Warlpiri

Family
Pama-Nyungan
Region
Australia
ISO 639-3
wbp
Location
-20.59°, 131.96°
Notes
Features
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (129)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
agile wallaby, river wallaby flora-fauna Macropus agilis missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae nama nama inheritance nama Ngumpin-Yapa change to bee in Ngumpin underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Australian pelican flora-fauna Pelecanus conspicillatus wa(r)lany- walanypirri inheritance walany- in Ngumbin (except Gurindji); unknown where -pirri(r) is from underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Australian snubfin dolphin flora-fauna Orcaella heinsohnii missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
baler shell flora-fauna Melo amphora missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
bandicoot flora-fauna Peramelemorphia tyawinytyi unique 0 0 0 0 0
barn owl flora-fauna Tyto alba purluwanti purluwanti inheritance shared with Warlmanpa; not in Ngumpin underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
barramundi flora-fauna Lates calcarifer missing missing 1 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp ngalamanmanpa unique other 'bat' words, incl yanjipiri (probably Arandic), marra-pardalypa (with marra 'flap of skin'), ngalamanmanpa (similar to Warumungu ngalamanymany); kuyupardu-kuyupardu is literally 'animal-Diminutive-Reduplicated' derived 0 1 0 0 0 no
bindii, caltrop flora-fauna Tribulus terrestris yardamanyamanya yardamanyamanya unique or inheritance from higher group?; Dictionary glosses yardamanyamanya more genrally as 'Calotis hispidula, Bogan Flea, Burr Daisy, grass prickles, bindi-eyes'; jilkarla (Unique?) and jiri (Inherited) are general 'prickle' words along with yardamanyamanya reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna jurlpu jurlpu loan Wati WW %tyurlak underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-breasted buzzard flora-fauna Hamirostra melanosternon karlintirri karlintirri unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-faced cuckoo-shrike flora-fauna Coracina novaehollandiae karlpurrukarlpurru karlpurrukarlpurru unknown reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-headed python flora-fauna Aspidites melanocephalus mulyu-kuna mulyu-kuna unique compound nose-shit 0 2 0 0 0 no
black-soil yam flora-fauna Ipomoea diamantinensis missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
bloodwood flora-fauna Eucalyptus (Corymbia) bleeseri wirrkali ~ wurrkali ~ yurrkali unknown looks like an Arandic loan but source form not found, cf. Kaytetye arrke 'bloodwood'; shared with Warlmanpa underived 0 1 1 0 0 no
blowfly maggots flora-fauna Diptera, Sarcophagidae murluru inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
blue-tongue lizard flora-fauna Tiliqua species lungkarda inheritance underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
blue-winged kookaburra flora-fauna Dacelo leachii missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
bluebone flora-fauna Choerodon cyanodus missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
brolga flora-fauna Grus rubicunda wurkali inheritance cf. Jaru kurrkali underived 1 0 0 0 0 no
brown goshawk flora-fauna Accipiter fasciatus missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
brush-tailed possum flora-fauna Trichosurus vulpecula janganpa janganpa inheritance tyangan Ngumpin-Yapa underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
bush cockroach flora-fauna (many species) minyinjirri unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
bush stone-curlew flora-fauna Burhinus grallarius ngamirliri inheritance Anmatyerr & Kaytetye mwelyare - cognate ?; synonym wirntiki shared with Warlmanpa and Mudburra underived 1 0 0 0 0 no
bush tobacco flora-fauna Lobelia quadrangularis janyungu janyungu inheritance tyanyungu Ngumpin-Yapa underived 0 0 0 1 0 no
bush turkey, Australian bustard flora-fauna Ardeotis australis jurlaka parrulka, wardilyka unique WW %tyireke underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
bush yam flora-fauna Vigna lanceolata var. lanceolata yarla unique underived 0 1 2 0 1 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera pintapinta unique synonym yirntilyapilyapi probably a loan from Arandic underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
carpet snake flora-fauna Morelia spilota missing 0 1 0 0 0
caterpillar flora-fauna Lepidoptera waku-partardi waku-partardi unknown also waka-partardi compound arm-? 0 0 0 0 0 no
catfish flora-fauna (many species) missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna Chilopoda, Myriapoda yirrinji yirrinji inheritance yirrinytyi Ngumpin-Yapa Arrernte arrentye 'scuttling, crawling and wriggling insects including centipedes; devil' underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
channel-billed cuckoo flora-fauna Scythops novaehollandiae missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
crested pigeon flora-fauna Ocyphaps lophotes pelker ngapilkiri loan Arandic Arrernte apelkere, Anmatyerr & Kaytetye pelker underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
darter/cormorant flora-fauna Anhinga melanogaster, Phalacrocorax species missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
death adder, five-minute snake flora-fauna Acanthophis praelongus jutiya unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 yes
dingo flora-fauna Canis familiaris dingo warnapari warnapari semantic shift warnapa Ngumpin-Yapa warnapa 'stranger' - Gurindji; 'dangerous' Yulparija underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris maliki maliki loan maliki Yapa Arandic WD maliki 'stranger' underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae jipilyaku jipilyaku loan into protolanguage tyipilyuku Ngumpin-Yapa Jarragan WW %tyipily underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
dugong flora-fauna Dugon dugong missing missing 1 1 0 0 0 no
earthworm flora-fauna Annelida, Oligochaeta kurlkarlka-nga-rnu kurlkarlka-nga-rnu unique compound cheek-eat-er 0 0 0 0 0 no
emu flora-fauna Dromaius novaehollandiae karlaya karlaya inheritance karlaya NGY-Marrngu-Wati WW %karlaya underived 2 1 2 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna yaku yaku loan Western Mirndi also liwanja WW %yaku underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
flower flora-fauna (NA) irrkwelthe yurrkulju loan yurrku Arrernte Arrernte irrkwelthe 'bloodwood flowers', but this word not in Anmatyerr nor Kaytetye dictionaries; jinyjirla` 'flower' WW %yurrku underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera amenge yumangi ~ yimangi loan Arandic also yimangi; Arrernte & Kaytetye amenge underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
flying-fox (generic) flora-fauna (many species) missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
freshwater crocodile flora-fauna Crocodylus johnstoni missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
freshwater mussel flora-fauna Velesunio wilsoni tangkila tangkila unknown could be a loan from Warumungu, or could be inheritance lost from Ngumpin underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
freshwater prawn flora-fauna Macrobrachium rosenbergii missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
frill-necked lizard flora-fauna Chlamydosaurus kingii jamankurla inheritance also in Gurindji and Mudburra underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna (many species) jarlji jarlji unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
galah flora-fauna Eolophus roseicapilla kirlilkirlilpa kirlilkirlilpa loan direction unknown WW %kulinykuliny 0 0 0 0 0
turtle (generic) flora-fauna (many species) missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
ghost gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus papuana (Corymbia bella) wapurnungku wapurnungku unique underived 2 0 1 0 0 no
goanna (generic) or sand goanna flora-fauna Varanus spp wardapi unique tyarrampayi Ngumpin-Yapa NB Jaru warrabi 'alligator' (Sturt Creek dialect) underived 0 1 2 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) marna unique marna Ngumpin-Yapa distinguished from Ngumpin p-form mana 'base of tree' underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Orthoptera jintilyka ~ kintilyka jintilyka loan Wati underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
great bowerbird flora-fauna Chlamydera nuchalis missing missing 1 0 0 0 0 no
green ant flora-fauna Oecophylla smaragdina missing missing 0 2 2 0 0 no
green sea turtle flora-fauna Chelonia mydas missing missing 1 1 0 0 0 no
green tree snake flora-fauna Dendrelaphis punctulata missing missing 0 2 0 0 0 no
head/body lice flora-fauna Pediculus capitis, Pediculus humanus lutu lutu inheritance lutu Ngumpin-Yapa Gur wutu underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus nantuwu nantuwu, timana loan Arandic WW from south WW %nantu underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
humpback whale flora-fauna Megaptera novaeangliae missing missing 1 1 0 0 0 no
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
jabiru flora-fauna Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus missing 0 0 0 0 0
jungle-fowl (scrub-fowl) flora-fauna Megapodius freycinet missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
kangaroo (generic) flora-fauna Macropodidae wawirri wawirri loan Arandic Arrernte aherre; synonym marlu probably also a loan (from WD) underived 2 1 0 0 0 no
land snail flora-fauna Gastropoda missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
magpie goose flora-fauna Anseranas semipalmata missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
military dragon flora-fauna Ctenophorus isolepis, Diporiphora spp., Lophognathus spp. kurluparri unknown May be Unique but words in other Ngumpin-Yapa are recorded so more cautious to label Unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera kiwinyi kiwinyi inheritance kiwiny NGY-Marrngu-Wati Arr. Iwenye; cf. Jarragan nyuwiny? WW %kiwiliny underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
mud wasp, hornet flora-fauna (many species) murruru murruru unique however cf. Gurindji kanamurruru 'mosquito' underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
native bee flora-fauna (many species) jurlarda jurlarda unknown cf. Gurindji jularta 'kingfisher' underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
native cat flora-fauna Dasyurus kurninka ~ kuninyka unknown Jaru kurninngka; Gurindji kuniny 'good for something, good meat'; synonyms parrjarda, murrju, nyintarnnyintarnpa underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
northern brown bandicoot flora-fauna Isoodon macrourus missing jika Ngumpin-Yapa " found only on the northern and eastern coasts of Australia and nearby islands" (Wikipedia) underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
northern kurrajong flora-fauna Brachychiton diversifolius miyaka miyaka loan into protolanguage miyaka Ngumpin-Yapa Wardaman WW %miyaka underived 0 1 no? 0 0 no
nut tree flora-fauna Terminalia grandifolia marntayaki marntayaki loan with meaning change Gurindji Gurindji marntayak plum Terminalia platyphylia loan from Jaminjung marntayang; Ward. Marntayanga via Mudb.;ng>k distinctive of Gur NCD underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
octopus flora-fauna Octopus australis missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
pandanus palm flora-fauna Pandanus spiralis missing missing 1 1 0 0 1 no
paperbark flora-fauna Melaleuca sericea, Melaleuca stenostachya pakarli inheritance kintilarri is another paperbark species, north of Yuendumu underived 0 0 1 0 0 no
peaceful dove flora-fauna Geopelia placida kurlurnkurru kurlurnkurru unique kurlunkurr Ngumpin-Yapa underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
pearlshell flora-fauna Pinctada spp jakulu jakulu loan Worrorran langkalangka 'engraved pearl shell' WW %tyakuli underived 1 1 0 0 1 no
peewee flora-fauna Gryllina cyanoleuca tiyatiya tiyitiyi ~ tiyatiya semantic shift tiyatiya Ngumpin-Yapa mudburra 'down', Gurindji tiyatiya 'feather of bird'; also Arrernte teyeteye WW %tiyatiya reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
pied butcherbird flora-fauna Cracticus nigrogularis missing missing kurrparu Pama-Nyungan kurrpurlardi is 'Australian Magpie', Possibly extends to Pied Butcherbird WW %kurrparu missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
pike eel flora-fauna Muraenesox arabicus missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna Mantodea iltywiltywe yuljulju loan Arandic Arrernte ilywiltye, iltywiltywe underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
prickle bush flora-fauna Sclerolaena bicornis jaka-larra jaka-larra unique not a particular species compound buttocks-split 0 0 0 0 0 no
quail (generic) flora-fauna Coturnix species, Turnix species puntaru ~ pintaru inheritance puntaru Ngumpin-Yapa Gurindji puntaru, no other Ngumpin 0 0 0 0 0 no
red river gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus camaldulensis ngapiri ngapiri loan kuntyumarra Ngumpin-Yapa possible prothetic ng if borrowed from Arrernte apere; not in any other NgY language; Pitjantjara apara; also kunjumarra as in Warumungu alongside karlapirra underived 2 0 1 0 1 no
red-tailed black-cockatoo flora-fauna Calyptorhynchus banksi tirrarlpa inheritance Jaru dirran, Gurindji tirrak 'black cockatoo'; in Warlpiri also yurrarnti; Arrernte irrarnte underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
riflefish, archerfish flora-fauna Toxotes chatareus missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
river mangrove flora-fauna Aegicera corniculatum missing missing 0 0 2 0 1 no
rock fig flora-fauna Ficus brachypoda wijirrki wijirrki loan Arandic Arrernte utyerrke underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
sacred kingfisher flora-fauna Todiramphus sancta lurnpa lurnpa inheritance luwurn NGY-Marrngu-Wati Red-backed Kingfisher, Halcyon pyrrhopygia'; Walmajarri luurn 'Sacred Kingfisher' underived -pa augment 0 0 0 0 0 no
saltwater crocodile flora-fauna Crocodylus porosus missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 yes
saltwater mussel flora-fauna Mytilidae missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
sawfish flora-fauna Pristis pectinata missing missing 1 0 0 0 0 yes
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna Arachnida, Scorpiones kanaparnta kanaparnta unique compound yamstick-HAVING 0 0 0 0 0 no
shark (generic) flora-fauna Selachimorpha missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 variable
shell (generic) flora-fauna kurta kurta inheritance kurta Ngumpin-Yapa skin, hide (of animal), integument, membrane, shell'; cf. karlingamparrpa 'eggshell' underived 0 1 0 0 1 no
short-beaked echidna flora-fauna Tachyglossus aculeatus jilka-marda jilka-marda unique compound prickle-HAVING (prickle jtylkarla) 0 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna warna warna inheritance warna Ngumpin-Yapa underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
snappy gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus brevifolia nurrku nurrku unknown also in Warlmanpa and Warumungu; not in Ngumpin underived 0 0 1 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae kartajara kartajara unknown Warumungu also in Warlmanpa and Warumungu; not in Ngumpin (except for Gurindji karrata?) underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
spinifex flora-fauna Triodia species marna unique mulpungu Yapa See marna above, marna ' 1. spinifex; 2. grass (generic)'; milpingi Wpa mulpungu is young spinifex used to make shelter underived 0 0 2 0 0 no
spoonbills (yellow-billed spoonbill, black-billed spoonbill) flora-fauna Platalea flavipes, Platalea regia kurrkali kurrkali ~ yurrkali unknown also yurrkali cf. wurrkai , Jaru kurrkali 'brolga' underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Dasyatidae missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 variable
stripe-faced dunnart flora-fauna Sminthopsis macroura nyalurti/nyarlurti nyalurti/nyarlurti loan Wati missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
sugarbag wax flora-fauna palya palya loan into protolanguage with semantic change Wati palya 'spinifex wax; old beeswax' in Warlmanpa but not in Ngumpin;, WD palya 'good' missing 1 1 0 0 0 no
sulphur-crested cockatoo flora-fauna Cacatua galerita jalajirrpi jalajirrpi loan Warumungu War. Tyaltyirrpa Corella underived mouth-silent in Warumungu 0 0 0 0 0 no
swamp eel flora-fauna Ophisternon gutturale missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
swamp leech flora-fauna Annelida, Hirudinea missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
tawny frogmouth flora-fauna Podargus strigoides nyuru ~ nyurdu unique kurrkurr Ngumpin-Yapa also kurrurl-kurrurl-pa underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
termite mounds, ant hills flora-fauna Isoptera mingkirri mingkirri unique mungku Ngumpin-Yapa underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna (many species) yardunyu unknown also kardilyka, murluru, yukalyi, yutunypa underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
ti-tree flora-fauna Melaleuca bracteata kupangardi kupangardi loan Warumungu War. kupangarti 'paperbark' but direction unclear; and compare Paperbark underived 0 0 1 0 0 no
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna Arachnida, Acarina yaka unknown skin louse, tick, flea'; also purla ~ puula underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
tiger shark flora-fauna Galeocerdo cuvier missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 yes
torresian crow flora-fauna Corvus orru jangilka jangilka unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) watiya watiya unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
waterlily flora-fauna Nymphaea macrosperma purumpuru purumpuru loan Warumungu reduplicated 0 1 2 0 0 no
wattle flora-fauna Acacia difficilis minyana minyana unknown many species; minya(r)na also in Warlmanpa and Warumungu underived 0 0 1 0 1 no
wedge-tailed eagle flora-fauna Aquila audax warlawurru warlawurru inheritance warlawurru Ngumpin-Yapa WW WW %warla underived 1 0 0 0 0 no
willie wagtail flora-fauna Rhipidura leucophrys jintipirri jintirrjintirrpa ~ jintipirri inheritance tyintipirriny Ngumpin-Yapa jintipirriny ~ jintirrjintirr in Walmajarri; replaced by tyirrikik etc forms elsewhere in NgY; tyinti clitoris/uvula? WW %tyintipirri compound frozen ? 1 0 0 0 0 no
witchetty grub flora-fauna (many species) ngarlkirti ngarlkirdi unique yipilanji looks like possible Arr. Loan but nothing in Arrernte dictionary underived 0 1 2 0 0 no
woma flora-fauna Aspidites ramsayii malilyi malilyi unknown Gurindji marliji 'green tree snake'; also pirntina underived 0 1 0 0 0 no


Grammatical Data (295)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. no n66 done 0
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] no n66 done 0
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast no n66 done 0
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? yes n65 done 1
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels no n65 done 0
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme no n78 done 0
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] no n78 done 0
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? no n78 done 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones no n65 done 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? no n99 done 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments no done 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? no info done 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony yes n84 done 1
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] yes done 1
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone no done 0
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word yes n40 done 1
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no s37 done 0
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes yes s37 done 1
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different no s37 done 0
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated yes s108 done 1
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated yes s108 done 1
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced yes s38, n37 done 1
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection yes s49 done 1
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word yes s38 done 1
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' yes s38 done 1
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs yes BS152, elsewhere done 1
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment no info done 0
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns no info done 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP no done 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders no done 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. no done 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter n/a done 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates n/a done 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human n/a done 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only n/a LG165 done 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates n/a done 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates n/a done 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" n/a done 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals n/a done 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' no done 0
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups no done 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun yes n24 done 1
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no done 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun yes n130 done 1
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic no info done 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only yes n130 done 1
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns yes BS151, n24 done 1
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' yes? /-pinki/ n23 done 1
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only no info done 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness no n24 done 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker no info done 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you no info done 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) no info done 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system yes n34 done 1
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) yes n34 done 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns no BS151 done 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns no BS151 done 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no BS151 done 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no BS151 done 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix no s163-4 done 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients no info done 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun no info done 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are no s(examples throughout) done 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) no info done 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates no info done 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic no info done 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic no info done 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic no info done 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change no info done 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone no info done 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' yes h39-40 done 1
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 yes LG158 done 1
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 no LG158-9 done 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 no LG158-9 done 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. no LG158-9 done 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' no info done 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used yes LG158-9 done 1
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used yes LG158-9 done 1
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no LG27 done 0
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no LG26-7 done 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? no info done 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? no info done 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' yes L50 done 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' no? L50 done 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities no info done 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no info done 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no info done 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form no info done 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father no info done 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg no info done 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) no info done 0
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes no done 0
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco no done 0
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb no n25 done 0
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb yes n25 done 1
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb yes n25 done 1
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective no done 0
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' yes n176, LG75 done 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere yes n40 done 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past no n40 done 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future no n40 done 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) yes n40 done 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no n40 done 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes n40 done 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no n40 done 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion yes n40 done 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood yes n40 done 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) no info done 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses yes n237, s164 done 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' no info done 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something no info done 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction no info done 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking no info done 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis no info done 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction no info done 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking no info done 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected no info done 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") no info done 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality no info done 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' no info done 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' no info done 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative no info done 0
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. yes n62 done 1
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker no info done 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) no info done 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. no info done 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' no info done 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse no info done 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above no info done 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic no info done 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs no info done 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle no info done 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme no info done 0
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion no done 0
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction yes LG3 done 1
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order yes h5-6 done 1
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject yes h5-6 done 1
Word Order VS in transitive clauses yes h5-6 done 1
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object yes h5-6 done 1
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject yes h5-6 done 1
Word Order Preposition-Noun no done 0
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes done 1
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) yes L50 done 1
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') no? L50 done 0
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun yes s264-5 done 1
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun yes s258 done 1
Word Order Dem-Noun no info done 0
Word Order Noun-Dem no info done 0
Word Order Num-Noun yes s59 done 1
Word Order Noun-Num yes s59 done 1
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies yes L51 done 1
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies no info done 0
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') no info done 0
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' no info done 0
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause yes L203 done 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects no BS152 done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked no BS152 done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker yes BS152 done 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no BS152 done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no BS152 done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative yes BS152 done 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative no BS152 done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other yes BS152 done 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no BS152 done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no BS152 done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs no? BS152 done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other n/a done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive n/a done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) n/a done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. n/a done 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) no done 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) no s148-9 done 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no done 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes no done 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers no done 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers no s148-9 done 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately no done 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes N/A done 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent n/a done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently yes s339 done 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives no s339 done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently no s339 done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. no s163 done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. no s163 done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb yes s163 done 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted no done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency no info done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb no info done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb no info done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb no info done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb yes s163 done 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix no info done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization no info done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' no info done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event no info done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency no info done 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element yes n237-8 done 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element no n237-8 done 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix yes s58, n24 done 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle yes /kula-/ n237-8 done 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb no info done 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' no info done 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' no info done 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase yes LG43 done 1
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle yes LG52 done 1
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology no LG52 done 0
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no LG52 done 0
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only no info done 0
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) no info done 0
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position no LG26-7 done 0
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position yes LG26-7 done 1
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) yes LG26 done 1
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) no info done 0
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. no n240, n60 done 0
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause no info done 0
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix no n240, n60 done 0
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) no n25, n60 done 0
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) no info done 0
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. no info done 0
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined no info done 0
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence no info done 0
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have an iterative function? yes n147 done 1
Morphology - General Does noun root reduplication have a plural/pluractional function? yes n130 done 1
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘real’ X? no done 0
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have a distributive function? yes n136 done 1
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have a pluractional function? yes n145 done 1
Morphology - General Does noun root reduplication have an iterative function? yes n131 done 1
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘fake’ X? no done 0
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘very’ X? no done 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does the language have ergative and instrumental syncretism? yes LG97, h39 done 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does the language have a distinct genitive case? no done 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is the locative related to the ergative with vowel change? no info done 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is case marked on just one word in an NP? no done 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is case marked on all (non-pronominal) words in an NP? yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Are any subordinate verbs (or whole clauses) marked with case to indicate their function? no info done 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does ergative mark discourse functions of focus/unexpectedness? no info done 0
Nominal Categories - Derivation Is there a evidence for derivational morphology being distinct from inflectional on nouns? yes to any of HG 95-97 entails yes to this; yep; this is more general but not just about derivation (would also include proprietive, for example, not necessarily derivation that changes word class) yes n22-3 done 1
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have a minimal/augment system? no info done 0
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have a unit augment system? no info done 0
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language mark dual on nouns? yes n24 done 1
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language mark plural on nouns? yes n24 done 1
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have group/collective nominal suffixes? no info done 0
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have suppletive plural verbs? no done 0
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have suppletive plural adjectives? no info done 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language have bound pronouns? yes to any of HG 173-175 entails yes to this; not necessarily? - CB yes BS151 done 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are the bound pronouns distinct from the free pronouns? yes BS151 done 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language mark moiety distinctions in pronouns? no BS151 done 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language mark generational distinctions in pronouns? no BS151 done 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are 'who' and 'what' distinct words? yes n235 done 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there an inclusive/exclusive distinction in the dual? yes BS151 done 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there an inclusive/exclusive distinction in the plural? yes BS151 done 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there a gender distinction in third person dual pronouns? no BS151 done 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there clitic pronouns? yes s10, BS151 done 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there object clitic pronouns? yes s10, BS151 done 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there distinct possessive and IO pronouns? no info done 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories When there are both object and subject clitic pronouns, does the object pronoun follow the subject one? no s149, LG160 done 0
Simple Clauses - Discourse Is there a focus position? include the position in the ‘form’ notes yes LG39 done 1
Simple Clauses - Discourse Is there a topic position? include the position in the ‘form’ notes yes LG39 done 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Is verbal negation a separate word? related to, and maybe equivalent to, HG 206-207 (not equivalent if verbal negation is being treated separately from clausal negation) yes n237-8 done 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Does the negative marker precede the verb? related to, and maybe equivalent to, HG 203 (not equivalent if verbal negation is being treated separately from clausal negation) no info done 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Are there second position clausal clitics? yes Lb3-4 done 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Is tense marked on pronouns? no info done 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Are there predicative clitics (e.g. Darkinyung grammar p35) no info done 0
Simple Clauses - Tense Does the language have tense/mood/etc particles (free words)? yes LG126 done 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is reflexive/reciprocal marked on the verb? =yes to any of HG 188-190; not necessarily; e.g. YN has a reflexive marker but it doesn’t go on the verb. yes s163 done 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Does reflexive/reciprocal change the conjugation class? no info done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is there a reflexive/reciprocal particle? no s163-4 done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is the passive typically used only with adversative semantics? no info done 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there an inchoative suffix? yes Lb26 done 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a distinct present tense verbal suffix? yes /-nya/ LG146, n40 done 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a continuous aspect suffix? yes n41 done 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a punctual aspect suffix? no info done 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Can tense and aspect cooccur? yes LG134, n229 done 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is tense marked on nouns? no info done 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Do positive commands take the same morphology as negative commands? no s164 done 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Is a negative command formed from a nominalised verb (eg. "no talking!")? no s164 done 0
Verbal Categories - Other Is the verb ‘say’ the same as the verb ‘do’? no info done 0
Verbal Categories - Other Does the language have body part compound verbs? no info done 0
Verbal Categories - Other Are there verbal agreement clitics? yes done 1
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a verb 'be'? no info done 0
Verbal Categories - Other Are there verb conjugation classes? yes LG82, n19 done 1
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a conjugation for uninflecting verbs? no info done 0
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a grammatical category of associated motion? yes n62 done 1
Verbal Categories - Other Does the language have kinship verbs? That is, are the words which designate kinship relations such as ‘mother’ and ‘father’ verbs in the language? no info done 0
Verbal Categories - VerbalNumber Does the language have suppletive plural nouns? no done 0
Word Order Are there discontinuous NP constituents? yes s257, h38 done 1
Word Order Is word order fixed in noun phrases? no h5 done 0
Word Order Is word order fixed in verb phrases? n/a done 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: second position clitics Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no done 0
Phonology - Segmental Prestopped segments list which segments in the ‘form’ column no n66 done 0


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
large HG low mobile no