Central Aymara

Family
Aymaran
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
ayr
Location
-17.00°, -68.50°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Data Sources
Cotari, Daniel, Mejía, Jaime, and Carrasco, Víctor. 1978. Diccionario Aymara-Castellano, Castellano-Aymara. Instituto de Idiomas Padres de Maryknoll, Cochabamba. Deza Galindo, Juan Francisco. 1992. Gramática de la Lengua Aymara. Lima: Artex Editores. Gómez Bacarreza, Donato and Condori Cosme, José. 1992. Morfología y gramatica del idioma aymara. La Paz: Bruno/Hisbol. Huayhua Pari, Felipe. 2001. Gramática descriptiva de la lengua Aimara. Lima: Negocios Arco Iris SRL. Pairumani, Félix Layme. 2007. Central Aymara. Intercontinental Dictionary Series, ed. Mary Ritchie Key.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location patana amta; araχa; alaya See Language page PLE
and y e grammar sti sti See Language page PLE
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment ḳʰilʸa See Language page PLE
at en, a em, a location {-na} {-na} See Language page PLE
back espalda costas body jikhani ati See Language page PLE
bad mal mal quality jan wali (jan=?; wali=good) ḳʰuru See Language page PLE
belly barriga barriga body pʰatanka See Language page PLE
below abajo, debajo abaixo location aynacha aynača See Language page PLE
big grande grande quality jach´a xačˀa See Language page PLE
black negro preto colour ch´iara čˀiyara See Language page PLE
blood sangre sangue body wila wila See Language page PLE
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body xinḳˀi See Language page PLE
bone hueso osso body ch´akha čˀakʰa See Language page PLE
breast pecho, seno peito body pichu (Spanish loan) ɲuɲu See Language page PLE
child niño, niña criança human wawa wawa See Language page PLE
cloud nube nuvem environment urpu ḳinaya See Language page PLE
cold frío frio quality thaya tʰaya; alala See Language page PLE
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality cheqa čiḳa See Language page PLE
day día dia time uru uru See Language page PLE
dirty sucio sujo quality q´añu ḳˀaɲu See Language page PLE
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page PLE
dry seco seco quality waña waɲa See Language page PLE
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality muthu, turu muthu, tuɾu See Language page PLE
dust polvo poeira environment laq´a laḳˀa See Language page PLE
ear oreja orelha body jinchu xinču See Language page PLE
earth/soil tierra terra environment laq´a uraḳi See Language page PLE
egg huevo ovo fauna k´awna, kanwa kˀawna See Language page PLE
eye ojo olho body nayra nayra See Language page PLE
far lejos longe quality jaya xaya See Language page PLE
fat/grease grasa gordura body lik´i likʔi See Language page PLE
father padre, papá pai kinship ch´oqe awki; tata See Language page PLE
feather pluma pena fauna phuyu pʰuyu See Language page PLE
fire fuego fogo environment nina nina See Language page PLE
flower flor flor environment panqara panḳara See Language page PLE
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment urpu urpu See Language page PLE
fruit fruta fruta flora phurut´a (Spanish loan?) muχsaaču See Language page PLE
good bueno bom quality suma suma See Language page PLE
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body ñik´uta ɲikˀuta See Language page PLE
hand mano mão body ampara ampara See Language page PLE
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar jupa xupa See Language page PLE
head cabeza cabeça body p´eqe pˀiḳi See Language page PLE
heavy pesado pesado quality jathi xatʰi See Language page PLE
how? como como grammar kumasa See Language page PLE
1sg yo eu grammar naya naya See Language page PLE
if si se grammar jisa xisa See Language page PLE
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location manqha manḳʰa See Language page PLE
intestines intestinos intestinos body jiphilla xipʰilʸa See Language page PLE
lake lago lago environment qota ḳuta See Language page PLE
leaf hoja folha environment laphi lapʰi See Language page PLE
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body ch´eqa čˀiḳa See Language page PLE
leg/foot pierna perna body chara čara See Language page PLE
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment llijulliju ḳˀixu-ḳˀixu See Language page PLE
liver hígado figado body k´iwcha kˀiwča See Language page PLE
long largo comprido, longo quality sayt´u waru See Language page PLE
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna lap´a lapˀa See Language page PLE
man/male hombre homem human chacha čača See Language page PLE
meat/flesh carne carne fauna aycha ayča See Language page PLE
moon luna lua environment phajjsi pʰaxsi See Language page PLE
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship mama tayka; mama See Language page PLE
mouth boca boca body laka laka See Language page PLE
name nombre nome human suti suti See Language page PLE
near/close cerca de perto quality jak´a xakˀa See Language page PLE
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body ati See Language page PLE
neck cuello pescoço body kunka kunka See Language page PLE
new nuevo novo quality machaqa mačaḳa See Language page PLE
night noche noite time aruma aruma See Language page PLE
no/not no não grammar jani xani See Language page PLE
nose nariz nariz body nasa nasa See Language page PLE
old viejo velho quality merq´e, thantha ačači See Language page PLE
one uno um number maya maya See Language page PLE
other otro outro grammar yaqha, wasa jaqha, wasa See Language page PLE
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body usuta usuta; usu See Language page PLE
person/human being persona pessoa human jaqe xaḳi See Language page PLE
rain lluvia chuva environment jallu xalʸu See Language page PLE
red rojo vermelho colour wila čupika See Language page PLE
right/right hand derecha direita location/body kupi kupi See Language page PLE
road/path camino caminho manufacture thaki tʰakʰi See Language page PLE
root raíz raiz flora saphi sapʰi See Language page PLE
rotten podrido podre quality ñusata ɲusata See Language page PLE
sand arena areia environment ch´alla čˀalʸa See Language page PLE
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality ari ari See Language page PLE
short corto curto quality jisk´a xiskˀa See Language page PLE
shoulder hombro ombro body kallachi kalʸači See Language page PLE
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental pˀinḳa See Language page PLE
skin piel pele body janchi lipˀiči See Language page PLE
sky cielo céu environment alajjpacha alax-pača; laḳampu See Language page PLE
small pequeño pequeno quality jisk´a xiskˀa See Language page PLE
smoke humo fumaça environment jewq´e, jeq´e xiḳˀi See Language page PLE
star estrella estrela environment wara wara wara-wara See Language page PLE
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora lawa kˀulʸu See Language page PLE
stone piedra pedra environment qala ḳala; ḳarḳa See Language page PLE
tail cola, rabo rabo body wich´inkha wičˀinkʰa See Language page PLE
that ese/esa esse grammar uka, ukïri uka, uki:ɾi See Language page PLE
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar jupanaka xupanaka See Language page PLE
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality khusu tʰuru See Language page PLE
thin delgado fino quality juch´usa xučˀusa See Language page PLE
this este/esta este grammar aka, akïri aka, aki:ɾi See Language page PLE
2sg xx xx grammar juma xuma See Language page PLE
throat garganta garganta body mallq´a tˀulʸu See Language page PLE
three tres tres number kimsa (Quechua loan?) kimsa See Language page PLE
thunder truenos trovão environment q´ejjo q´ejjo qʔeχo qʔeχo See Language page PLE
bite morder morder body achoqaña ačuḳa-ɲa See Language page PLE
blow soplar soprar body phust´aña, phusaña pʰusa-ɲa See Language page PLE
breathe respirar respirar body samaña samaɲa See Language page PLE
burn quemar queimar environment nakhantaña nakʰaɲa See Language page PLE
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body q´awiña kʰistʰu-ɲa See Language page PLE
climb subir subir motion makhataña, mistuña warkkatta-ɲa See Language page PLE
come venir vir motion jutaña xuta-ɲa See Language page PLE
cook cocinar cozinhar impact manq´ phayana pʰaya-ɲa See Language page PLE
count contar contar mental jakhuña xakʰu-ɲa; wakʰu-ɲa See Language page PLE
cry llorar chorar mental jachaña xača-ɲa See Language page PLE
cut/hack cortar cortar impact khariña kʰarxa-ɲa; kʰučxa-ɲa See Language page PLE
die/be dead morir morrer state jiwaña xiwata; xiwa-ɲa See Language page PLE
dig cavar cavar impact alliña, allsuña pʰatˀsu-ɲa See Language page PLE
dream soñar sonhar mental samkaña iki See Language page PLE
drink beber, tomar beber body umaña uma-ɲa See Language page PLE
eat comer comer body manḳˀa-ɲa See Language page PLE
fall caer cair motion tinkuña tinku-ɲa See Language page PLE
fear miedo medo mental ajjsaraña aχsara-ɲa See Language page PLE
flow fluir fluir motion xala-ɲa See Language page PLE
fly volar voar motion jalaña wiru-ɲa See Language page PLE
grow crecer crescer state jilaña xila-ɲa See Language page PLE
hear oír ouvir mental ist´aña istˀa-ɲa See Language page PLE
hide esconder esconder motion imanta-ɲa See Language page PLE
hit golpear, pegar bater impact tojjt´aña liḳˀi-ɲa See Language page PLE
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other llawintaña ʎawintaɲa See Language page PLE
kill matar matar impact jiwayaña (-ya- is a kind of causative?) xiwaya-ɲa See Language page PLE
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental yatiña yati-ɲa See Language page PLE
laugh reír rir mental laruña laru-ɲa See Language page PLE
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion winkt´aña ikintχa-ɲa See Language page PLE
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body qamaña xaka-ɲa See Language page PLE
open/uncover abrir abrir other jist´arata xistˀxa-ɲa See Language page PLE
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact čˀaku-ɲa See Language page PLE
say decir dizer mental saña sa-ɲa See Language page PLE
scratch rascar rasgar impact ch´iyjana tʃʔijxana See Language page PLE
see ver ver mental uñjaña uɲxa-ɲa See Language page PLE
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact See Language page PLE
sit sentar(se) sentar state qont´aña ḳuntˀa-ɲa; ḳunu-ɲa See Language page PLE
sleep dormir dormir body ikiña iki-ɲa See Language page PLE
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body mukt´aña muktʔaɲa See Language page PLE
spit escupir cuspir body thusaña tʰusa-ɲa See Language page PLE
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact jaljaña xalxa-ɲa See Language page PLE
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact ch´irwaña ḳˀaptʰapi-ɲa See Language page PLE
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact kharintaña kharintaɲa See Language page PLE
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state sayt´asiña saytˀa-ɲa See Language page PLE
steal robar roubar other lunthataña luntʰata-ɲa See Language page PLE
suck chupar chupar body ch´amsuña čˀamu-ɲa See Language page PLE
swell hincharse inchar body p´usuntaña pˀusu See Language page PLE
swim nadar nadar motion tuyuña tuyu-ɲa See Language page PLE
think pensar pensar mental lup´iña lupˀi-ɲa See Language page PLE
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact jaqtaña, liwtaña warta-ɲa See Language page PLE
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact chinuntaña ɲačˀa-ɲa See Language page PLE
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other muytaña xaḳukipa-ɲa See Language page PLE
vomit vomitar vomitar body waq´aqaña waḳˀaḳi-ɲa See Language page PLE
walk caminar, andar andar motion sarnaqaña sara-ɲa; čilʸḳi-ɲa See Language page PLE
work trabajar trabalhar other trawajaña (Spanish loan) tɾawaxaɲa See Language page PLE
yawn bostezar bocejar body ansaña aysa-ɲa See Language page PLE
tongue lengua lingua body lajjra laχra See Language page PLE
tooth diente dente body k´achi laka čˀakʰa See Language page PLE
two dos dois number paya paya See Language page PLE
water agua agua environment uma uma See Language page PLE
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar jiwasa (DL: you and me), jiwasanaka xiwasa See Language page PLE
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar nanaka nanaka See Language page PLE
wet mojado molhado quality ch´arana čˀarana See Language page PLE
what? que, qué que grammar kuna kunasa See Language page PLE
when? cuando quando grammar kunapacha kunarsa See Language page PLE
where? donde onde grammar kawki kawkinsa See Language page PLE
white blanco branco colour janq´o xanḳˀu See Language page PLE
who? quien, quién quem grammar khiti(sa) kʰitisa See Language page PLE
wife esposa esposa kinship warmi warmi See Language page PLE
wind viento vento environment thaya tʰaya See Language page PLE
wing ala asa body chheqa čʰiḳʰa See Language page PLE
woman/female mujer mulher human warmi (loan?) warmi See Language page PLE
yellow amarillo amarelo colour q´ellu ḳˀilʸu See Language page PLE
2pl ustedes vocês grammar xumamaka See Language page PLE
foot pie body kayu kayu See Language page PLE
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar wasitata maampi See Language page PLE
all todo todos other taqeni sapa; taḳi See Language page PLE
ankle tobillo tornozelo body kayu moqo kayu muḳu See Language page PLE
armpit axila, sobaco axila body chheqhanqara čʰiḳʰanḳara See Language page PLE
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body jama xama-ɲa; yaḳˀa-ɲa See Language page PLE
lung pulmón pulmão body čuyma See Language page PLE
sweat sudar suor, suar body jump´iña xumpˀi-ɲa See Language page PLE
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body xasi See Language page PLE
bark corteza casca environment laymi, layma lajmi, lajma See Language page PLE
fingernail uña unha body sillu silʸu See Language page PLE
heart corazón coração body lloqo lʸuḳu See Language page PLE
sun sol sol time inti inti; wilʸka See Language page PLE
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment qollu ḳulʸu See Language page PLE
green verde verde quality ch´ojjña čˀuχ-ɲa See Language page PLE
hot caliente quente quality junt´u xuntˀu See Language page PLE


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. chiñi čiɲi See Language page PLE
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna jamach´i xamačˀi See Language page PLE
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. See Language page Amazonia PLE
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões PLE
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. See Language page Different types have different localized ranges PLE
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae lluli, qinti (P04) lluli, qinti (P04) See Language page Widespread PLE
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes ch´useqa; juku (P04) čˀusiḳa See Language page Widespread PLE
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica k'alla (P04) kˀalʸa See Language page Widespread PLE
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae paluma (Spanish loan) urpila; kʰulʸkutaya See Language page PLE
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae mamani (P04) mamani See Language page PLE
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae siwiq'ara (P04) siwiḳˀara See Language page Widespread South America PLE
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family pili (P04) pili See Language page PLE
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba waq'ana (P04) waq'ana (P04) See Language page Widespread South America PLE
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris anu anu See Language page Not native; widespread PLE
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands PLE
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri kirkinchu kiɾkintʃu See Language page Widespread in Amazonia PLE
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. kaymana kajmana See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi PLE
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus See Language page PLE
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna chawlla čawlʸa See Language page PLE
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. See Language page PLE
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. maxt'a (catfish; P04) maxt'a (catfish; P04) See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura jamp´atu xampʔatu See Language page PLE
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana PLE
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata jararankhu sutuwalʸu xararankʰu See Language page PLE
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. See Language page PLE
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura apankuraya (P04) apankuraja (P04) See Language page PLE
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes churisk'i (P04) tʃurisik'i See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae jach'a katari, churisik'i (P04) xach'a katari, tʃurisik'i (P04) See Language page PLE
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna asiru, katari asiru See Language page PLE
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox palli, katari (P04) palli, kataɾi See Language page Widespread South America PLE
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria [turtuka] See Language page Widespread PLE
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls PLE
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) jach'a kalla, champi (Bertonio 1612) sirkˀi See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species PLE
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua PLE
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia PLE
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch PLE
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm PLE
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm PLE
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes See Language page PLE
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries PLE
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca kuka kuka See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant PLE
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) qheya ḳʰiya See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') PLE
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree PLE
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens wayk´a waykˀa See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant PLE
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea choqopa tʃoqopa See Language page plant PLE
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus achupaya (P04) atʃupaja See Language page plant PLE
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum soqosa soqosa See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant PLE
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. latanu (P04) puḳuta; [latanu] See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. PLE
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. chuwi (P04) čˀiwa See Language page plant PLE
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) qora ḳura See Language page PLE
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays tonqo tunḳu See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant PLE
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum tʰuxsa-tʰuxsa See Language page plant PLE
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna qoqa ḳuḳa See Language page PLE
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana achiwiti (loan) atʃiwiti See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub PLE
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. sikili (P04) sikili (P04) See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) PLE
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana phalt'a (P04) phalt'a (P04) See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree PLE
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree PLE
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree PLE
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties PLE
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub PLE
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree PLE
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. qapa ('rubber'; P04) qapa ('rubber'; P04) See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree PLE
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant PLE
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape PLE
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield PLE
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta yuka (loan) yuka See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety PLE
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum ch´oqe tʃʔoqe See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato PLE
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas qhini, qama, phiñu, sicha (P04) qhini, qama, phiñu, sicha See Language page plant PLE
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant PLE
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. See Language page PLE
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) tamuña (P04) tamuña See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree PLE
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. lakayuti (P04) lakajuti See Language page plant PLE
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. mura (P04) mura See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine PLE
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree PLE
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine PLE
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page PLE
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page PLE
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae kˀusiwalʸu See Language page PLE
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata See Language page PLE
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. chaqa (P04) tʃaqa See Language page PLE
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis tamuraya wayrunḳu See Language page PLE
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria See Language page PLE
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae phichhinkilla, qupa (P04) phitʃhinkilla, qupa (P04) See Language page PLE
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera pilpintu pilpintu See Language page PLE
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera thutha thutha See Language page PLE
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora sillq´o silʸḳˀu See Language page PLE
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda warisana (P04) warisana See Language page PLE
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones ajarankhu (P04) axarankhu (P04) See Language page PLE
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea See Language page PLE
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera k´uthi kˀuti See Language page PLE
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera chhichhilankha čʰičʰilʸankʰa See Language page PLE
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae churuka (P04) tʃuruka See Language page PLE
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. See Language page PLE
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae See Language page PLE
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. ch´uspi tʃʔuspi See Language page PLE
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera See Language page PLE
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea achuqara (P04) atʃuqara See Language page PLE
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita ninanina pankataya See Language page PLE
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda čˀuru See Language page PLE
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae kusikusi kusi-kusi See Language page PLE
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca uturunku (P04) uturunku (P04) See Language page PLE
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. See Language page PLE
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha See Language page PLE
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] See Language page PLE
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella See Language page PLE
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons See Language page PLE
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus See Language page PLE
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae ačupalʸa See Language page PLE
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis See Language page PLE
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis See Language page PLE
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu See Language page PLE
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari See Language page PLE
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae ch'aphi qamaqi (P04) tʃ'aphi qamaqi (P04) See Language page PLE
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua See Language page PLE
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. See Language page PLE
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris See Language page PLE
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti See Language page PLE
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) See Language page PLE
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus achaku ačaku See Language page PLE
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae See Language page PLE
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris taruja, anta (P04) taruxa, anta See Language page PLE
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus taruja taruka See Language page PLE
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus kawallo (P04) kawallo (P04) See Language page PLE


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material sapʰi See Language page PLE
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material See Language page PLE
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material walʸḳa See Language page PLE
bed cama cama culture-material ikiña ikiɲa; pataatˀi See Language page PLE
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material See Language page PLE
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material ḳunuɲa See Language page PLE
canoe canoa canoa transport wampu; yampu See Language page PLE
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page PLE
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology wankara wankara See Language page PLE
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology ajayiru layḳa In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page PLE
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology yatiri jatiɾi Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page PLE
broom escoba vassoura culture-material pichaña pičaɲa See Language page PLE
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology isi isi See Language page PLE
fence, palisade cerco cerca other uyu may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page PLE
firewood leña lenha other lawa pʰaya-ɲa-lawa See Language page PLE
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page PLE
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology supaya supaja See Language page PLE
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology dyusa (Spanish loan) pačamama; wakˀa In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page PLE
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology pinkillu ḳina multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page PLE
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology siku siku See Language page PLE
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page PLE
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page PLE
knife cuchillo faca culture-material tumi See Language page PLE
machete machete facão culture-material machiti (loan) matʃiti See Language page PLE
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool jacha (P04) [ača] especially for clearing fields See Language page PLE
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool mičˀi hunting, warfare See Language page PLE
spear lanza lança subsistence tool chuki (P04) tʃuki See Language page PLE
bow arco arco subsistence tool arku (Spanish loan) aɾku arco See Language page PLE
paddle/oar remo remo transport yoqena joqena See Language page PLE
plate plato prato culture-material chuwa (P04) [platu] See Language page PLE
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool phukhu pʰukʰu See Language page PLE
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material See Language page PLE
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool jiwk´illita [xurnu] agriculture? See Language page PLE
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology See Language page PLE
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool See Language page PLE
wax cera cera other mapˀa See Language page PLE
honey miel mel food misk´i miskˀi only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page PLE
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page PLE
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture t´isuna wiska See Language page PLE
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page PLE
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material wičʰu xičʰu See Language page PLE
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page PLE
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page PLE
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology pillu piʎu See Language page PLE
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page PLE
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology alaχpača See Language page PLE
school escuela escola acculturation yatiña uta (P04) jatiña uta (P04) See Language page PLE
bottle botella garrafa acculturation See Language page PLE
paper papel papel acculturation See Language page PLE
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology iki See Language page PLE
chicken gallina galinha acculturation wallpa, atawallpa (P04) čʰiwčʰi See Language page PLE
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology amaya See Language page PLE
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other See Language page PLE
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation asukara (P04) asukara (Sp loan) See Language page PLE
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material [pʰalta] See Language page PLE
shoes zapatos sapatos dress pˀulʸḳu See Language page PLE
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page PLE
soldier soldado soldado acculturation palʸa-palʸa See Language page PLE
cat gato gato acculturation pʰisi; misi See Language page PLE
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation illapa (P04) illapa (P04) See Language page PLE
hat sombero chapéu dress tanka See Language page PLE
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology kuraka See Language page PLE
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool jawq'aña (P04) xawq'aña (P04) See Language page PLE
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress See Language page PLE
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page PLE
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool See Language page PLE
salt sal sal food xayu See Language page PLE
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology xaylʸi-ɲa See Language page PLE
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page PLE
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool hunting and warfare See Language page PLE
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page PLE
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food katuña (P04) katuña (P04) See Language page PLE
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food See Language page PLE
hunt cazar caçar food katuña katu-ɲa See Language page PLE
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food uywa Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page PLE
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool wislla, tamuña (P04) wisʎa, tamuña (P04) See Language page PLE
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page PLE
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool See Language page PLE
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool See Language page PLE
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool See Language page PLE
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture k´usa kˀusa prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page PLE
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food xakˀu agriculture See Language page PLE
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food t'ant'a ('bread', P04) t'ant'a (P04) usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page PLE
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food See Language page PLE
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food agriculture See Language page PLE
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page PLE
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page PLE
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool jiwayiri ('poison', P04) xiwajiri ('poison', P04) hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page PLE
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool susuña susuɲa agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page PLE
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool can refer to worms; more generic See Language page PLE
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool sipita (used to trap birds) sipita See Language page PLE
bottom grinding stone manufacture qala qala if different word from top grinding stone See Language page PLE
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page PLE
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page PLE
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page PLE
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page PLE
house other uta uta See Language page PLE


Grammatical Data (226)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. no Huayhua Pari 2001: 68 to 72 Shannon Dardis
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] yes /p'/ /t'/ /k'/ /q'/ /t∫'/ /p'/ /t'/ /k'/ /q'/ /chh/ Gomez 1992: 15 to 18 Shannon Dardis
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast no Huayhua Pari 2001: 68 to 72 Shannon Dardis There is no mention of palatalized stops in the Huayhua Pari, Deza Galindo, or Gomez. I think that the fact that Gomez (1992) omits them in his list of phonemes (starting on page15) indicates that they probably don't exist in Aymara.
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? yes Vowel length seems to affect the interpretation of verbs quite a bit (Deza Galindo 1992: 56). Gomez 1992: 23 Shannon Dardis Gomez (1992: 23) indicates that lengthened vowels, despite being rare, are indeed phonemes.
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels no Huayhua Pari 2001: 83 to 85 Shannon Dardis
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme no Huayhua Pari 2001: 67 Shannon Dardis
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] yes Huayhua Pari 2001: 66 Shannon Dardis
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? no Huayhua Pari 2001: 66 Shannon Dardis
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones no Huayhua Pari 2001: 83 to 94 Shannon Dardis
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? no Huayhua Pari 2001: 94 Shannon Dardis
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments no Deza Galindo 1992: 65 Shannon Dardis
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? no Deza Galindo 1992: 65 Shannon Dardis
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony no Huayhua Pari 2001: 10 to 107 Shannon Dardis
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] no Huayhua Pari 2001: 125 Shannon Dardis Aymara shows things like tense and person/number by adding a suffix for each category to the stem. My sources do not indicate that any of those suffixes combine categories.
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone no Deza Galindo 1992: 98, 99 Shannon Dardis There are two irregular verbs mentioned on pg. 99 that might be examples of stem change.
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word yes Deza Galindo 1992: 89 Shannon Dardis
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no Deza Galindo 1992: 143 Shannon Dardis
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes yes Deza Galindo 1992: 143 Shannon Dardis
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different no Deza Galindo 1992: 143 Shannon Dardis
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated no Huayhua Pari 2001 Shannon Dardis The only mentions I found of any kind of reduplication/repetition were in reference to interjections (Huayhua Pari 2001: 228) and as a way to pluralize some nouns (Gomez 1992: 32)
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated no Huayhua Pari 2001 Shannon Dardis
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced yes Huayhua Pari 2001:201 Shannon Dardis
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection no info Shannon Dardis
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word no info Shannon Dardis
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' no info Shannon Dardis
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs yes Deza Galindo 1992: 99 Shannon Dardis
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment no info Shannon Dardis
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns no info Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP yes Deza Galindo 1992: 78 and Huayhua Pari 2001: 199, 200 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders 5 Deza Galindo 1992: 78 Shannon Dardis The classes given in Deza Galindo are proper, common, concrete, abstract, and despective. I'm not completely convinced that these are the kinds of noun classes we're looking for, but the title of the section is Noun Classes.
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. no Deza Galindo 1992: 74 to 80 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter yes Deza Galindo 1992: 75 Shannon Dardis Gender does not however seem to be obligatorily marked on nouns. And I don't think it's marked on verbs at all.
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates no Deza Galindo 1992: 75 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human yes Deza Galindo 1992: 78 Shannon Dardis See note about noun classes
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only no Deza Galindo 1992: 80 Shannon Dardis The gender distinction is not shown in any of the pronouns, not even the 3rd person
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates no Deza Galindo 1992: 78 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates no Deza Galindo 1992: 78 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" no Deza Galindo 1992: 74 to 80 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals no Huayhua Pari 2001: 212 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' no Huayhua Pari 2001: 236 Shannon Dardis Aymara does have derivational suffixes that make verbs nouns, but I'm pretty sure those aren't classifiers.
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups no Huayhua Pari 2001: 239, 240, 248, 249 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun yes naka naca Deza Galindo 1992: 77, 78 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no Deza Galindo 1992: 77, 78 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun yes Deza Galindo 1992: 77, 78 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic no Deza Galindo 1992: 77, 78 Shannon Dardis Quantitative adjectives and numerals can, however, be placed before nouns.
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only no Deza Galindo 1992: 77, 78 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns yes naka naka Huayhua Pari 2001: 248 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' no info Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only yes xa, x jha, jh Deza Galindo 1992: 72 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness yes Deza Galindo 1992: 84, 85 Shannon Dardis Indefiniteness is marked by indefinite pronouns
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker yes maja maya, mä Deza Galindo 1992: 73 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you yes Deza Galindo 1992: 81 Shannon Dardis "We" is either exclusive (without you) and two inclusive (either with you or with you and with everyone else)
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) no Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system 4 aka aka, objects close to the first person; uka, objects close to second person; khaya, objects close to the third person; khuri, objects far from all persons or not visible Huayhua Pari 2001: 205 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) yes kʰuri khuri can refer to objects that are invisible, but also to things that are far from all persons Huayhua Pari 2001: 205 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns no Huayhua Pari 2001: 202 to 204 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns no Huayhua Pari 2001: 202 to 204 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no Huayhua Pari 2001: 202 to 204 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no Huayhua Pari 2001: 202 to 204 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix no Gomez 1992: 71, 72 Shannon Dardis There is instead a verbal suffix that indicates that the action is reflexive
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients no Deza Galindo 1992: 136, 137 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun 10 Huayhua Pari 2001: 253 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are no Huayhua Pari 2001: 253 Shannon Dardis Subjects are marked by the suffix jha (xa in Huayhua Pari), which Deza Galindo says acts as a definite article.
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) yes Huayhua Pari 2001: 263 Shannon Dardis Both instruments and animates can use the same case suffixes, such as mpi
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates no Huayhua Pari 2001: 263 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic yes Huayhua Pari 2001: 253 to 264 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic no Huayhua Pari 2001: 253 to 264 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic no Huahyua Pari 2001: 253 to 264 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change no Huayhua Pari 2001: 253 to 264 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone no Huayhua Pari 2001: 253 to 264 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' yes mpi mpi Huayhua Pari 2001: 262,263 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 no Huayhua Pari 2001: 212 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 yes Huayhua Pari 2001: 212 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 yes Huayhua Pari 2001: 212 Shannon Dardis From 5 to 10 the numbers are 5+1, 5+2, etc. After ten, though, they are 10+1, 10+2 and so on. And then 20 is 2x10.
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. no Huayhua Pari 2001: 212 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' no Huayhua Pari 2001: 212 Shannon Dardis The first five numbers correspond to the five toes, but I don't think that that is reflected in the actual word.
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no Huayhua Pari 2001: 214 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no info Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no info Shannon Dardis
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? no Huayhua Pari 2001: 250 to 252 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? yes ha, ma, pa, sa ja, first person; ma, second person; pa, third person; sa, fourth person (dual) Huayhua Pari 2001: 250 to 252 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' no Huayhua Pari 2001: 250 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' yes Huayhua Pari 2001: 250 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities no Shannon Dardis
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no info Shannon Dardis
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no info Shannon Dardis
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form no info Shannon Dardis
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father no info Shannon Dardis
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg no info Shannon Dardis
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) no info Shannon Dardis
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes yes Huayhua Pari 2001: 216 Shannon Dardis These are the qualifying adjectives and others mentioned in Deza Galindo (1992: 86,87).
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco no Huayhua Pari 2001: 216 to 218 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb yes ta ta ta is a suffix Huayhua Pari 2001: 244 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb yes ri ri ri is a suffix Huayhua Pari 2001: 245 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb no info Shannon Dardis I'm fairly sure that objects derived from verbs also use the suffix ta, that is there is no distinction between subject and object as far as verb nominalizing suffixes go.
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective yes Huayhua Pari 2001: 168 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' no Huayhua Pari 2001: 300, 262 Shannon Dardis Both use the suffix mpi
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere yes Deza Galinda1992: 92 Shannon Dardis
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past yes ya ya, experienced recent past; waya, less recent experienced past; taya, not experienced distant past (Huayhua Pari 2001: 130, 131) All of these are suffixes Deza Galinda1992: 93 Shannon Dardis Whether or not the past event was experienced by the speaker is also indicated by the past morpheme
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future no Huayhua Pari 2001: 132 Shannon Dardis Because you can't see it, that is to say it is not experienced, the future is thought to be behind you, whereas the past is in front of you.
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) yes na na, future marker Huayhua Pari 2001: 132 Shannon Dardis
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no Deza Galinda 1992: 89 Shannon Dardis
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes Deza Galinda 1992: 89 Shannon Dardis
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no info Shannon Dardis
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no info Shannon Dardis
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood no Huayhua Pari 2001: 163 Shannon Dardis
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) no Huayhua Pari 2001: 163 Shannon Dardis
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses no info Shannon Dardis
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' no Huayhua Pari 2001: 135 to 140 Shannon Dardis
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something yes sa sa Huayhua Pari 2001: 139 Shannon Dardis
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction no Huayhua Pari 2001: 139 Shannon Dardis
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking no Huayhua Pari 2001: 139 Shannon Dardis
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis yes t∫i chi Huayhua Pari 2001: 138 Shannon Dardis
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction no Huayhua Pari 2001: 138 Shannon Dardis
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking no Huayhua Pari 2001: 138 Shannon Dardis
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected no Huayhua Pari 2001: 135 to 140 Shannon Dardis
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") no Huayhua Pari 2001: 135 to 140 Shannon Dardis
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality yes ri ri Huayhua Pari 2001: 139 Shannon Dardis
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' no Huayhua Pari 2001: 135 to 140 Shannon Dardis
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' no Huayhua Pari 2001: 135 to 140 Shannon Dardis
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative no Huayhua Pari 2001: 135 to 140 Shannon Dardis
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. yes Huayhua Pari 2001: 177 Shannon Dardis
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker no Levin 2004: 7 Shannon Dardis Aymara does not seem to distinguish between visual and non-visual experience of an event.
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) no Levin 2004: 7 Shannon Dardis
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. yes i, inwa, itayna, ini i, present or recent past events that the speaker has experienced; inwa, distant past events that the speaker personally experienced; itayna, past events that the speaker did not experience; ini, future events which have absolutely not been experienced by Levin 2004: 7 Shannon Dardis The evidentials in Aymara indicate whether or not the speaker has personally experienced the event in question and how distant the knowledge of the event feels (usually in terms of time)
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' yes Levin 2004: 7 Shannon Dardis
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse no Levin 2004: 7 Shannon Dardis
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above no Levin 2004: 7 Shannon Dardis
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic no Levin 2004: 7 Shannon Dardis Evidentials are included in the affix for tense and so are not independent affixes themselves.
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs yes Levin 2004: 7 Shannon Dardis The tense markers in Aymara are impossible to separate from the evidentials.
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle no Levin 2004: 7 Shannon Dardis
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme no Levin 2004: 7 Shannon Dardis
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion no info Shannon Dardis
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction no info Shannon Dardis
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order no Huayhua Pari 2001: 290 Shannon Dardis Generally the order should be SOV, but there are cases where it can be OSV,OVS, VSO or VOS, particularly in areas where there's a lot of contact with Spanish.
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject no Huayhua Pari 2001: 289-291 Shannon Dardis
Word Order VS in transitive clauses no Huayhua Pari 2001: 289-291 Shannon Dardis
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object no Huayhua Pari 2001: 289-291 Shannon Dardis
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject no Huayhua Pari 2001: 289-291 Shannon Dardis
Word Order Preposition-Noun yes Huayhua Pari 2001: 282 Shannon Dardis
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix no Huayhua Pari 2001: 282 Shannon Dardis
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) yes Huayhua Pari 2001: 284 Shannon Dardis
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') no Huayhua Pari 2001: 284 Shannon Dardis
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun yes Huayhua Pari 2001: 282 Shannon Dardis
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun no Huayhua Pari 2001: 282 Shannon Dardis
Word Order Dem-Noun yes Huayhua Pari 2001: 282 Shannon Dardis
Word Order Noun-Dem no Huayhua Pari 2001: 282 Shannon Dardis
Word Order Num-Noun yes Huayhua Pari 2001: 282 Shannon Dardis
Word Order Noun-Num no Huayhua Pari 2001: 282 Shannon Dardis
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies no Huayhua Pari 2001: 304 Shannon Dardis
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies yes Huayhua Pari 2001: 304 Shannon Dardis
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') no info Shannon Dardis
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' no Huayhua Pari 2001: 304 Shannon Dardis
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause yes Huayhua Pari 2001: 296 Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects no Huayhua Pari 2001: 123 Shannon Dardis ru, a directional suffix, can be attached to objects, but it does not function as an object marker; it's function is still primarily directional. Additionally there are plenty of example on pg. 289 (Huayhua Pari 2001) where the objects don't have markers
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked yes Huayhua Pari 2001: 291 Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker no Huayhua Pari 2001: 123 Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no Huayhua Pari 2001: 123 Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no Huayhua Pari 2001: 123, 124 Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative no Huayhua Pari 2001: 202 Shannon Dardis Pronouns are treated the same as other nouns in the examples
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative yes Huayhua Pari 2001: 202 Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Huayhua Pari 2001: 202 Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no Huayhua Pari 2001: 202 Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no Huayhua Pari 2001: 202 Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs yes Huayhua Pari 2001: 126 Shannon Dardis Either the subject is marked or the relationship between the subject and object is marked. Each of these would be represented by a single suffix.
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Huayhua Pari 2001: 126 Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive no Huayhua Pari 2001: 126 Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) no Huayhua Pari 2001: 126 Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. no Huayhua Pari 2001: 126 Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects yes Huayhua Pari 2001: 202 Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) no info Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) no info Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no info Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no Huayhua Pari 2001: 202 Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes yes tʰa, ta, i, tana tha, ta, i, tana Huayhua Pari 2001: 126 Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers yes tʰa, ta, i, tana tha, ta, i, tana Huayhua Pari 2001: 126 Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers yes sma, ista, itu, tama, stu sma (1st person subject, 2nd person object), ista (2nd s, 1st o), itu (3rd s, 1st o), tama (3rd s, 2nd o), stu (2nd s, 4th o) Huayhua Pari 2001: 127 Shannon Dardis These are transitional suffixes that mark both subject and object on the verb
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no Huayhua Pari 2001: 126 Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system yes Huayhua Pari 2001: 127 Shannon Dardis The source specifically states: "it's mark in this case would be Ø for the third person object"
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately yes pxa pxa Huayhua Pari 2001: 128 Shannon Dardis This suffix is not independent (the person marking still has to be on the verb). Also, it can be either optional or obligatory.
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes no Huayhua Pari 2001: 125, 250 Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent no Huayhua Pari 2001: 125 Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently yes Huayhua Pari 2001: 263 Shannon Dardis The benefactive would receive the suffix taki
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives yes Huayhua Pari 2001: 291 to 293 Shannon Dardis The indirect object always seems to have the directional suffix ru attached to it, which is possible for both direct and indirect objects.
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently no Huayhua Pari 2001: 291 to 293 Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. no Deza Galindo 1992: 225, 226 Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. no Deza Galindo 1992: 225, 226 Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb yes si si Deza Galindo 1992: 225, 226 Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted yes ta ta, passive suffix attached to the verb Huayhua Pari 2001: 295 Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no Huayhua Pari 2001: 295 Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency no info Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb yes rapi rapi Huayhua Pari 2001: 166 Shannon Dardis My source does not acctually use the word applicative
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb no Huayhua Pari 2001: 165 to 168 Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb no Huayhua Pari 2001: 168 Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb yes ya ya Huayhua Pari 2001: 168 Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix no Huayhua Pari 2001: 165 to 168 Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization no info Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' no info Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event no info Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency yes Huayhua Pari 2001: 124 Shannon Dardis In addition to the causative suffix, sufijos decrecientes (decreasing/falling suffixes?) can also make intransitive verbs transitives.
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element yes Huayhua Pari 2001: 277 Shannon Dardis I answered this question and the one that follows it as yes because negation involves a both a free morpheme that comes before the verb and a suffix that attaches to it
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element yes Huayhua Pari 2001: 277 Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix yes Huayhua Pari 2001: 277 Shannon Dardis /-thi/ is the negative suffix
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle yes Huayhua Pari 2001: 277 Shannon Dardis jani is the negative particle that comes before the verb (you don't see it in subordinate clauses though)
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb no Huayhua Pari 2001: 277 Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' yes hani, tʰi jani (free morpheme), thi (suffix) Huayhua Pari 2001: 277 Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' no info Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase no info Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle yes Huayhua Pari 2001: 296 Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology yes ti, t∫a ti, cha Huayhua Pari 2001: 296 Shannon Dardis These are bound morphemes that appear in questions where there is a doubt as to what has happened or will happen.
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no Huayhua Pari 2001: 296 Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only yes Huayhua Pari 2001: 296 Shannon Dardis These kinds of yes/no questions express the same thing as what the phrase "I wonder" does in English. They're called confirmative interrogatives by my source.
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) no Huayhua Pari 2001: 296 Shannon Dardis The simple interrogative sentence in Aymara has the same word order as the declarative sentence. The difference is that the interrogative has a question word with the suffix sa as it's subject and a rising intonation.
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position no info Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position no info Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) no info Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) no Huayhua Pari 2001: 304 Shannon Dardis The relative clause is externally headed (the head comes after the rel. clause), but it definitely has a head.
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. no Huayhua Pari 2001: 304 Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause no Huayhua Pari 2001: 304 Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix yes ri, ta, ɲa, wi, kaya ri, ta, ña, wi, kaya Huayhua Pari 2001: 303 Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) yes Huayhua Pari 2001: 243 Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) yes ri, ya, sa ri, ya, sa The desiderative mood is conveyed by putting together 3 suffixes (the agentive verb nominalizer ri, the verbalizor means 'to be' ya and the potential mood suffix sa) Huayhua Pari 2001: 139, 156, 157 Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. no Huayhua Pari 2001: 302 to 311 Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined no Huayhua Pari 2001: 308 Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence yes sa, sina sa, simultaneous actions; sina, the action in the subordinate clause occurs before the action in the main clause Huayhua Pari 2001: 309, 310 Shannon Dardis