1972:3-9 Daniel Valle
Yine no Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun no Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora yes Seifart - 2005:65-68 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no Escoriaza 1959:14-15 Amanda Meeks Discussions of ergativity in Hall 1988: 123-128; Hall 1984 (Split-ergativity in pronominal agreement systems) is inconclusive
Makushi no The subject of transitive clauses is marked by the suffix -ya, both when it is a free form nominal or pronominal, and when it is a verbal suffix. Intransitive subject and transitive object are not marked. Abbott 1991: 83 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa yes Pronouns follow the same pattern as full NPs, they are not case-marked. This might well be characterized as an neutral system with any of the grammatical relations marked with case. Thomas Payne 1989 Daniel Valle
Pemon no de Armellada 1999:16-25, 112-8, 276-7 Daniel Valle
Guna no pronouns are the same as subj. and obj. Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika no Frank 1985:39-59 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí no Quesada 2008:155-9 Daniel Valle
Damana no Daniel Valle
Sikuani no Queixalós 2000 Daniel Smith
Macaguan no Buenaventura - 1993:91-101 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna yes Overall 2007:215 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá no Mortensen 1999:42-3 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá yes It is the same alignment as for full NPs Levinson 1978:7, Levinson 1974:15-7 Daniel Valle
Matses no Fleck:854 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no Zúñiga 2006, p. 87 Daniel Valle
Páez yes Jung:136 Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano yes Soto 1976:61-92 Daniel Valle
Tikuna yes Montes 2005:133-141 Daniel Valle
Urarina no Olawsky:152-4, 298-354 Daniel Valle
Waunana no info Daniel Valle
Andoke no info Kelsey Neely
Puinave yes Giron 2008: p356 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no Huayhua Pari 2001: 202 Shannon Dardis Pronouns are treated the same as other nouns in the examples
Kakua yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no all the pronouns remain the same Goncalves 2011:12 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no Minor and Minor 1982. p.78-80 Christopher Clack
Hup yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw yes same 'afected' marker used with full NP Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano yes Miller 1999, p. 30 Amanda Novak
Cubeo yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p.143/110 Amanda Novak
Kotiria yes Stenzel 2004, p. 217 Amanda Novak
Makuna no Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.35-36 Chris Clack
Koreguaje yes Cook & Criswell 1993, p.47 Chris Clack pronouns used as direct objects must be followed by -re or -ni
Barasano yes Jones & Jones 1991, p.65-72 Chris Clack
Tanimuca yes When the subject and object are both pronouns (animate), the pronoun marked with -re is the object or recipient. Strom 1992, p.114 Chris Clack
Siona yes Wheeler - 1987:124-136 Amanda Meeks
Tukano yes often marked with 'referential' suffix Ramirez 1997: from examples (like the one on p 313) Kelsey Neely
Yanomami no Ramirez 1994: 209-213 Kelsey Neely
Ninam no Goodwin-Gomez: 48 Kelsey Neely
Sanumá no Borgman 1990: 121 Kelsey Neely
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana no it is not stated explicitly but it seems that pronouns behaves in a similar fashion to nouns with respect to case. Further, free pronouns refer to absolutive. Everett 2006:300, 304-5 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no pronouns don't mark case Cruz 2011:141 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no pronouns show a neuter alligment in which subject and object do not get case Krivoshein and Acosta 2001:130-1 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama yes only in the 3rd person. Different forms for the 3rd person sg if an object Vallejos 2010:201 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu no done 0
Wambaya yes done 1
Bunuba no done 0
Walmajarri no Done-Claire 0
Nyulnyul no done? 0
Warrwa no done 0
Worrorra no 44, ms1.7 done 0
Garrwa yes 2, 6 done 1
Gooniyandi no done 0
Warlpiri yes BS152 done 1
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no 79 done 0
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi yes 73-75 done-Dan 1
Yidiny yes done-Catherine 1
Yanyuwa no 13 Done-Austin 0
Yandruwandha yes 75 Done-Dan 1
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no 16-17 Done-Dan 0
Woiwurrung maybe 70 done-Amalia 1
Wirangu No 71-3 done 0
Wemba-Wemba yes H 37 done-Amalia 1
Warumungu yes 27-29 done-Amalia 1
Wangkumara no? r4-6 done 0
Uradhi Yes 352 Y 1
Paakantyi yes 59 Y-Hannah 1
Pitta-Pitta No 195 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no done-Hannah 0
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta yes 49, 76 Done-Hannah 1
Ngiyambaa yes 122 Done-Emily 1
Ngayawang No 10 done-Amalia 0
Muruwari yes 90 Done-Dan 1
Mayi-Yapi yes 53-54 done 1
Martuthunira yes 101 done 1
Marrgany yes 301 Done-Amalia 1
Kuuk Thaayorre Yes 148 Done-Amalia 1
Kuku Yalanji yes 72 Done-Jessica 1
Kugu-Nganhcara yes 397 done-Amalia 1
Kaurna No 7-8 done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu yes 27 Done-Dan 1
Jaru no 64-5 Done-Amalia 0
Guugu-Yimidhirr yes 66 Done-Amalia 1
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr no 283 done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun yes 126-7 done-Jessica 1
Yuwaalaraay Yes 47 1
Dyirbal No 132-3 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu no 51 done 0
Djinang Yes 33 Done-Amalia 1
Djabugay done
Diyari no done-Hannah 0
Dharawal no 49-50 done-Hannah w Dhurga) 0
Darkinyung yes 37 done 1
Bularnu yes 50 Done-Austin 1
Biri yes 14; 23-4 done-Jessica 1
Bidjara-Gungabula yes 57 done-Jessica 1
Batyala No 4 Done-Amalia 0
Arabana yes 66 Done-Dan 1
Alyawarr yes 93 done 1
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija No 29 Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung yes 82 done 1
Mathi-Mathi yes 90 done-Amalia 1
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie yes 40 done-Amalia 1
Thanggati no 22-23 done 0
Katthang yes 64 done-Amalia 1
Panyjima yes 157 done 1
Ngarinyeri yes 23 done-Amalia 1
Kurrama yes 74-75 done-Dan 1
Yingkarta yes Done-Claire 1
Githabul No 15 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya yes 304 Done-Amalia 1
Kunjen yes 87 Done- 1
WesternTorres no FO 121 done 0
Wakaya no 150 done 0
Yindjilindji yes 515 done 1
Bandjalang No 78 Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara yes 55 done 1
Arrernte Yes 101 1
Kokatha Yes 48 1
Karajarri No 227 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara Yes Y 20 1
Ritharrngu Yes 34 Done-Amalia 1
Warrgamay No 40 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra yes 885 Done-Amalia 1
Warnman No 13 Done-Amalia 0
Djapu yes 51 1
Bilinarra no 5.1.1 done 0
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala Yes 62 Y2 1
Narungga No 58 done 0
Tharrkari No 24-5 0
Wajarri Yes 39 1
Warungu yes 157-8 1
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Baniwa no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps