Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs

Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking
Transitive verbs take object (P) markers


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla yes Jane Hill
Cupeño yes Jane Hill
Luiseño no Jane Hill
Serrano no Jane Hill
Kitanemuk no Jane Hill
Kawaiisu yes Jane Hill
Timbisha no Jane Hill
Western Mono yes Jane Hill
Chemehuevi no Jane Hill
Southern Paiute no Jane Hill
Southern Ute no Jane Hill
Shoshone no Jane Hill
Comanche no Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone no Jane Hill
Northern Paiute yes Jane Hill
Gabrielino no Jane Hill
Achagua yes The third person has a different form Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 23 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro no No person marking, only pronominal clitics. Allin, 1976: 105, 124, 204, 212 Aimee Lawrence
Bare no Aikhenvald, 1995: 27 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco yes Galindo, 2002: 162 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna no Feminine, masculine, and plural affixes on transitive verbs, but these seem to be coreferent with subjects, not objects. Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 41-42 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero yes Mosonyi, 1987: p. 62 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana yes Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu yes Verbal suffixes mark objects. Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 803 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana no Aikhenvald, 2003: 122, 253-254 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã yes If the subject or object is deleted or postverbal. Facundes, 2000: 466-467 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali yes Agents are prefixes to the verbs, while objects are suffixes. Payne 1983:1619, 2325, 9096 Amanda Meeks
Maipure no Zamponi 2003:21-26 Daniel Smith
Yanesha' yes Duff-Tripp 1997:75 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure yes Danielsen 2007:92-3 Daniel Valle
Nanti yes Michael, 2008. p. 267 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi yes It only occurs with third person objects Brandão 2010:24 Daniel Valle
Palikur yes person suffixes Launey 2003:68 Daniel Smith
Yine no Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun no author does not discuss explicitly. Object seems to be free nominal Patte 1989:79 Daniel Smith
Bora no Seifart - 2005:65-68 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare yes patient prefixes Hall 1988: 287 Daniel Smith
Makushi yes Abbott 1991: 101 Melody Ann Ross See chart
Eñepa no Daniel Valle
Pemon yes de Armellada 1999:20-1 Daniel Valle
Guna no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika yes Frank 1989:20 Daniel Valle
Kogi yes Ortiz 1994:394 Daniel Valle
Cabecar no Margery 1985:103 Daniel Valle
Guaymí no Quesada 2008:99 Daniel Valle
Damana no Daniel Valle
Sikuani yes objects are prefixed Queixalós 2000:575-576 Daniel Smith
Macaguan yes prefix, only for 1s Buenaventura - 1993:43-46 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna yes Overall 2007:315, 328-31, 361-5 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá no Mortensen 1999:16, 59 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá no except for the situation in which first person acts upon second person in which a single verbal suffix /-iki/ marks both subject and object Levinson 1978:13 Daniel Valle
Matses no Fleck:445 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun yes Core participant verbal suffixes are fusional. So, they may convey other maenings as well. Zúñiga 2006, p. 114-9 Daniel Valle
Páez no Jung:74-91 Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano yes Parker 1965:23-6 Daniel Valle
Tikuna yes But this is restricted to sentences in which the full object NP occurs after the verb. Further, the object marker does not agree in person or number with the full object NP; it just says that the verb has an object Montes 2004b:84-85 Daniel Valle
Urarina yes But only for human 3p plural objects Olawsky:468 Daniel Valle
Waunana no Daniel Valle
Andoke yes Landaburu 1979: 218-220 Kelsey Neely
Puinave yes Giron 2008: p169, 206, 228 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara yes Huayhua Pari 2001: 127 Shannon Dardis These are transitional suffixes that mark both subject and object on the verb
Kakua no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no no person inflection Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no Minor and Minor 1982. p.71-82 Christopher Clack
Hup no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano no Miller 1999, p. 125 Amanda Novak
Cubeo no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 110 Amanda Novak
Kotiria no Stenzel 2007 Daniel Smith
Makuna yes Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.45 Chris Clack
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.53, 89 Chris Clack
Barasano no Jones & Jones 1991, p.108 Chris Clack
Tanimuca yes It is also common to have just the object pronoun prefixed to the verb when the subject is a full noun phrase. Strom 1992, p.116 Chris Clack It appears you can have both subj and object marked on verb (just not at the same time)
Siona yes Wheeler - 1987:124-133 Amanda Meeks
Tukano no West and Welch 2004: 10; Ramirez 1997: 108, 120, 123 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami yes Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely evidenced by examples throughout
Ninam yes 1st and 2nd person have special object forms Goodwin-Gomez: 47 Kelsey Neely
Sanumá yes can be omitted Borgman 1990: 29 Kelsey Neely evidence from examples
Surui yes Van der Meer (?):9 Daniel Smith
Karitiana no Everett 2006:343-57 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu yes Cruz 2011:133-134 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní yes Ayala 1996:46-7 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta yes done 1
Jingulu yes done 1
Wambaya yes done 1
Bunuba yes done 1
Walmajarri yes Done-Claire 1
Nyulnyul yes done? 1
Warrwa yes done 1
Worrorra yes ms5.1 done 1
Garrwa no done 0
Gooniyandi yes done 1
Warlpiri no s148-9 done 0
Bardi yes done-Claire 1
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no 83 done 0
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi no done-Dan 0
Yidiny no done-Catherine 0
Yanyuwa yes 106 Done-Austin 1
Yandruwandha no Done-Dan 0
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no 36-50 Done-Dan 0
Woiwurrung yes 75 done-Amalia 1
Wirangu No 111 done 0
Wemba-Wemba yes H 41 done-Amalia 1
Warumungu yes 27 done-Amalia 1
Wangkumara no info done X
Uradhi No 352 Y 0
Paakantyi yes 128 Y-Hannah 1
Pitta-Pitta No 201 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi yes 15; 49; 114-115 done-Hannah 1
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta yes 79-80, 121 Done-Hannah 1
Ngiyambaa no Done-Emily 0
Ngayawang No 10 done-Amalia 0
Muruwari yes 109 Done-Dan 1
Mayi-Yapi No 55-60 done 0
Martuthunira no 136-152 done 0
Marrgany No 314 Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre Yes 216 Done-Amalia 1
Kuku Yalanji no Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara yes 399 done-Amalia 1
Kaurna No 16 done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu yes 36 Done-Dan 1
Jaru yes? 124 Done-Amalia 1
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 80 Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr no 291 done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun no done-Jessica 0
Yuwaalaraay No 51 0
Dyirbal No 55 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu no 70 done 0
Djinang Yes 136 Done-Amalia 1
Djabugay done
Diyari no done-Hannah 0
Dharawal yes 46; 52 done-Hannah w Dhurga) 1
Darkinyung yes 37 done 1
Bularnu no Done-Austin 0
Biri n/a done-Jessica 0
Bidjara-Gungabula n/a done-Jessica 0
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana no Done-Dan 0
Alyawarr no done 0
Nyikina yes done-Claire 1
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija Yes 30 Done-Amalia 1
Wathawurrung no 82 done 0
Mathi-Mathi no done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie yes 45-7 done-Amalia 1
Thanggati no 42-3 done 0
Katthang no 63-65 done-Amalia 0
Panyjima no 169 done 0
Ngarinyeri yes 23 done-Amalia 1
Kurrama no done-Dan 0
Yingkarta no Done-Claire 0
Githabul No 15 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya yes 324 Done-Amalia 1
Kunjen No 92 Done- 0
WesternTorres yes K85c 82 done 1
Wakaya yes done 1
Yindjilindji no done 0
Bandjalang N/A Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara yes 55 done 1
Arrernte No 182 0
Kokatha No 3 0
Karajarri Yes 227 Done-Amalia 1
Pitjantjatjara Yes G 124 1
Ritharrngu Yes 45 Done-Amalia 1
Warrgamay No 45 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no Done-Amalia 0
Warnman Yes 33 Done-Amalia 1
Djapu no 0
Bilinarra no 6.1 done 0
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala Yes 67 Y2 1
Narungga Yes 74 done 1
Tharrkari No 16 0
Wajarri Yes 77 1
Warungu no 253-61 0
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua yes Payne and Payne 1990:361 Daniel Smith
Baniwa yes Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps