Yagua

Family
Peba-Yaguan
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
yad
Location
-3.43°, -72.22°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Data Sources
Payne, Doris L. and Payne, Thomas E. 1990. Yagua. In Derbyshire, Desmond C. and Pullum, Geoffrey K. (eds.), Handbook of Amazonian Languages, 249-474. Berlin/New York: Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Powlison, Esther and Paul S. Powlison. 2007. Yagua. Intercontinental Dictionary Series, ed. Mary Ritchie Key. http://lingweb.eva.mpg.de/ids/ Powlison, Paul (recop.). 1995. Diccionario yagua-castellano. Serie Lingüística Peruana no. 35. ILV, Lima.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location ncha ("encima de"); vata- (adv) ntʃa; vata- doubtful loan Yucuna tʃa, Kakua tʃãʔ See Language page Daniel Valle
and y e grammar jarye; va(interr.) xarje; va: See Language page Daniel Valle
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment pupujuru pupuxuru unique See Language page Daniel Valle
at en, a em, a location ("a/en") -jiva; -ju; nacho; -mu/ ("en") -jimu; -niy; -va -xiva; -xu:; na:tʃo:; -mu:/ -ximu; -nij; -va See Language page Daniel Valle
back espalda costas body dunu; runu dunu; runu unique See Language page Daniel Valle
bad mal mal quality javityurya xawitjurja unique See Language page Daniel Valle
belly barriga barriga body pude punde unique See Language page Daniel Valle
below abajo, debajo abaixo location jare; jariy (suffix with -ra is used as a rel. pn xare; xarij unique See Language page Daniel Valle
big grande grande quality jami xãmı̃ unique See Language page Daniel Valle
black negro preto colour vadacu- wandaku unique See Language page Daniel Valle
blood sangre sangue body nda nda doubtful loan, direction unknown Matses intáʔ See Language page Daniel Valle
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body duserunu duserunu: unique See Language page Daniel Valle
bone hueso osso body {-du} ndu unique See Language page Daniel Valle
breast pecho, seno peito body dutuy ndutuj unique See Language page Daniel Valle
child niño, niña criança human dera ndera unique See Language page Daniel Valle
cloud nube nuvem environment nuvachiy (Spanish loan?), rapuryeje nuwatʃij, rapurjexe loan Spanish See Language page Daniel Valle
cold frío frio quality canuvu- kanuwũ unique See Language page Daniel Valle
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality sitenu sı̃tenu unique See Language page Daniel Valle
day día dia time jnda xnda doubtful loan, direction unknown Ashuar kínta See Language page Daniel Valle
dirty sucio sujo quality mi (n); miju- supiy-, vasupidiy- (mod.) mi:; mixu:, supij-, vasupidij- unique See Language page Daniel Valle
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page Daniel Valle
dry seco seco quality {-cada} kanda unique; loan Kokama ikana See Language page Daniel Valle
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality motadi; ne jmyunusara mo:tadi; ne xmjunusara See Language page Daniel Valle
dust polvo poeira environment jiru xiru See Language page Daniel Valle
ear oreja orelha body {-jay} xaj unique See Language page Daniel Valle
earth/soil tierra terra environment mucadi mukandi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
egg huevo ovo fauna jivada xiwada unique See Language page Daniel Valle
eye ojo olho body jnutya xnũtja unique See Language page Daniel Valle
far lejos longe quality ripa, ripya ripa, ripja unique See Language page Daniel Valle
fat/grease grasa gordura body nidi nı̃ndi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
father padre, papá pai kinship jay xãj loan; unique Quechua See Language page Daniel Valle
feather pluma pena fauna mu unique See Language page Daniel Valle
fire fuego fogo environment jiday xindaj unique See Language page Daniel Valle
flower flor flor environment dabi dabi unique; loan Quechua See Language page Daniel Valle
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment ajeravurya axerawũrja See Language page Daniel Valle
fruit fruta fruta flora dabi dabi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
good bueno bom quality sami samı̃ doubtful loan Quechua See Language page Daniel Valle
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body jasiy xasij doubtful loan, direction unknown Iquito See Language page Daniel Valle
hand mano mão body jomutu xomutu unique See Language page Daniel Valle
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar nini nı̃nı̃ unique See Language page Daniel Valle
head cabeza cabeça body jno hnõ unique See Language page Daniel Valle
heavy pesado pesado quality jinra; saransara xinra; saransara unique See Language page Daniel Valle
how? como como grammar nuy- (interr. Pref.); nutyajirya; nutyara nu:j; nu:tjaxirja; nu:tjara unique See Language page Daniel Valle
1sg yo eu grammar day daj unique See Language page Daniel Valle
if si se grammar (~ no) netiy, teta; -tiy (conj. Clitic) netij, teta; tij See Language page Daniel Valle
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location nube; vimu nube; vimu unique See Language page Daniel Valle
intestines intestinos intestinos body siquido (removed from body) sikido unique See Language page Daniel Valle
lake lago lago environment jmityo xmitjõ unique See Language page Daniel Valle
leaf hoja folha environment {-vi} wı̃ unique See Language page Daniel Valle
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body miday mı̃daj unique See Language page Daniel Valle
leg/foot pierna perna body (upper ~) muda; (lower ~) duse muda; duse unique See Language page Daniel Valle
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment radurya (Spanish loan?) rãdurja unique See Language page Daniel Valle
liver hígado figado body sucatyu sukãtju unique See Language page Daniel Valle
long largo comprido, longo quality jamuca- -qui xa:muka: ; kwi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna dudni ndundnı̃ unique See Language page Daniel Valle
man/male hombre homem human vanu wanu doubtful loan, direction unknown cf. similar forms in Yanomami, Carib See Language page Daniel Valle
meat/flesh carne carne fauna saviy sawij unique See Language page Daniel Valle
moon luna lua environment vuje wũxẽ unique; unique See Language page Daniel Valle
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship jnoda xnonda unique See Language page Daniel Valle
mouth boca boca body juto xũto unique See Language page Daniel Valle
name nombre nome human jitya xı̃tja unique See Language page Daniel Valle
near/close cerca de perto quality di, nuji, tudi (adv); tivye, tiye (adj.) di, nuxi, tudi; tivje, tije unique See Language page Daniel Valle
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body tunuvu (same as "neck") tunuvu: See Language page Daniel Valle
neck cuello pescoço body jutunuvu, tunuvu xtũunuwũ, tunuwũ unique See Language page Daniel Valle
new nuevo novo quality juy- jũj unique See Language page Daniel Valle
night noche noite time nupora nupora unique See Language page Daniel Valle
no/not no não grammar ne, ni, nenu (imp.); -muy, -na, -nay (neg. suff.) ne, ni:, nenu; mu:j, na:, na:j unique See Language page Daniel Valle
nose nariz nariz body nru nrũ doubtful loan, direction unknown Tikuna See Language page Daniel Valle
old viejo velho quality tarijevyu tãrixebjũ unique See Language page Daniel Valle
one uno um number taraqui taraki unique See Language page Daniel Valle
other otro outro grammar da; nu; ta-; ti da; nu:; ta; ti: unique See Language page Daniel Valle
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body divajni diwajni unique See Language page Daniel Valle
person/human being persona pessoa human nijyami nixjãmi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
rain lluvia chuva environment rumura; ruboda rũmura, ruboda doubtful loan Zaparo umaru; Kokama amana See Language page Daniel Valle
red rojo vermelho colour runay- runãj unique See Language page Daniel Valle
right/right hand derecha direita location/body ntityuday ɲtitjudaj unique See Language page Daniel Valle
road/path camino caminho manufacture mantya mãntja unique See Language page Daniel Valle
root raíz raiz flora jntiy xntij unique See Language page Daniel Valle
rotten podrido podre quality purya (smells ~); puñu (~ corpse); -pu, -po (suff.) purja; puɲu; pu; po unique See Language page Daniel Valle
sand arena areia environment ticha tı̃tʃã unique See Language page Daniel Valle
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality jimyura ximyura unique See Language page Daniel Valle
short corto curto quality japu- / vapu-; jinryu xapu / vapu; xinrju unique See Language page Daniel Valle
shoulder hombro ombro body numuto numutõ unique See Language page Daniel Valle
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental jvajadasa xwãxadasã unique See Language page Daniel Valle
skin piel pele body {-jay} xaj unique See Language page Daniel Valle
sky cielo céu environment jarichu xaritʃu loan, direction unknown Kokama See Language page Daniel Valle
small pequeño pequeno quality jamiriyu- xamirijũ unique See Language page Daniel Valle
smoke humo fumaça environment jidavachiy xindawatʃij unique See Language page Daniel Valle
star estrella estrela environment darichiy ndaritʃij unique See Language page Daniel Valle
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora jipu xipu unique See Language page Daniel Valle
stone piedra pedra environment avichu awitʃũ unique See Language page Daniel Valle
tail cola, rabo rabo body rupadi rupandi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
that ese/esa esse grammar nini nı̃nı̃ doubtful loan, direction unknown Urarina See Language page Daniel Valle
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar riy rij unique See Language page Daniel Valle
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality vatunu- (adj. mod.); jamu- (adj. mod.) vatunu; xa:mu unique See Language page Daniel Valle
thin delgado fino quality miriyu-; paniyo-; miriju; panijo unique See Language page Daniel Valle
this este/esta este grammar jiñu xiɲu unique See Language page Daniel Valle
2sg xx xx grammar ji xi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
throat garganta garganta body pisiy pisij unique See Language page Daniel Valle
three tres tres number mumuri mumuri unique See Language page Daniel Valle
thunder truenos trovão environment ruvatarya ru:vatarja unique See Language page Daniel Valle
bite morder morder body sado sado unique See Language page Daniel Valle
blow soplar soprar body duye; duje (as in wind); duvuye (repeated) duje:; duxe; duvuje: unique See Language page Daniel Valle
breathe respirar respirar body narye na:rje: unique See Language page Daniel Valle
burn quemar queimar environment nucha; pisiye (t.); pisi; rupay (int.) nu:tʃa; pisije:; pisi; rupaj unique See Language page Daniel Valle
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body sumutuy su:mutuj unique See Language page Daniel Valle
climb subir subir motion jasumiy xasumij unique See Language page Daniel Valle
come venir vir motion jniy xnij unique See Language page Daniel Valle
cook cocinar cozinhar impact mitiy; mutivye mitij; mutivje unique See Language page Daniel Valle
count contar contar mental saranu saranu unique See Language page Daniel Valle
cry llorar chorar mental jnay; junay xna:j; xu:na:j unique See Language page Daniel Valle
cut/hack cortar cortar impact jaruy; xaru:j unique See Language page Daniel Valle
die/be dead morir morrer state di ndi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
dig cavar cavar impact jmiy xmij unique See Language page Daniel Valle
dream soñar sonhar mental maryisa ma:rji:sa unique See Language page Daniel Valle
drink beber, tomar beber body jatu xatu unique See Language page Daniel Valle
eat comer comer body jimiy xı̃mij unique See Language page Daniel Valle
fall caer cair motion jupatye, juy (int.); ray, rumiy (refl.) xu:patje, xuj; ra:j, rumij unique See Language page Daniel Valle
fear miedo medo mental jnutay; junutay; juntay (to be afraid) xnutaj; xu:nutaj; xu:ntaj unique See Language page Daniel Valle
flow fluir fluir motion si si unique See Language page Daniel Valle
fly volar voar motion ratye ratje unique See Language page Daniel Valle
grow crecer crescer state javye; divay xa:vje; divaj unique See Language page Daniel Valle
hear oír ouvir mental tuvachu tuwãtʃu unique See Language page Daniel Valle
hide esconder esconder motion dutya (tr.); padyee (refl.) dutja; padje: unique See Language page Daniel Valle
hit golpear, pegar bater impact juvay (person); jupati (inan. Ob.) xu:vaj; xu:pati unique See Language page Daniel Valle
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other tarati, -ti (poss. cl.) tarati:, ti: unique See Language page Daniel Valle
kill matar matar impact du ndu unique; unique See Language page Daniel Valle
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental datya ndatja doubtful loan Quechua See Language page Daniel Valle
laugh reír rir mental todi todi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion tiryo tirjo: unique See Language page Daniel Valle
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body cha (also "to be"); vicha, jnuy tʃa; vitʃa, xnu:j unique See Language page Daniel Valle
open/uncover abrir abrir other mudtarya (adj.); nantay (to be ~) mudtarja; nantaj unique See Language page Daniel Valle
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact doya; mara (food item); musiy (as to punish) doja; mara:; musij See Language page Daniel Valle
say decir dizer mental htay htaj unique See Language page Daniel Valle
scratch rascar rasgar impact jmuniyẽ xmunijẽ unique See Language page Daniel Valle
see ver ver mental jnuy xnũj unique See Language page Daniel Valle
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact bucha butʃa unique See Language page Daniel Valle
sit sentar(se) sentar state masa (refl.) ma:sa unique See Language page Daniel Valle
sleep dormir dormir body jituy xituj unique See Language page Daniel Valle
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body baya (int.); nari (trans.) baja:; nari unique See Language page Daniel Valle
spit escupir cuspir body tochiy totʃij doubtful loan, direction unknown Andoke See Language page Daniel Valle
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact jaruti; ruve (in halves) xaru:ti; ruve unique; unique See Language page Daniel Valle
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact muchiy mutʃij unique See Language page Daniel Valle
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact chityiy tʃitjij doubtful loan Panoan See Language page Daniel Valle
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state rani rani unique See Language page Daniel Valle
steal robar roubar other paranu paranu unique See Language page Daniel Valle
suck chupar chupar body tiriy tirij unique See Language page Daniel Valle
swell hincharse inchar body jasay (as in inanim. Ob.) xasaj unique See Language page Daniel Valle
swim nadar nadar motion nuniy nũnij doubtful loan Panoan See Language page Daniel Valle
think pensar pensar mental jutay; jachipityaja xu:taj; xatʃipitjaxa unique See Language page Daniel Valle
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact jachiy; jupatya xatʃij; xu:patja unique See Language page Daniel Valle
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact pichu pitʃu unique See Language page Daniel Valle
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other nubenu nubenu unique See Language page Daniel Valle
vomit vomitar vomitar body cotyanuy cotjanuj unique See Language page Daniel Valle
walk caminar, andar andar motion vutaya wũtajã unique See Language page Daniel Valle
work trabajar trabalhar other jivay; vay xivaj; vaj unique See Language page Daniel Valle
yawn bostezar bocejar body janadaya xana:daja: unique See Language page Daniel Valle
tongue lengua lingua body niquejada nikexanda unique See Language page Daniel Valle
tooth diente dente body jada xãnda unique See Language page Daniel Valle
two dos dois number adajuy andaxũj unique See Language page Daniel Valle
water agua agua environment ja xa unique See Language page Daniel Valle
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar vuñi wuɲi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar nuy nũj unique See Language page Daniel Valle
wet mojado molhado quality japadi xapandi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
what? que, qué que grammar miy mij unique See Language page Daniel Valle
when? cuando quando grammar nutyerivye nu:tjerivje unique See Language page Daniel Valle
where? donde onde grammar nutiy; teta nu:tij; teta unique See Language page Daniel Valle
white blanco branco colour japaru- xaparu unique See Language page Daniel Valle
who? quien, quién quem grammar chi tʃı̃ unique See Language page Daniel Valle
wife esposa esposa kinship rimityoda rimitjonda unique; unique See Language page Daniel Valle
wind viento vento environment richo ritʃo unique See Language page Daniel Valle
wing ala asa body nipya; --jay nipja:; xaj unique See Language page Daniel Valle
woman/female mujer mulher human cadnatu kandnatu unique; unique also 'wife' See Language page Daniel Valle
yellow amarillo amarelo colour vasunudi wasunũndi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
2pl ustedes vocês grammar jirye xirje unique See Language page Daniel Valle
foot pie body numutu numutu unique See Language page Daniel Valle
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar jnay; junay; -ntiy (do sthg again) xnay; xu:na:j; -ntiy unique See Language page Daniel Valle
all todo todos other nuñi; tita; titaju nu:ɲi; ti:ta; ti:ta:xu: unique See Language page Daniel Valle
ankle tobillo tornozelo body numutu (ju)vichiy; numutu rivasiy numutú (ju)víchij; numutú rivjasíj unique See Language page Daniel Valle
armpit axila, sobaco axila body numutojariy; numutojo numuto:xarij; numuto:xo unique See Language page Daniel Valle
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body juvudi; jvudi; vudi (also the vulgar meaning) xu:vu:di; xvu:di; vu:di unique See Language page Daniel Valle
lung pulmón pulmão body saritu sari:tu unique See Language page Daniel Valle
sweat sudar suor, suar body jatay xa:ta:j unique See Language page Daniel Valle
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body dpurivay / purivay dpuri:vaj; puri:vaj See Language page Daniel Valle
bark corteza casca environment {-jay} xaj unique See Language page Daniel Valle
fingernail uña unha body jasumuday xasumundaj unique See Language page Daniel Valle
heart corazón coração body jachiy xatʃij unique See Language page Daniel Valle
sun sol sol time jiñi xiɲı̃ unique See Language page Daniel Valle
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment musiy musij doubtful loan Tanimuca, Panoan See Language page Daniel Valle
green verde verde quality jatya- xatja unique See Language page Daniel Valle
hot caliente quente quality vadaqui wandaki unique See Language page Daniel Valle


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus caváñu kaváɲu See Language page Daniel Valle
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. dichatu ditʃatu unique See Language page Daniel Valle
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna wiče witʃe loan - WW %piʃku, cf. Paéz βiča-kwe See Language page Daniel Valle
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. jmutyu xmutju unique See Language page Amazonia Daniel Valle
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. nuva nuwa unique See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans musaday musandaj loan N. Arawak, e.g. Kabiyari máatʃaɾi See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões Daniel Valle
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. puuvay pũũwaj loan Spanish (via Quechua?) See Language page Different types have different localized ranges Daniel Valle
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae pasatu pasatu unique See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae muchiy mũtʃij unique See Language page Widespread Daniel Valle
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae rataday ratandaj unique See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes puputu puputu doubtful loan - WW? onomatopoeic %pupu See Language page Widespread Daniel Valle
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. cayatu kajãtu unique See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica taracuy tarakũj unique; doubtful loan - WW maybe %kuli See Language page Widespread Daniel Valle
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae muma muma unique See Language page Daniel Valle
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae tono tõno unique See Language page Daniel Valle
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae pachoriy pãtʃorij loan - WW Arawak See Language page Widespread South America Daniel Valle
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family patu (Spanish loan) patu unique ref. hãmusatu See Language page Daniel Valle
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba tantyasi tantjasi doubtful loan Jivaroan taanta See Language page Widespread South America Daniel Valle
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae ripyo ripjõ unique See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris nibi nimbi semantic shift from jaguar See Language page Not native; widespread Daniel Valle
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis cucabnañu kukambnãɲu See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) janutyu xãnũtju unique See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands Daniel Valle
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri mudatu mundatu unique See Language page Widespread in Amazonia Daniel Valle
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. piturya piturja See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. nurtu nurtu unique See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Daniel Valle
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus datiy ndatij unique See Language page Daniel Valle
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna quiva kiwã unique See Language page Daniel Valle
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. nimyutu nimjutu See Language page Daniel Valle
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae mityotu mitjotu doubtful loan cf. Bora nixtja-, W. Tukanoan muɲu See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. muri murı̃ See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. cantyu̱chiy kantjutʃij See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura sicyutu sikjutu See Language page Daniel Valle
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. numiy numij unique See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Daniel Valle
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata morchatu mõrtʃatu unique See Language page Daniel Valle
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. ratu ratu unique See Language page Daniel Valle
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura cotu kõtu unique See Language page Daniel Valle
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes jacodiy xakodij See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae mucomu jicha mukomu xitʃa unknown See Language page Daniel Valle
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna codiy kondij doubtful loan, direction unknown Iquito kuni See Language page Daniel Valle
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox jayanu xãjanu See Language page Widespread South America Daniel Valle
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria jnityu xnitju unique See Language page Widespread Daniel Valle
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis jadatu xãndatu unique See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls Daniel Valle
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) cadijay kandixaj unknown cf. Ingua Quechua kallamba See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Daniel Valle
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba tónchiy tóntʃij See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Daniel Valle
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. musadasiy musandasij loan, direction unknown Iquito musaámɨ See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia Daniel Valle
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa judesiy xudesij unique See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch Daniel Valle
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana code kõnde See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm Daniel Valle
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea ratyujo rãtjuxo unknown See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm Daniel Valle
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes puryi pũrji loan - WW %pipiri See Language page Daniel Valle
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua simusiy simusij See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Daniel Valle
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca japatiy xapatij doubtful loan - WW %patu (cf. %hibie) See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant Daniel Valle
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) nabischu nambistʃũ unique See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Daniel Valle
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra mucha mutʃã See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree Daniel Valle
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens disiy ndisij unique See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant Daniel Valle
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea maní (Sp loan?) maní See Language page plant Daniel Valle
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus nintyu nı̃ntju doubtful loan - WW %tʃihõ or %nana? See Language page plant Daniel Valle
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum tanche tantʃe See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant Daniel Valle
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. cucamubi kukambubi unknown See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Daniel Valle
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. purutu purutu loan Quechua (via Spanish?) See Language page plant Daniel Valle
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) -so; wačuy -so; watʃuy doubtful loan Pano *wasi See Language page Daniel Valle
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays didu ndindu unique See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Daniel Valle
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum sudivi sundiwi unique See Language page plant Daniel Valle
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna ninu ninu unique See Language page Daniel Valle
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana quica kikã unique See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub Daniel Valle
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. ramuya ramujã unknown See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) Daniel Valle
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana riche ritʃe See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree Daniel Valle
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala javaya xawaja See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree Daniel Valle
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree Daniel Valle
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum muyo mujo unknown See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Daniel Valle
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana jãve xãwe unknown See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub Daniel Valle
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree Daniel Valle
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. jaso xaso See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree Daniel Valle
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Daniel Valle
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia samunu samũnu unknown See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape Daniel Valle
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta cusivya kusibjã unknown See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Daniel Valle
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta jasuche xasutʃe doubtful loan W. Tukanoan, e.g. Orejon xãso See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Daniel Valle
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum jonu xonu See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato Daniel Valle
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas jatisiy (sweet potato); jonu xatisij (sweet potato), xonu unknown cf. Witoto 'Xanthosoma' See Language page plant Daniel Valle
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. musa musã See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant Daniel Valle
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. buchinatyu butʃinatju See Language page Daniel Valle
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) cuyu kuju See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree Daniel Valle
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. sucay sukãj unknown See Language page plant Daniel Valle
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. chinriju tʃinrixu See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine Daniel Valle
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. tatyu tatjũ unique See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree Daniel Valle
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi jayavasuca xajawasuka loan Quechua See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine Daniel Valle
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Daniel Valle
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page Daniel Valle
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae See Language page Daniel Valle
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata mucado mukado unique See Language page Daniel Valle
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. jati xatı̃ unique See Language page Daniel Valle
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis jutu xũtũ unique See Language page Daniel Valle
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria carcha kartʃa loan Spanish cucaracha? See Language page Daniel Valle
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae janu xanũ unknown cf. %kute See Language page Daniel Valle
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera cuyotu kujõtu unique See Language page Daniel Valle
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera javanu xawanu See Language page Daniel Valle
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora jityoda xı̃tjonda unique See Language page Daniel Valle
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda mutitu mutitu See Language page Daniel Valle
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones norityu noritju unique See Language page Daniel Valle
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea siyechiy sijẽtʃij doubtful loan - WW onomatopoeic See Language page Daniel Valle
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera dudni ndudnı̃ unique See Language page Daniel Valle
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera nuwačatu nuwatʃatu unique See Language page Daniel Valle
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae ruva ruwa unique See Language page Daniel Valle
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. junu xũnũ unique See Language page Daniel Valle
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae See Language page Daniel Valle
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. hiɲĩnu hiɲĩnu unique See Language page Daniel Valle
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera vaiyujami wãijuxamı̃ unique See Language page Daniel Valle
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea puchatu putʃatu unique See Language page Daniel Valle
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita nudaju nundaxu unique See Language page Daniel Valle
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda juritarya xũritarja unique See Language page Daniel Valle
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae tityu titju unique See Language page Daniel Valle
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca nibi ndimbi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. yavara jawara [from Tupi-Guarani?] See Language page Daniel Valle
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha cachunu katʃunu loan - WW %tʃuru; prob origin Quechua See Language page Daniel Valle
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] nuco nukõ unique See Language page Daniel Valle
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella siñicyo siɲikjo unique See Language page Daniel Valle
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons vatáy watáj unique See Language page Daniel Valle
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus cavota kawota loan - WW %kowata See Language page Daniel Valle
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae sivyara sibjarã unique See Language page Daniel Valle
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis jãnibyi xãnibji See Language page Daniel Valle
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis janay, jasutyu xãnaj, xãsutju unique See Language page Daniel Valle
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu juti xutı̃ unique See Language page Daniel Valle
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari javuy xawũj unique See Language page Daniel Valle
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae judarasiy xũndarasij unique See Language page Daniel Valle
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua jamiy xamij loan, direction unknown Iquito kámɨ See Language page Daniel Valle
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. mutu mutu loan, direction unknown Iquito muuti See Language page Daniel Valle
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris capivyera kapibjera loan Tupi-Guarani See Language page Daniel Valle
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti mucosiy mukõsij See Language page Daniel Valle
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) vañu waɲu unique See Language page Daniel Valle
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus mumi mumı̃ unique See Language page Daniel Valle
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae mucatyu mukatju unique See Language page Daniel Valle
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris jnucha xnutʃa unique See Language page Daniel Valle
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus janariy xanarij unique See Language page Daniel Valle


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material generic basket: hĩtyu; hntyu generic basket: hĩtju; hntju unique See Language page Daniel Valle
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material jityu xı̃tju See Language page Daniel Valle
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material mučarãnũ; mučarãnũsi mutʃarãnũ; mutʃarãnũsi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
bed cama cama culture-material maya maja unique See Language page Daniel Valle
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material juniy xũnij doubtful loan Witotoan See Language page Daniel Valle
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material masajo mãsaxo unique See Language page Daniel Valle
canoe canoa canoa transport caritye karitje unique See Language page Daniel Valle
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture jamu richinu xãmu ritʃı̃nu unique Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Daniel Valle
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology richinu ritʃı̃nu unique See Language page Daniel Valle
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology rimyura rimjura unique In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Daniel Valle
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology rimyura rimjura Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Daniel Valle
broom escoba vassoura culture-material nintya nintjã doubtful loan, direction unknown Zaparoan nanu- See Language page Daniel Valle
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology sujay suxaj unique See Language page Daniel Valle
fence, palisade cerco cerca other puryesiy purjesij unknown cf. TG pari may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Daniel Valle
firewood leña lenha other jipu xipu unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Daniel Valle
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology bayantu bajantu unique See Language page Daniel Valle
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology judenu xũndenu unknown In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Daniel Valle
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology dudu ndundu unknown multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Daniel Valle
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology dudumuta (dudu=flute; muta=a set of musical tubes) ndundumuta See Language page Daniel Valle
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics tununu tunũnu See Language page Daniel Valle
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle
knife cuchillo faca culture-material casetuñu kãsetuñu loan - WW?; unknown %kɨtʃe (or Span cuchillo?) See Language page Daniel Valle
machete machete facão culture-material camyutu, jmuta kamjutu, xmuta unique See Language page Daniel Valle
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool jase xase unknown especially for clearing fields See Language page Daniel Valle
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool hačityã; ruwe; ruwero hatʃitjã; ruwe; ruwero doubtful loan, direction unknown Zaparo akatʃinja hunting, warfare See Language page Daniel Valle
spear lanza lança subsistence tool hĩčityityã; -ro hĩtʃitjitjã; -ro loan; unique Spanish hacha See Language page Daniel Valle
bow arco arco subsistence tool kãnũ kãnũ doubtful loan Panoan *kan(u/a)ti (Shell) arco See Language page Daniel Valle
paddle/oar remo remo transport satya satja unique See Language page Daniel Valle
plate plato prato culture-material sidye sidje unique See Language page Daniel Valle
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool carosi karõsi doubtful loan, direction unknown Iquito kúsi See Language page Daniel Valle
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material pato patõ loan Spanish plato See Language page Daniel Valle
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool missing agriculture? See Language page Daniel Valle
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology susatu susãtu unique See Language page Daniel Valle
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool jaricha xaritʃa unique See Language page Daniel Valle
wax cera cera other jũtũ 'wax', quisiñapa 'beeswax' xũtũ 'wax', kisiɲapa 'beeswax' unique See Language page Daniel Valle
honey miel mel food quisijyã, muchityujã kisixjã, mutʃitjuxã unique; unknown only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Daniel Valle
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material jinchidiy xintʃidij See Language page Daniel Valle
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture judiju xũdixũ unique See Language page Daniel Valle
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology mocandaju (facial tatoo) mõkandaxu See Language page Daniel Valle
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material saru sarũ unique See Language page Daniel Valle
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology rúnda (Chaumeil 1993) rúnda (Chaumeil 1993) a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Daniel Valle
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology jimutu ximutũ See Language page Daniel Valle
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology nuvi nuwi See Language page Daniel Valle
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology muchanta mutʃantã See Language page Daniel Valle
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology dijyo dixjo See Language page Daniel Valle
school escuela escola acculturation catera nũjyo 'place where one writes on paper' katera nũxjo 'place where one writes on paper' See Language page Daniel Valle
bottle botella garrafa acculturation putiya (Sp.) putija (Sp.) See Language page Daniel Valle
paper papel papel acculturation catera-vĩ katera-wĩ loan Span/Port 'carta' See Language page Daniel Valle
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology mãryĩsãda mãrjĩsãda See Language page Daniel Valle
chicken gallina galinha acculturation tuváryi tuwárji unique See Language page Daniel Valle
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology bapyo bapjo See Language page Daniel Valle
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other cachĩpu katʃĩpu See Language page Daniel Valle
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation sabodu 'sugar cane' sabodu 'sugar cane' See Language page Daniel Valle
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material sáya sája loan Port/Span saia See Language page Daniel Valle
shoes zapatos sapatos dress numutujo (from 'foot'), sapatu numutuxo (from 'foot'), sapatu See Language page Daniel Valle
policeman polícia policía acculturation podiciya podisiya See Language page Daniel Valle
soldier soldado soldado acculturation sũtaru sũtaru loan Span/Port soldado See Language page Daniel Valle
cat gato gato acculturation michiy mitʃij loan - WW %miʃi See Language page Daniel Valle
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation dunu dunu unknown See Language page Daniel Valle
hat sombero chapéu dress jnõcõ xnõkõ unknown See Language page Daniel Valle
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology jntityũ xntitjũ unique See Language page Daniel Valle
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool jiivũsetá xiiwũsetá See Language page Daniel Valle
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress vapujay, japujay (female loincloth) wapuxaj, xapuxaj (female loincloth) See Language page Daniel Valle
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page Daniel Valle
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool toyahũ tojahũ (toja='to fish') See Language page Daniel Valle
salt sal sal food tivyiy tiwjij loan - WW %tewe See Language page Daniel Valle
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology cusivyã (set of ritual songs); no generic term? kusiwjã (set of ritual songs); no generic term? unique See Language page Daniel Valle
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool generic gun: dudasi; dunu generic gun: dudasi; dunu unique currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Daniel Valle
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool ramunu ramunu hunting and warfare See Language page Daniel Valle
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool pãpẽtyu pãpẽtju doubtful loan Bora, Carib, other pepet- forms esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Daniel Valle
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food piryuy pirjũj See Language page Daniel Valle
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing See Language page Daniel Valle
hunt cazar caçar food dapuy; du dapuj; du See Language page Daniel Valle
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food nuvo nuwo unique Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Daniel Valle
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool cuyu kuju doubtful loan - WW; loan - WW %koto/matoko; %kuja See Language page Daniel Valle
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool jiminujo xı̃minuxo doubtful loan Carib esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Daniel Valle
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool muta muta loan Tupi-Guarani mita, mirámutá 'platform of sticks' See Language page Daniel Valle
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool sanãho sanãho unique See Language page Daniel Valle
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool sanãse sanãse See Language page Daniel Valle
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture fermented drink: kasihyã; hũdahã fermented drink: kasihjã; hũdahã loan; unknown Carib, via Tupi-Guarani prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Daniel Valle
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food generic meal: huru generic meal: huru loan; unknown Spanish agriculture See Language page Daniel Valle
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food paji paxi unique usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Daniel Valle
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food richatu ritʃatu unique See Language page Daniel Valle
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food sipe sipe agriculture See Language page Daniel Valle
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food missing word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Daniel Valle
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page Daniel Valle
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool ramũ ramũ loan, direction unknown Iquito ramúcuaa; cf. %namo hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Daniel Valle
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool ramitya ramitja unique agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Daniel Valle
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool puryũtyã; piryũtyã (?) purjũtjã; pirjũtjã (?) can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Daniel Valle
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool generic trap: tãnũ generic trap: tãnũ See Language page Daniel Valle
bottom grinding stone manufacture avichu awitʃu if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Daniel Valle
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Daniel Valle
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle
house other roriy rorij unique See Language page Daniel Valle


Grammatical Data (226)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] no Payne and Payne 1990: Daniel Smith
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast no Payne and Payne 1990: Daniel Smith only allophonic
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? no Payne and Payne 1990:432 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels no Payne and Payne 1990:432 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme no Payne and Payne 1990:431 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] yes Payne and Payne 1990:432 Daniel Smith only /y/ allowed in coda
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? no Payne and Payne 1990:432 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones no Payne and Payne 1990:432 Daniel Smith not likely
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? no Payne and Payne 1990:432 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments yes Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word yes Payne and Payne 1990:383 Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different yes Payne and Payne 1990:383-403 Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated no info Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated no info Payne and Payne 1990: Daniel Smith
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced yes Payne and Payne 1990:445 Daniel Smith
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection no info Payne and Payne 1990: Daniel Smith
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word yes with directional verbs Payne and Payne 1990:413 Daniel Smith
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' no info Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs yes Payne and Payne 1990:413 Daniel Smith
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment no Payne and Payne 1990:413 Daniel Smith
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns no info Payne and Payne 1990: Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP yes Payne and Payne 1990:404 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders 2 animate/inanimate Payne and Payne 1990: Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. yes Payne and Payne 1990:446 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter no Payne and Payne 1990:446 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates no Payne and Payne 1990:446 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human yes Payne and Payne 1990: Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only no info Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates yes Payne and Payne 1990:451 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates yes Payne and Payne 1990:446 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" no info Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals yes Payne and Payne 1990:349 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' no info Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups yes #NAME? Payne and Payne 1990:446 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun yes #NAME? Payne and Payne 1990:446 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no Payne and Payne 1990:446 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun no Payne and Payne 1990:446 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic no Payne and Payne 1990:446 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only no info Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' no info Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only no Payne and Payne 1990:349 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness yes a set of person enclitics and word order can mark definiteness Payne and Payne 1990:453 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you yes Payne and Payne 1990:370 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) no Payne and Payne 1990:361 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system 2 this' and 'that' Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no info Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix no a coreferential person marker on verb Payne and Payne 1990:275 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients no Payne and Payne 1990:348 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun no info author talks about obliques, but does not specify how many Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are no beneficiaries/recipients marked with the dative Payne and Payne 1990:379 Daniel Smith two types of dative markers: one for interlocutors and another for intralocutors
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) yes Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic yes Payne and Payne 1990:378 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic no Payne and Payne 1990:378 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic no Payne and Payne 1990:378 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change no Payne and Payne 1990:378 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone no Payne and Payne 1990:378 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' yes #NAME? #NAME? Payne and Payne 1990:403 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 no info Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 no info Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 no info Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. no info Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' no info Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no info Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no info Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no info Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival yes Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? yes Set I clitics are prefixed Payne and Payne 1990:271 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' yes Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no Payne and Payne 1990:348 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no Payne and Payne 1990:348 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form no info Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father no info Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg no info Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes yes very small/limited class Payne and Payne 1990:416 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco no no gender marked in Yagua Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb yes -jada ~ -janu different varieties Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb yes a paradigm exists that specifies animate/inanimate Payne and Payne 1990:354 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb yes a paradigm exists that specifies animate/inanimate Payne and Payne 1990:357 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective yes Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' no info couldn't find info on NP coordination Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere yes Payne and Payne 1990:386 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past yes three different past tense markers Payne and Payne 1990:386 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future no no dedicated future; irrealis instead Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes Payne and Payne 1990:383 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood yes modal auxiliary /a/ Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses no Payne and Payne 1990:314 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something no info Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction no info Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking no info Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis no info Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction no info Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking no info Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected no info Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") yes Payne and Payne 1990:403 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality yes #NAME? Payne and Payne 1990:391 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' no not likely Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' yes a irrealis Payne and Payne 1990:403 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme yes Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction no info Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order yes Payne and Payne 1990:254 Daniel Smith
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject yes Payne and Payne 1990:254 Daniel Smith
Word Order VS in transitive clauses yes Payne and Payne 1990:254 Daniel Smith
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object yes basic order is VSO Payne and Payne 1990:254 Daniel Smith
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject no Payne and Payne 1990:254 Daniel Smith
Word Order Preposition-Noun no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) yes Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun no Payne and Payne 1990:349 Daniel Smith
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun yes Payne and Payne 1990:349 Daniel Smith
Word Order Demonstrative-Noun yes Payne and Payne 1990:349 Daniel Smith
Word Order Noun-Demonstrative no Payne and Payne 1990:349 Daniel Smith
Word Order Num-Noun yes Payne and Payne 1990:349 Daniel Smith
Word Order Noun-Num no Payne and Payne 1990:349 Daniel Smith
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies yes Payne and Payne 1990:342 Daniel Smith
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause yes Payne and Payne 1990:310 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs yes Set I clitics for S, Set II for O Payne and Payne 1990:361 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Payne and Payne 1990:361 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive no Payne and Payne 1990:361 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) no Payne and Payne 1990:361 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. no unlikely Payne and Payne 1990:361 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects no almost always Set I clitics Payne and Payne 1990:361 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Payne and Payne 1990:361 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Payne and Payne 1990:361 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. yes Payne and Payne 1990:361 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no Payne and Payne 1990:361 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes yes Payne and Payne 1990:361 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers yes Payne and Payne 1990:361 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers yes Payne and Payne 1990:361 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no Payne and Payne 1990:361 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no Payne and Payne 1990:361 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately no info no examples of number on verbs, so unlikely Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes yes Set I clitics mark possession Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent no no gender distinction in the language Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently yes dative marker for recipient/beneficiary Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. no reflexive/reciprocal coreferential marker Payne and Payne 1990:271 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. no reflexive/reciprocal coreferential marker Payne and Payne 1990:271 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb yes #NAME? Payne and Payne 1990:275 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency no info Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb yes #NAME? Payne and Payne 1990:284 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element yes nee Payne and Payne 1990:317 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle yes Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle yes #NAME? second position clitic Payne and Payne 1990:308 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) yes Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position no info Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position no info Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) no info Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) yes Payne and Payne 1990:346 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. no only possible when coreferential with a previous NP in the discourse Payne and Payne 1990:346 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause no info Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix no Payne and Payne 1990:342 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. no info Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined no info Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence no info Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith