Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions

Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs
There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap'


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Western Mono
Southern Paiute
Southern Ute
Idaho Shoshone
Northern Paiute
Achagua no info Wilson & Levinsohn 1992
Resígaro yes At the verb "group" level, three verbs can take complements (verbal, adjectival, clausal). They seem to be fairly bleached, basically marking just the difference between transitive (causative?) and intransitive (inchoative?) variants. They fill the head s Allin, 1976: 206-207
Bare no info Aikhenvald, 1995
Piapoco no info
Yukuna no info Shauer & Shauer, 2000; Shauer & Shauer, 1978
Yavitero no info
Wapishana no info Santos 2006
Wayuu yes There are several auxiliaries. One of these, calucaa, is said to have a “verbalizing function” for non-verbs. Mansen & Mansen, 1976: p. 256
Tariana no Aikhenvald, 2003
Apurinã no Facundes, 2000: 464-469
Asheninka Apurucayali no Anything that could be interpreted as a "weak" verb is an affix that modifies the main verb. Payne 1981:1016
Maipure no info Zamponi 2003:44
Yanesha' no info more likely not Duff-Tripp
Kinikinau no info
Baure no info Danielsen 2007
Nanti yes At least one light verb--kaNt 'do' Michael, 2008. p. 395, 436
Paresi no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010
Palikur no info Launey 2003
Yine no info Matteson 1965
Añun no Patte 1989
Bora no Seifart - 2005:58-62
Makiritare yes Hall 1988; Escoriaza 1959:16
Makushi no info Carson 1982; Abbott 1991
Eñepa no info Payne 2012
Pemon no info
Guna no Smith texts
Naso no Quesada 2000
Ika no Frank 1990:46
Kogi no info
Cabecar no info
Guaymí no info more likely not
Damana no no data observed so far
Sikuani no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000:219-237
Macaguan no info Buenaventura - 1993
Aguaruna no info more likely no
Northern Emberá yes These are verbs mainly related to motion as "go" and "come" Mortensen 1999:68 Catío
Waorani no info
Ingá no info
Matses no info
Mapudungun no info most likely no
Páez no info
Quechua Ayacuchano no info
Tikuna no info
Urarina no info
Waunana no info
Andoke yes uncertain; verb -i is suffixed to noun, means 'get/make' N Landaburu 1979: 182 classified by landaburu as a derivational verbalizing a noun
Puinave no info
Central Aymara no info
Kakua no info I was thinking that maybe in serialization the verb 'go' is encoding more like a diectic emphasis. Also, when verbs become markers of an action like 'to do repeatedly' should we consider this here? Bolaños fieldnotes
Kaingang no info Silva 2011
Minica Witoto no info not indicated/expected Minor and Minor 1982. p.27-28
Hup no Epps 2008
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no Weir 1984:43.
Dâw no Martins 2004 tone as mark of intran- or transitivizer/ to derive weak verbs…? And stative verbs
Desano yes Desano has many bound affixes that could be called either derivational affixes or dependent verb roots that can only occur combined with another verb root to form a stem. Miller 1999, p. 89-90 there is a set of verb affixes that are always bound like doing something with your hand,, ex: carry-bend = kneel. 'boʔ-'
Cubeo no no info/not expected
Kotiria yes Stenzel 2004, p. 240
Makuna no Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.43
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.53-87
Barasano no Jones & Jones 1991, p.37
Tanimuca no In addition to the main verb, subject markers (prefix and suffix), object marker (prefix), negative and causative affixes, the verb phrase also includes the adjuncts; Auxiliary verb, tense, aspect, mood, intensifiers, evidentials, and subordinating suffix Strom 1992, p.38 epps-may be obligatory (like do in english whereas 27 would be more like can, should, may, etc.
Siona no info Wheeler 1987
Tukano no Ramirez 1997 no good evidence for this
Yanomami no info Ramirez 1994 no examples of these
Ninam no info
Sanumá no info
Surui no info
Karitiana no info
Nheengatu no info Cruz 2011
Paraguayan Guaraní no info
Aché no info
Kokama no Vallejos 2010
Nyangumarta yes 1
Jingulu yes 1
Wambaya no 0
Bunuba yes 1
Walmajarri no 0
Nyulnyul yes 1
Warrwa yes 1
Worrorra no info X
Garrwa no info X
Gooniyandi yes 1
Warlpiri yes s38 1
Bardi yes 1
Yorta Yorta no 83-91 0
Yir Yoront
Yindjibarndi yes 82 1
Yidiny no 0
Yanyuwa no info x
Yandruwandha no info x
Yalarnnga no info x
Woiwurrung no info x
Wirangu Maybe 108-9 1
Wemba-Wemba no H 46-67 0
Warumungu yes 39 1
Wangkumara no info X
Uradhi No 364 0
Paakantyi no info X
Pitta-Pitta No 211 0
Pintupi no 0
Nyungar no info x
Nhanta no info x
Ngiyambaa no 0
Ngayawang No info x
Muruwari yes 192 1
Mayi-Yapi No 54-55 0
Martuthunira no info x
Marrgany No 314 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 341 0
Kuku Yalanji no 0
Kugu-Nganhcara Maybe 446 1
Kaurna No info x
Kalkatungu no info x
Jaru no 0
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 105 0
Gureng Gureng no info x
Gumbaynggirr no 345-352 0
Gugu-Badhun no 0
Yuwaalaraay No 59 0
Dyirbal No 315-7 0
Duungidjawu no 88 0
Djinang No 127 0
Diyari no info x
Dharawal no info x
Darkinyung no 38 0
Bularnu no info x
Biri no 0
Bidjara-Gungabula no info x
Batyala no info x
Arabana no info x
Alyawarr no info X
Nyikina yes 1
Yawuru yes 1
Yulparija No 35 0
Wathawurrung no 85 0
Mathi-Mathi no 99-101 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no 68 0
Thanggati no 42-3 0
Katthang no 73 0
Panyjima no info x
Ngarinyeri Maybe 37 1
Kurrama no info x
Yingkarta no 0
Githabul No 21 0
Gunya No 329 0
Kunjen Maybe 113 1
WesternTorres yes? K85c 89-90 1
Wakaya no info x
Yindjilindji no info x
Bandjalang No 82 0
Ngaatjatjara No 75 0
Arrernte No 216 0
Kokatha No 44 0
Karajarri Yes 90 1
Pitjantjatjara No G 206 0
Ritharrngu Maybe 85 1
Warrgamay No 45 0
Warluwarra no info x
Warnman no info x
Djapu yes 87-8 1
Bilinarra yes 3.4 1
Wiradjuri no info x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 48 0
Narungga No info x
Tharrkari No 30 0
Wajarri No 91 0
Warungu no info X
Yagua no info Payne and Payne 1990
Baniwa no Ramirez 2001