Paresi

Family
Arawakan
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
pab
Location
-14.59°, -57.41°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Data Sources
Brandão, Ana Paula. Fieldnotes. Brandão, Ana Paula. 2010. Verb morphology in Paresi-Haliti. University of Texas at Austin, Masters Thesis. Brandão, Ana Paula Barros. 2014. A reference grammar of Paresi-Haliti (Arawak). University of Texas at Austin. (Doctoral disseration). Rowan, Orland and Burguess, Eunice. 1979. Gramática Parecis. SIL, Anápolis. Rowan, Orland. 2001. Iraiti xawaiyekehalakatyakala (Dicionário Paresí - Português). Cuiabá, Brazil: Sociedade Internacional de Lingüística.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location heno heno inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
and y e grammar hoka, exahe hoka, eʃahe See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment niyehe nijehe unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
at en, a em, a location See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
back espalda costas body ihiniri, ehene ihiniri, ehene unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bad mal mal quality iniyalahare inijalahare inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
belly barriga barriga body ityako ityako unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
below abajo, debajo abaixo location katyahe katyahe unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
big grande grande quality kalore kalore unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
black negro preto colour kiyere, kiya kijere, kija inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
blood sangre sangue body itimalaxa itimalaʃa inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bone hueso osso body ahiti ahiti inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
breast pecho, seno peito body etotone etotone inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
child niño, niña criança human xoima ʃoima inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
cloud nube nuvem environment hoka hoka unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
cold frío frio quality tiha tiha inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality alitere alitere unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
day día dia time ferakoa, ferakiti, ferakoa, ferakiti, unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
dirty sucio sujo quality kaiyaxa kaijaʃa unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
dry seco seco quality iyo, iníra ijo, iníra unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
dust polvo poeira environment missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
ear oreja orelha body itinihe itinihe inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
earth/soil tierra terra environment ewaikohera, waikohe 'land, region' inheritance? See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
egg huevo ovo fauna eseti, enese eseti, enetse inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
eye ojo olho body exose eʃotse inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
far lejos longe quality seko, sekoakiya seko, sekoakija inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fat/grease grasa gordura body ekolotene, koloteniti ekolotene, koloteniti unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
father padre, papá pai kinship baba baba doubtful loan Portuguese See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
feather pluma pena fauna taniti, etane taniti, etane unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fire fuego fogo environment initima initima unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
flower flor flor environment iyiti, niye iyiti, niye inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fruit fruta fruta flora hiriwa hiriwa unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
good bueno bom quality waiye, waiyexe waije, waijeʃe inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body esekase, sekaseti etsekatse, tsekatseti inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
hand mano mão body ekahe, kahiti ekahe, kahiti inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar exe (close); hatyo (farther away) eʃe (close); hatyo (farther away) unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
head cabeza cabeça body eseri etseri inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
heavy pesado pesado quality timena timena inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
how? como como grammar aliyakere aliyakere unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
1sg yo eu grammar natyo natyo inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
if si se grammar ekoiya... -ya ekoija... -ja See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location ako ako inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
intestines intestinos intestinos body enajihi enatʃihi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
lake lago lago environment hokoxa hokoʃa inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
leaf hoja folha environment ehana ehana inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body ewatone maniya (maniya=side) ewatone manija (maniya=side) unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
leg/foot pierna perna body ehose, hoseti ehotse, hotseti unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment kahihiye kahihije unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
liver hígado figado body missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
long largo comprido, longo quality wáha (Payne91) wáha (Payne91) inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna niditsati niditsati inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
man/male hombre homem human ena ena inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
meat/flesh carne carne fauna eteti, enete; oliti eteti, enete; oliti inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
moon luna lua environment kaimare kaimare inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship mama mama loan Portuguese See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
mouth boca boca body ekanase ekanase inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
name nombre nome human enexare, exaliti enexare, exaliti inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
near/close cerca de perto quality owitene owitene unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
neck cuello pescoço body ihino ihino inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
new nuevo novo quality waitare waitare inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
night noche noite time xatini (n.); makene, makiya (advs.) ʃatini (n.); makene, makija (advs.) unique; unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
no/not no não grammar missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
nose nariz nariz body missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
old viejo velho quality ohiye ohije inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
one uno um number hatita hatita inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
other otro outro grammar hatya hatya inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body hokakitere hokakitere unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
person/human being persona pessoa human haliti haliti unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
rain lluvia chuva environment one (water, rain) one (water, rain) inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
red rojo vermelho colour xotya, xotere ʃotya, ʃotere inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
right/right hand derecha direita location/body ifihini ifihini unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
road/path camino caminho manufacture ahotita, ahotyaho ahotita, ahotyaho inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
root raíz raiz flora ityahare ityahare inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
rotten podrido podre quality kaiyalahare kaijalahare unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
sand arena areia environment kaiholo kaiholo inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
short corto curto quality tyoka tyoka inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
shoulder hombro ombro body ityoakoli ityoakoli unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental haihare haihare inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
skin piel pele body militi, imili militi, imili unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
sky cielo céu environment enokoa enokoa inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
small pequeño pequeno quality ikalira ikalira unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
smoke humo fumaça environment jimere tʃimere unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
star estrella estrela environment xorese ʃoretse inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora atyalihose atyalihotse inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
stone piedra pedra environment sehali tsehali inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
tail cola, rabo rabo body iniho, ihoti iniho, ihoti inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
that ese/esa esse grammar hatyo hatyo unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar exenai (close); hatyonai (farther away) eʃenai (close); hatyonai (farther away) unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
thin delgado fino quality missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
this este/esta este grammar exe eʃe unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
2sg xx xx grammar hiso hitso inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
throat garganta garganta body etororone etororone unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
three tres tres number hanama hanama inheritance? See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
thunder truenos trovão environment onetalolo onetalolo inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bite morder morder body tyaloka 'bite, hold' tyaloka 'bite, hold' inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
blow soplar soprar body omoma omoma unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
breathe respirar respirar body iyawinisoa ijawinitsoa unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
burn quemar queimar environment kera kera inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body nisakoatya nisakoatya unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
climb subir subir motion kenekoa, kakoha (vertical) kenekoa, kakoha (vertical) unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
come venir vir motion tyoa tyoa inheritance? See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
cook cocinar cozinhar impact holokehitya 'cook meat' holokehitya 'cook meat' inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
count contar contar mental xakaikoatya ʃakaikoatya unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
cry llorar chorar mental tiya tija inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
cut/hack cortar cortar impact aikotya aikotya; irikotya inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
die/be dead morir morrer state waini waini unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
dig cavar cavar impact missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
dream soñar sonhar mental kaijihini (v.); inijihini (n.) kaitʃihini (v.); initʃihini (n.) unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
drink beber, tomar beber body tera tera inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
eat comer comer body kanakaira 'eat'; nisa 'eat meat' kanakaira 'eat'; nitsa 'eat meat' inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fall caer cair motion exoa eʃoa unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fear miedo medo mental maira maira inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
flow fluir fluir motion missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fly volar voar motion ainakoa; jiwerowa 'fly in circles' ainakoa; tʃiwerowa 'fly in circles' inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
grow crecer crescer state missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
hear oír ouvir mental sema sema inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
hide esconder esconder motion ateroakisa; teroa (hide oneself) ateroakisa; teroa (hide oneself) unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
hit golpear, pegar bater impact mokotya mokotya inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other milirika 'hold firmly'; otokahisa 'hold in hand' milirika 'hold firmly'; otokahitsa 'hold in hand' unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
kill matar matar impact atisa atisa unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental waiyore waijore unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
laugh reír rir mental koexa koeʃa inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion etolisa etolitsa inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body tyaona 'be, live, stay' tyaona 'be, live, stay' inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
open/uncover abrir abrir other majiholatya matʃiholatya unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact mokotya mokotya See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
say decir dizer mental nexa neʃa doubtful loan, direction unknown Je, cf. Suya See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
scratch rascar rasgar impact halalaka halalaka unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
see ver ver mental waiya waija unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact xaka ʃaka inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
sit sentar(se) sentar state tyoka tyoka inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
sleep dormir dormir body nemaka nemaka inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body aexetya aeʃetya unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
spit escupir cuspir body missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact eheka eheka inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact kakatya kakatya inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state tityoa tityoa inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
steal robar roubar other kaiwa; kolaharetya kaiwa; kolaharetya unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
suck chupar chupar body missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
swell hincharse inchar body akohare, faka 'swollen' akohare, faka 'swollen' unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
swim nadar nadar motion koaha 'bathe' koaha 'bathe' unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
think pensar pensar mental ahekotya, aoka ahekotya, aoka unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact xawatya ʃawatya inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact olatya olatya unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other ehaikoa ehaikoa unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
vomit vomitar vomitar body jiraka tʃiraka inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
walk caminar, andar andar motion tona tona inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
work trabajar trabalhar other haka haka unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
yawn bostezar bocejar body ahakota ahakota inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
tongue lengua lingua body missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
tooth diente dente body aikoliti aikoliti unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
two dos dois number hinama hinama inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
water agua agua environment one one inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar wiso witso inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
wet mojado molhado quality olowa, olowahe olowa, olowahe unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
what? que, qué que grammar xoanere, xoare ʃoanere, ʃoare unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
when? cuando quando grammar otene, aliyeheko otene, alijeheko unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
where? donde onde grammar aliyo alijo unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
white blanco branco colour iyomere, malohi ijomere, malohi unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
who? quien, quién quem grammar xala ʃala unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
wife esposa esposa kinship nezanityo neðanitju inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
wind viento vento environment hoholati hoholati unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
wing ala asa body ekano 'arm, wing' ekano 'arm, wing' semantic shift from 'arm' See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
woman/female mujer mulher human ohiro; haloti 'Paresi woman' ohiro; haloti 'Paresi woman' inheritance? See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
yellow amarillo amarelo colour jikere tʃikere unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
2pl ustedes vocês grammar xiso ʃitso inheritance? See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
foot pie body ikiji, kijiti ikitʃi, kitʃiti inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar hitiya, tehitiya hitija, tehitija unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
all todo todos other tyotya, manene tyotya, manene unknown; inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
ankle tobillo tornozelo body missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
armpit axila, sobaco axila body missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body jikiti, enorehe ʃikiti, enorehe inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
lung pulmón pulmão body emaxahera emaxahera unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
sweat sudar suor, suar body watehiri watehiri unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bark corteza casca environment tyama (of tree) tyama (of tree) inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fingernail uña unha body enotya, otyati enotya, otyati unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
heart corazón coração body emahiyase, mahiyaseti emahiyase, mahiyaseti unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
sun sol sol time kamai kamai inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment tyairi tyairi unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
green verde verde quality tihola, tihorere tihola, tihorere inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
hot caliente quente quality watya watya inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. mahiye mahije unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna kotehala kotehala inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. mawiye mawije unknown See Language page Amazonia Ana Paula B., PLE
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. tore tore unknown See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., PLE
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans missing See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões Ana Paula B., PLE
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. ma'late ma'late inheritance WW %mare, Arawak origin See Language page Different types have different localized ranges Ana Paula B., PLE
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae mawiyetse 'nambo chororo' mawijetse 'nambu chororo' inheritance See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., PLE
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae 'himeretse 'himeretse inheritance See Language page Widespread Ana Paula B., PLE
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae i'tola i'tola inheritance See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., PLE
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes wazerore 'coroya' waðerure 'coruja' unique See Language page Widespread Ana Paula B., PLE
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. 'kalo 'arara vermelha' 'kalu 'arara vermelha' unique See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., PLE
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica koloˈkote koloˈkute inheritance - WW %kuli See Language page Widespread Ana Paula B., PLE
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae waˈtaha waˈtaha inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae kokoi 'gavião' (Kaxinitiː ko'koi) kukui 'gavião' (Kaxinitiː ko'koi) inheritance shared Yavitero See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae oloho uluhu loan Tupi-Guarani See Language page Widespread South America Ana Paula B., PLE
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family o'hairo o'hajdju inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba waka'la waka'la loan - WW %wakara See Language page Widespread South America Ana Paula B., PLE
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae toloˈmare tuluˈmare unique See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., PLE
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris katxolo katʃolo loan Portuguese See Language page Not native; widespread Ana Paula B., PLE
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis katxolo kolohore katʃolo kolohore See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., PLE
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) tikore tikjure inheritance cognate Warekena? See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands Ana Paula B., PLE
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri iyete 'tatu bola' ijete 'tatu bola' inheritance See Language page Widespread in Amazonia Ana Paula B., PLE
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. zaˈlore makaˈti ðaˈlore makaˈti See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., PLE
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. iyakare, kanomenare ijakare, kanomenare loan - WW TG %jakare See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Ana Paula B., PLE
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna kohatse kuhatse inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. ka'lahi ka'lahi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., PLE
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. kaˌmaika'hi kaˌmajka'hi See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., PLE
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. 'koye 'kuje See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., PLE
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. ˈkoye kaloreze ˈkuje kaloreθe See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., PLE
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura ˈkali ˈkali inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. 'wiyare 'wijare inheritance South Arawak See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Ana Paula B., PLE
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata zaˈnalo, dóho ðaˈnalo, dóho inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes menetse menetse unknown See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., PLE
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae wazalitaona wazalitauna unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna ˈowi ˈuwi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox katimalaˈlo katimalaˈlo See Language page Widespread South America Ana Paula B., PLE
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria ikoˈre 'tartaruga', wazolahatya 'jabuti' ikjuˈre 'tartaruga', waθulahatja 'jabuti' inheritance See Language page Widespread Ana Paula B., PLE
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis missing See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls Ana Paula B., PLE
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) katxibe katʃibe inheritance See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Ana Paula B., PLE
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba wazoreke waðureke unknown See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Ana Paula B., PLE
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. zolomaera ðolomaedja unknown See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia Ana Paula B., PLE
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa itsoye itsoje unknown See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch Ana Paula B., PLE
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana kaˈlana; malamala kaˈlana; malamala See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm Ana Paula B., PLE
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea kaˈxiha kaˈʃiha unknown See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm Ana Paula B., PLE
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes zaˈlaitse ðaˈlajtse unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua missing See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Ana Paula B., PLE
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant Ana Paula B., PLE
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) kono kunu inheritance See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Ana Paula B., PLE
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree Ana Paula B., PLE
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant Ana Paula B., PLE
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea koˈlike kuˈlike See Language page plant Ana Paula B., PLE
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus wenore wenure doubtful loan Carib, cf. Mapoyo ɛnure See Language page plant Ana Paula B., PLE
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum koˈreta 'taqoara' koˈreta 'taquara' See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant Ana Paula B., PLE
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. banana banana loan Portuguese See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Ana Paula B., PLE
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. komata kumata loan (into protolanguage?) - WW %kumana See Language page plant Ana Paula B., PLE
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) ime ime inheritance cognate N. Arawak *himitʃi? See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays kozeto koðetu unknown See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Ana Paula B., PLE
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum aˈxiyi aˈʃiji unknown See Language page plant Ana Paula B., PLE
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna atya atya inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana aˈhite aˈhitɛ inheritance See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub Ana Paula B., PLE
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. zoˈliri ðuˈlidji unknown See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) Ana Paula B., PLE
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree Ana Paula B., PLE
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala tyama tjama See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree Ana Paula B., PLE
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree Ana Paula B., PLE
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum moˈlazo muˈlaðu unknown See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Ana Paula B., PLE
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana zana ðana inheritance See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub Ana Paula B., PLE
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree Ana Paula B., PLE
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree Ana Paula B., PLE
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Ana Paula B., PLE
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia missing See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape Ana Paula B., PLE
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta kete kete inheritance See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Ana Paula B., PLE
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta mãrioka mãdjiuka loan Portuguese or Tupi-Guarani See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Ana Paula B., PLE
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum ˈkaye ˈkaje See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato Ana Paula B., PLE
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas kaiyese kaijese inheritance See Language page plant Ana Paula B., PLE
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. ˈhaka kaholere (red), ˈhaka yomere (white) ˈhaka kaholere (red), ˈhaka jumere (white) inheritance See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant Ana Paula B., PLE
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) maˈtoko maˈtoko See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree Ana Paula B., PLE
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. aboala abuala loan Port abobora See Language page plant Ana Paula B., PLE
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. inihihi inihihi See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine Ana Paula B., PLE
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. ikona ikjuna inheritance See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree Ana Paula B., PLE
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi missing See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine Ana Paula B., PLE
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata menae menae inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. 'kota 'kota unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis mahahono mahahuno inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria tahalowa 'barata' tahaluwa 'barata' inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae ˈmiro ˈmidju inheritance? - WW %tjuke See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera meheˈre meheˈre inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera kalaˈtsero kalaˈtsero See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora zozohi θuθuhi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda walatata walatata See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones zakolokwa ðakulukwa unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea ka'lala ka'lala unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera mahatini mahatini unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera holowe holowe inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae 'iri 'idyi unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. alyidi 'toro' aljidi 'turu' unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae 'enore kawa'lone 'enore kawa'lone See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. inote inote inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera 'mono 'muno unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea kohere kohere inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita tomohore 'vespa que fica no chão', irititi 'vespa q fica na arvore' tumuhure 'vespa que fica no chão', idjititi 'vespa q fica na arvore' unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda ˈwalo ˈwalɔ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae ˈzoa ˈðua inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca txini, xi'ni tʃini, ʃi'ni inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha - - missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] -- -- missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella 'fate 'fate inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus wahakanore wahakanure unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae 'mene 'mene unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis i'nyai i'njai See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis i'nyai i'njai unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu hawaretse hawaretse unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari 'hoze 'hoðe inheritance? See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae ko'liho ko'lihu unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua kahi kahi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. hekere hekere inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris 'oli 'uli unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) 'zaha 'θaha inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus motyore mutjure inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae katsekereke 'comom', koˈlinare 'original' katsekereke 'comum', kuˈlinare 'original' unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris kotyoy kutjuj inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus zotyare zutyare inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material ˈkõho ˈkõho unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material haliyoloti halijuluti inheritance? See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bed cama cama culture-material tsehokotywakalati (tsehokotywa 'deitam') tsehokotjwakalati (tsehokotjwa 'deitam') unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material maˈka maˈka inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material okahakalati okahakalati doubtful loan Tupi: Karitiana mikipa; Tupi-Guarani apɨka See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
canoe canoa canoa transport kanowa kanowa loan - WW %kanawa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture missing Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology wairaˈtyare; ehanare; haholitaharexe wajdjaˈtjare; ehanare; haholitahareʃe inheritance? In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology wayraˈtyare wajdjaˈtjare Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
broom escoba vassoura culture-material hitsakalati hitsakalati inheritance cf. Tupi-Guarani See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology imiti imiti unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fence, palisade cerco cerca other missing may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
firewood leña lenha other moitsati mujtsati unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology toˈlo-a toˈlo-a malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology kayaˈla nitseˈkore kajaˈla nitseˈkure unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology ˈenore ˈenore unknown In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology yamaˈka 'flauta secreta' jamaˈka 'flauta secreta' unknown multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology zero ðero See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics ˈkotyo ˈkotjo See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
knife cuchillo faca culture-material ˈketse ˈketsɛ loan - WW %kɨtʃe See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
machete machete facão culture-material ˈketse kalohore ˈketsɛ kalohore unique big knife' See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool irikatihĩ idjikatihĩ unknown especially for clearing fields See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool kore kuˈre inheritance hunting, warfare See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
spear lanza lança subsistence tool tonotene tonotene unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bow arco arco subsistence tool ˈhito ˈhitu unknown arco See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
paddle/oar remo remo transport missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
plate plato prato culture-material balatwahẽ balatwahẽ loan Portuguese See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool tinihaˈliti tinihaˈliti unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool missing agriculture? See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology koˈtxali kuˈtʃali inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool atyazaˈta atjaðaˈta unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
wax cera cera other missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
honey miel mel food maha (=bee); ohaise, kahiyalakase (types) maha (=bee); ohaitse, kahijalakatse (types) inheritance/sem shift only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture olawa 'tucum'; konohi 'fio de algodão' uˈlawa 'tucum', kunuhi 'fio de algodão' unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology hoteti huteti See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material kaˈlana; malamala kaˈlana; malamala loan, unknown Tupi-Guarani See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology ihozare ihuðare a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology ihoxare, inihoxala ihoʃare, inihoʃala See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology halaharitywati, zonaharetywati (Rio Verde) halaharitjwati, ðonaharetjwati (Rio Verde) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
school escuela escola acculturation See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bottle botella garrafa acculturation balaxoko balaʃoko See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
paper papel papel acculturation aniti, nane, babera aniti, nane, babera unknown; loan Span/Port 'papel' See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology kaijihini (v.); inijihini (n.) kaitʃihini (v.); initʃihini (n.) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
chicken gallina galinha acculturation takoira takoira loan - WW %takara See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology exawatyakala, xawatyakalati eʃawatyakala, ʃawatyakalati See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation asoka atsoka See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
shoes zapatos sapatos dress ikijitini ikitʃitini See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
policeman polícia policía acculturation sorare sorare See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
soldier soldado soldado acculturation sorare sorare loan Span/Port soldado See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
cat gato gato acculturation missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation korenase (kóre = arrow) korenatse (kóre = arrow) unique from 'arrow' See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
hat sombero chapéu dress bayahoko, jabewa bayahoko, ʃabewa unknown; loan Port chapeu See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology kalorexe (kalore=big) kaloreʃe (kalore=big) unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool enatyahola enatyahola See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
salt sal sal food salo salo loan Portuguese See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology imamaka imamaka loan, direction unknown Moseten hi'maki See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool -- -- missing currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool toˈnohi tuˈnuhi hunting and warfare See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool koˈwae koˈwae unknown esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food mairatati maidjatati See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food ximatyati ʃimjatjati unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
hunt cazar caçar food zanekwati θanekwati See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food kirakahare 'animal' kirakahare 'animal' unique Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool hitxitsa, maˈtoko hitʃitsa, maˈtoko inheritance?; inheritance - WW? %koto/matoko See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool tximare tʃimare loan Carib, poss. via something else?? esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool maˈtyai maˈtjai unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool ˈnotxi ˈnotʃi unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool ˈnatse ˈnatse See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture kozeto nolone koðeto nolone unknown prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food tyoˈlohe tjoˈlohe unknown agriculture See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food zomokwa θomokwa unknown usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food keˈnaiki keˈnajki inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food katazere kataðere unknown agriculture See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food terehokakalati terehukakalati unknown word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool iˈriwa (kaxiniti), ˈhowiti iˈriwa (kaʃiniti), ˈhuwiti unknown hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool aˈtyoa aˈtjwa unknown agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool hirolati hidjulati can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool ˈkoho ˈkoho See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bottom grinding stone manufacture if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
house other hati hati inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE


Grammatical Data (226)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. no Brandão 2010:10 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] no Brandão 2010:10 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast yes However, there is only one palatalized stopp: the voiceless alveolar one. Brandão 2010:10 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? yes Brandão 2010:11 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels no Brandão 2010:11 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme no Brandão 2010:11 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] no Brandão 2010:11 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? no Brandão 2010:11 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones no Brandão 2010, Rowan and Burgues 1979 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony yes Brandão 2010:12 Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes yes Brandão 2010:17 Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes no Brandão 2010:17 Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different no Brandão 2010:17 Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated yes Rowan and Burgess 1979:82 Daniel Valle
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection yes There is verb serialization, mainly with directionals verbs such as "go"and "go". However, it is not clear whether it is productive or not. Brandão 2010:25-6 Daniel Valle
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. yes Brandão 2010:15 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates yes Brandão 2010:15 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun yes {-nae} Brandão 2010:15 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no Brandão 2010:15 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun no Brandão 2010:15 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic no Brandão 2010:15 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you no Rowan 1978:xiii Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) no Rowan 1978:vii Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system 2 Rowan 1978:xiii Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) no Rowan 1978:xiii Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns no Rowan 1978:xiii Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns no Rowan 1978:xiii Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no Rowan 1978:xiii Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no Rowan 1978:xiii Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients no It seems that only recipients are marked with a postposition Rowan and Burgess 1979:31 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic yes based on examples Rowan and Burgess 1979:32 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic no Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic no Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change no Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone no Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' yes Brandão 2010:31 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 (i.e. are limited to 5 or below) 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no Rowan and Burgess 1979:58 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 (i.e. are limited to 10 or below) 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no Rowan and Burgess 1979:58 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? yes Brandão 2010:14 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? no Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) yes Brandão 2010:15 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) yes Brandão 2010:15 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form no Brandão 2010:15 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father yes Brandão 2010:15 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg yes Brandão 2010:15 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) no Rowan and Burgess 1979:70 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes yes However, this category only has four lexemes. This undervied adjectives seem to have a derived historical origin. Brandão 2010:22 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb yes {-se} Rowan 1978:xiv Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective yes {a-/e-}, {ka-} Rowan and Burgess 1979:90 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere no Brandão 2010:38-40 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past no Brandão 2010:38-40 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future no Brandão 2010:38-40 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) no Brandão 2010:38-40 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no Only for aspect Brandão 2010:40-7 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes Only for aspect Brandão 2010:40-7 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no Only for aspect Brandão 2010:40-7 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no Only for aspect Brandão 2010:40-7 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood no There is no special verbal form or marking for positive imperatives Brandão 2010:47-8 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) yes There is a particle which is used with suggestions Brandão 2010:48 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses yes Brandão 2010:55 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' no Brandão 2010:47-8 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction yes Rowan and Burgess 1979:44-5 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected yes kore Rowan and Burgess 1979:52-3 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") yes Brandão 2010:48 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality no Brandão 2010:47-8 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' yes The verb "to watch" plus the imperfective suffix are used together to encode this meaning Brandão 2007:49 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' yes {=ija} There is a irrealis particle marker but not for realis Brandão 2007:50-1 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion no Brandão 2010, Rowan and Burgues 1979 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order no Brandão 2010:13 Daniel Valle
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject yes Based on examples Rowan and Burgess 1979:35 Daniel Valle
Word Order VS in transitive clauses no Rowan and Burgess 1979:31 Daniel Valle
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object no Rowan and Burgess 1979:31 Daniel Valle
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject yes Based on examples Rowan and Burgess 1979:32 Daniel Valle
Word Order Preposition-Noun no Rowan and Burgess 1979:66-7 Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes Based on examples Rowan and Burgess 1979:33, Brandão 2010:14 Daniel Valle
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) yes Based on examples Rowan and Burgess 1979:55 Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun yes Brandão 2010:14 Daniel Valle
Word Order Dem-Noun yes Brandão 2010:14 Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Dem no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Word Order Num-Noun yes Brandão 2010:14 Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Num yes Rowan and Burgess 1979:58 Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies yes Brandão 2010:16 Daniel Valle
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') yes Brandão 2010:16 Daniel Valle
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause yes Brandão 2010:13 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects no Brandão 2010, Rowan and Burgues 1979 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked no Brandão 2010, Rowan and Burgues 1979 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker no Brandão 2010, Rowan and Burgues 1979 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no Brandão 2010, Rowan and Burgues 1979 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no Brandão 2010, Rowan and Burgues 1979 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs yes Brandão 2010:18 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Brandão 2010:30-38 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive no Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) no Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. no Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) yes Based on the examples Rowan and Burgues 1979:32 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Rowan 1978:vii Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes yes Brandão 2010:18 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers yes Brandão 2010:18 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers yes It only occurs with third person objects Brandão 2010:24 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system yes This is true for 3s but it seems that 3pl has a marking. However, this marking of 3pl seems to be just a plural marker. Brandão 2010:18 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no Brandão 2010:24 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately yes Rowan and Burgues 1979:75 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes yes The set of personal pronouns may function as well as possessive and verbal agreement affixes. Brandão 2010:14-5 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent no Rowan and Burgues 1979 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. yes {-kakoa} Brandão 2010:30 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. yes {-wi} Brandão 2010:30 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb no Brandão 2010:30 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted yes {-ka/ki} Brandão 2010:28-9 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no Brandão 2010, Rowan and Burgues 1979 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency yes {-oa} Brandão 2010:29 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb no Brandão 2010:32-37 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb yes {-ki} Brandão 2010:23 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix yes {a…tja} Brandão 2010:33 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization yes Periprhastic causative Brandão 2010:32 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' no However, the regular causative {-ki} can have this meaning as well Brandão 2010:35 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event no However, the regular causative {-ki} can have this meaning as well Brandão 2010:35 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element yes Brandão 2010:51-2 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element no Brandão 2010:51-8 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix yes {-ma} Brandão 2010:51-2 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle yes Brandão 2010:51-2 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb no Brandão 2010:51-2 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' yes It is restricted to some instances only Brandão 2010:57 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' no Brandão 2010:54 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle yes Brandão 2010:13 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology no Brandão 2010:13 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no Brandão 2010:13 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only no Brandão 2010:13 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) no Brandão 2010:13 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) yes Rowan and Burgues 1979:37 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle