Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions

Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs
There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap'


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla Jane Hill
Cupeño Jane Hill
Luiseño Jane Hill
Serrano Jane Hill
Kitanemuk Jane Hill
Kawaiisu Jane Hill
Timbisha Jane Hill
Western Mono Jane Hill
Chemehuevi Jane Hill
Southern Paiute Jane Hill
Southern Ute Jane Hill
Shoshone Jane Hill
Comanche Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute Jane Hill
Gabrielino Jane Hill
Achagua no info Wilson & Levinsohn 1992 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro yes At the verb "group" level, three verbs can take complements (verbal, adjectival, clausal). They seem to be fairly bleached, basically marking just the difference between transitive (causative?) and intransitive (inchoative?) variants. They fill the head s Allin, 1976: 206-207 Aimee Lawrence
Bare no info Aikhenvald, 1995 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco no info Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna no info Shauer & Shauer, 2000; Shauer & Shauer, 1978 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no info Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no info Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu yes There are several auxiliaries. One of these, calucaa, is said to have a “verbalizing function” for non-verbs. Mansen & Mansen, 1976: p. 256 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana no Aikhenvald, 2003 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã no Facundes, 2000: 464-469 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali no Anything that could be interpreted as a "weak" verb is an affix that modifies the main verb. Payne 1981:1016 Amanda Meeks
Maipure no info Zamponi 2003:44 Daniel Smith
Yanesha' no info more likely not Duff-Tripp Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure no info Danielsen 2007 Mitz Perez
Nanti yes At least one light verb--kaNt 'do' Michael, 2008. p. 395, 436 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Palikur no info Launey 2003 Daniel Smith
Yine no info Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun no Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora no Seifart - 2005:58-62 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare yes Hall 1988; Escoriaza 1959:16 Melody Ann Ross, Amanda Meeks
Makushi no info Carson 1982; Abbott 1991 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa no info Payne 2012 Daniel Smith
Pemon no info Daniel Valle
Guna no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika no Frank 1990:46 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí no info more likely not Daniel Valle
Damana no no data observed so far Daniel Valle
Sikuani no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000:219-237 Amanda Meeks
Macaguan no info Buenaventura - 1993 Daniel Smith
Aguaruna no info Daniel Valle more likely no
Northern Emberá yes These are verbs mainly related to motion as "go" and "come" Mortensen 1999:68 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá no info Daniel Valle
Matses no info Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no info most likely no Daniel Valle
Páez no info Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no info Daniel Valle
Tikuna no info Daniel Valle
Urarina no info Daniel Valle
Waunana no info Daniel Valle
Andoke yes uncertain; verb -i is suffixed to noun, means 'get/make' N Landaburu 1979: 182 Kelsey Neely classified by landaburu as a derivational verbalizing a noun
Puinave no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no info Shannon Dardis
Kakua no info I was thinking that maybe in serialization the verb 'go' is encoding more like a diectic emphasis. Also, when verbs become markers of an action like 'to do repeatedly' should we consider this here? Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no info not indicated/expected Minor and Minor 1982. p.27-28 Daniel Smith
Hup no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no Weir 1984:43. Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños tone as mark of intran- or transitivizer/ to derive weak verbs…? And stative verbs
Desano yes Desano has many bound affixes that could be called either derivational affixes or dependent verb roots that can only occur combined with another verb root to form a stem. Miller 1999, p. 89-90 Amanda Novak there is a set of verb affixes that are always bound like doing something with your hand,, ex: carry-bend = kneel. 'boʔ-'
Cubeo no no info/not expected Chris Clack
Kotiria yes Stenzel 2004, p. 240 Amanda Novak
Makuna no Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.43 Chris Clack
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.53-87 Chris Clack
Barasano no Jones & Jones 1991, p.37 Chris Clack
Tanimuca no In addition to the main verb, subject markers (prefix and suffix), object marker (prefix), negative and causative affixes, the verb phrase also includes the adjuncts; Auxiliary verb, tense, aspect, mood, intensifiers, evidentials, and subordinating suffix Strom 1992, p.38 Chris Clack epps-may be obligatory (like do in english whereas 27 would be more like can, should, may, etc.
Siona no info Wheeler 1987 Daniel Smith
Tukano no Ramirez 1997 Kelsey Neely no good evidence for this
Yanomami no info Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely no examples of these
Ninam no info Kelsey Neely
Sanumá no info Kelsey Neely
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana no info Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no info Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no info Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta yes done 1
Jingulu yes done 1
Wambaya no done 0
Bunuba yes done 1
Walmajarri no Done-Claire 0
Nyulnyul yes done? 1
Warrwa yes done 1
Worrorra no info done X
Garrwa no info done X
Gooniyandi yes done 1
Warlpiri yes s38 done 1
Bardi yes done-Claire 1
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no 83-91 done 0
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi yes 82 done-Dan 1
Yidiny no done-Catherine 0
Yanyuwa no info Done-Austin x
Yandruwandha no info Done-Dan x
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no info Done-Dan x
Woiwurrung no info done-Amalia x
Wirangu Maybe 108-9 done 1
Wemba-Wemba no H 46-67 done-Amalia 0
Warumungu yes 39 done-Amalia 1
Wangkumara no info done X
Uradhi No 364 Y 0
Paakantyi no info Y-Hannah X
Pitta-Pitta No 211 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no done-Hannah 0
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta no info Done-Hannah x
Ngiyambaa no Done-Emily 0
Ngayawang No info done-Amalia x
Muruwari yes 192 Done-Dan 1
Mayi-Yapi No 54-55 done 0
Martuthunira no info done x
Marrgany No 314 Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 341 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji no Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara Maybe 446 done-Amalia 1
Kaurna No info done-Amalia x
Kalkatungu no info Done-Dan x
Jaru no Done-Amalia 0
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 105 Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr no 345-352 done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun no done-Jessica 0
Yuwaalaraay No 59 0
Dyirbal No 315-7 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu no 88 done 0
Djinang No 127 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari no info done-Hannah x
Dharawal no info done-Hannah w Dhurga) x
Darkinyung no 38 done 0
Bularnu no info Done-Austin x
Biri no done-Jessica 0
Bidjara-Gungabula no info done-Jessica x
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana no info Done-Dan x
Alyawarr no info done X
Nyikina yes done-Claire 1
Yawuru yes Y-Claire 1
Yulparija No 35 Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung no 85 done 0
Mathi-Mathi no 99-101 done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no 68 done-Amalia 0
Thanggati no 42-3 done 0
Katthang no 73 done-Amalia 0
Panyjima no info done x
Ngarinyeri Maybe 37 done-Amalia 1
Kurrama no info done-Dan x
Yingkarta no Done-Claire 0
Githabul No 21 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya No 329 Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen Maybe 113 Done- 1
WesternTorres yes? K85c 89-90 done 1
Wakaya no info done x
Yindjilindji no info done x
Bandjalang No 82 Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara No 75 done 0
Arrernte No 216 0
Kokatha No 44 0
Karajarri Yes 90 Done-Amalia 1
Pitjantjatjara No G 206 0
Ritharrngu Maybe 85 Done-Amalia 1
Warrgamay No 45 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no info Done-Amalia x
Warnman no info Done-Amalia x
Djapu yes 87-8 1
Bilinarra yes 3.4 done 1
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 48 Y2 0
Narungga No info done x
Tharrkari No 30 0
Wajarri No 91 0
Warungu no info X
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no info Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Baniwa no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps