Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes

Morphology - General
Stem change, tone


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla no Jane Hill
Cupeño no Jane Hill
Luiseño no Jane Hill
Serrano no Jane Hill
Kitanemuk no Jane Hill
Kawaiisu no Jane Hill
Timbisha no Jane Hill
Western Mono no Jane Hill
Chemehuevi no Jane Hill
Southern Paiute no Jane Hill
Southern Ute no Jane Hill
Shoshone no Jane Hill
Comanche no Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone no Jane Hill
Northern Paiute no Jane Hill
Gabrielino no Jane Hill
Achagua no Wilson & Levinsohn 1992 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro no info Allin, 1976 Aimee Lawrence
Bare no Aikhenvald, 1995: 13 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco no Galindo, 2002: 156-178 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna yes The progressive category on nouns and reflexives on verb is manifested by changing the final vowel to /-o/, but most categories simply use suffixing. Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 519 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 59-69 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu no Mansen & Captain, 2000: 800-801 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana no Aikhenvald 2003: 255-256 Aimee Lawrence pg. 255-256 dicsusses verb roots and verbal derivations, no mention of replacement
Apurinã no Facundes, 2000: 270 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali no Tone. Mihas 2010 Amanda Meeks
Maipure no Zamponi 2003:14-20 Daniel Smith
Yanesha' no Duff-Tripp 1997:23-124 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure no info Danielsen 2007 Mitz Perez
Nanti no Michael, 2008 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Palikur no Launey 2003 Daniel Smith
Yine yes vowel length Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun no Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora yes Seifart - 2005:41,61-62 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no Hall 1988: 313 Melody Ann Ross
Makushi no Carson 1982; Abbott 1991 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa no info Daniel Valle
Pemon no de Armellada 1999: 105 Shannon Dardis
Guna no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika no Frank 1985:39-104 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí no Quesada 2008:99-145 Daniel Valle
Damana no Daniel Valle
Sikuani no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000 Amanda Meeks
Macaguan no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna no Overall 2007:328-57 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá no Mortensen 1999:8-14 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá no stem change Levinson 1974, 1976, 1976b Daniel Valle
Matses no However, there is stem change to mark transitive/intrasitive for certain verbs Fleck:334-8 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no Zúñiga 2006, p. 102-94 Daniel Valle
Páez no Rojas:116 Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no Parker 1965:47-57, Perroud 1973:46-62 Daniel Valle
Tikuna yes Based on examples, for instance, in page 164 demonstratives are distinguished by suprasegments Montes 2004 Daniel Valle
Urarina no Olawsky:459-492 Daniel Valle
Waunana no info Daniel Valle
Andoke no info Kelsey Neely
Puinave no Giron 2008: p276-292 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no Deza Galindo 1992: 98, 99 Shannon Dardis There are two irregular verbs mentioned on pg. 99 that might be examples of stem change.
Kakua no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no third person markings are irregular (reduction to account for vocalic ending) Minor and Minor 1982. p.19 Daniel Smith
Hup yes imperative inflection involves tone change Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect yes indicative/non-indicative mood involves voicing contrast on final consonant; number also involves suppletion Weir 1984: 40, 42 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw yes Martins 2004:86-88 Katherine Bolaños
Desano yes ex. Remote past is distingueshed from recent past by position of stress Miller 1999, p. 70 Amanda Novak
Cubeo no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p.15-17 Amanda Novak
Kotiria no Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Makuna no Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.33-35 Chris Clack
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.53 Chris Clack
Barasano no Jones & Jones 1991, p.45,101 Chris Clack
Tanimuca no Strom 1992, p.21 Chris Clack There are very few morphophonemic changes in the language. The person prefixes display most of these changes.
Siona yes stress change, which in turn affects a stressed syllable stop Wheeler - 1970:162; Wheeler - 1987:89-95 Daniel Smith
Tukano no West and Welch 2004 Kelsey Neely no evidence of this
Yanomami no Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely no evidence for this anywhere in the text
Ninam no Goodwin-Gomez, p.93-99 Kelsey Neely no suppletive or stem-changed forms appear.
Sanumá no Borgman 1990 Kelsey Neely no evidence for this
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana no info Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no Zarratea 2002:86-120 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama no not likely Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu no done 0
Wambaya no done 0
Bunuba no done 0
Walmajarri no Done-Claire 0
Nyulnyul no done? 0
Warrwa no done 0
Worrorra no done 0
Garrwa no 2 done 0
Gooniyandi no done 0
Warlpiri no done 0
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta yes 83 done 1
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi no 54, 98-100 done-Dan 0
Yidiny no done-Catherine 0
Yanyuwa no Done-Austin 0
Yandruwandha no Done-Dan 0
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no Done-Dan 0
Woiwurrung no 74 done-Amalia 0
Wirangu No 111 done 0
Wemba-Wemba no H 45-6 done-Amalia 0
Warumungu No 18, 32 done-Amalia 0
Wangkumara no done 0
Uradhi No 308 Y 0
Paakantyi no Y-Hannah 0
Pitta-Pitta No 193, 201 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no info done-Hannah x
Nyungar no done 0
Nhanta no Done-Hannah 0
Ngiyambaa yes Done-Emily 1
Ngayawang No 3 done-Amalia 0
Muruwari no 126 Done-Dan 0
Mayi-Yapi No 55 done 0
Martuthunira no done 0
Marrgany No 315 Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 66 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji no 45 Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara No 386, 407 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna No 16 done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu no Done-Dan 0
Jaru no Done-Amalia 0
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 79 Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr no 291-295, 254 done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun no done-Jessica 0
Yuwaalaraay No 2 0
Dyirbal No 246 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu no 69 done 0
Djinang No 1 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari no done-Hannah 0
Dharawal no info done-Hannah w Dhurga) x
Darkinyung no 38 done 0
Bularnu no Done-Austin 0
Biri no done-Jessica 0
Bidjara-Gungabula no done-Jessica 0
Batyala No 3 Done-Amalia 0
Arabana no Done-Dan 0
Alyawarr no done 0
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija No 19 Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung no 77 done 0
Mathi-Mathi no 97 done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no 26, 68 done-Amalia 0
Thanggati no 11, 42-3 done 0
Katthang no 75 done-Amalia 0
Panyjima no done 0
Ngarinyeri No 42 done-Amalia 0
Kurrama no 118-158 done-Dan 0
Yingkarta no Done-Claire 0
Githabul No 9, 21 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya No 325 Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen No 31, 108 Done- 0
WesternTorres no done 0
Wakaya no done 0
Yindjilindji no done 0
Bandjalang No 82 Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara No 31 done 0
Arrernte No 196 0
Kokatha No 27 0
Karajarri No 80 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara No Y 8 0
Ritharrngu No 9 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay No 17 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no Done-Amalia 0
Warnman No 11 Done-Amalia 0
Djapu no 0
Bilinarra no done 0
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 48 Y2 0
Narungga No 63 done 0
Tharrkari No 12 0
Wajarri No 37 0
Warungu no 260-1 0
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Baniwa no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps