Headless relative clauses

Simple Clauses - Predication
Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head)


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla Jane Hill
Cupeño Jane Hill
Luiseño Jane Hill
Serrano Jane Hill
Kitanemuk Jane Hill
Kawaiisu Jane Hill
Timbisha Jane Hill
Western Mono Jane Hill
Chemehuevi Jane Hill
Southern Paiute Jane Hill
Southern Ute Jane Hill
Shoshone Jane Hill
Comanche Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute Jane Hill
Gabrielino Jane Hill
Achagua yes When relative clauses are juxtaposed Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 143 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro yes Relative clauses do not seem to have heads-- the head function is indicated by a classifier. Allin, 1976: 361 Aimee Lawrence
Bare yes Headless relative clauses exist but they're difficult to distinguish from complement clauses. Aikhenvald, 1995: 47 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco no The examples all occur with a gender marker on the verb in the relative clause. These gender markers are also used on adjectives, suggesting they are agreement markers rather than heads. Galindo, 2002: 341-342 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna no The "appositive" (which the relative clauses are identified as) follows the noun. Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 28 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 94 Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana yes Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu no Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 799 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana yes Aikhenvald mentions that "headless relative clauses are constituents of the main clause," suggesting that there are headless relative clauses. Aikhenvald, 2003: 537-538 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã yes Facundes, 2000: 583-585 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali yes Payne 1981:1738 Amanda Meeks
Maipure yes Zamponi 2003:37-47 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' yes Duff-Tripp 1997:206 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure yes Danielsen 2007:398 Daniel Valle
Nanti yes There is a subtype of ranked relative clauses that can be headless. Michael, 2008. p. 410 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Palikur no info Launey 2003 Daniel Smith
Yine no info Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun no info Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora yes Seifart - 2005:70-71 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no info Hall 1988: 351-352 Melody Ann Ross
Makushi yes "Simple nominalization often results in an appositive relationship with another noun phrase, usually with an intonational break. The nominalized construction can also occur alone without a head noun." Abbott 1991: 70 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa no info Daniel Valle
Pemon yes de Armellada 1999:27 Daniel Valle
Guna yes Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso yes Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika no info more likely not Frank 19885:130-3 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí yes Quesada 2008:174 Daniel Valle
Damana no Williams 1993:149-54 Daniel Valle
Sikuani yes de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000 Amanda Meeks
Macaguan no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna yes Overall 2007:253-5 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá yes Mortensen 1999:129 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá no info Daniel Valle
Matses no info Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no info Daniel Valle
Páez no info Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no However, it is based on the few examples given in the source. It may be possible that headless relative clauses exist in the language. Soto 1976:152-4 Daniel Valle
Tikuna no info Daniel Valle
Urarina no Olawsky:320 Daniel Valle
Waunana no info Daniel Valle
Andoke no info Kelsey Neely
Puinave no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no Huayhua Pari 2001: 304 Shannon Dardis The relative clause is externally headed (the head comes after the rel. clause), but it definitely has a head.
Kakua no info Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no Relative pronouns are used as the head of these clauses. Minor and Minor 1982. p.95 Christopher Clack
Hup yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect yes Weir 1984:63 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw yes Martins 509 Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano yes Most of the clauses functioning as the complement of other clauses are nominalized and may be viewed as headless relative clauses. Miller 1999, p.145 Chris Clack
Cubeo yes nominalized verbs can be considered relative clauses like when subjects are not overt and tehre is no relative pronoun- Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 152 Amanda Novak
Kotiria yes appear with nominalizer/classifier Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Makuna no Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.41-42 Chris Clack
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.41 Chris Clack
Barasano no There seem to be no relative clauses in Barasano just as there are no relative pronouns. Jones & Jones 1991, p.149 Chris Clack
Tanimuca yes When relativizing into the subject, object, or recipient and the head of the relative clause is pronominal, rather than full NP, the pronoun is omitted and the head is referred to only by the number/gender suffix Strom 1992, p.151-154 Chris Clack Relative clauses in Retuarã are not common. headless relative with number/gender inflection
Siona yes Wheeler - 1987:117-118 Amanda Meeks
Tukano yes Ramirez 1997: 279 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami no Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely no examples of this
Ninam yes Goodwin-Gomez, p. 131-132 Kelsey Neely
Sanumá no Borgman 1990: 133 Kelsey Neely
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana no info Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no Krivoshein and Acosta 2001:152-9 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama yes Vallejos 2010:583 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu no done 0
Wambaya no done 0
Bunuba no done 0
Walmajarri no info Done-Claire x
Nyulnyul no info done? x
Warrwa no info done x
Worrorra no? ms17.1.1.i done 0
Garrwa no info done X
Gooniyandi no info done x
Warlpiri no info done 0
Bardi yes done-Claire 1
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no info done x
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi no 183 done-Dan 0
Yidiny yes done-Catherine 1
Yanyuwa n/a Done-Austin 0
Yandruwandha no info Done-Dan x
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no info Done-Dan x
Woiwurrung no info done-Amalia x
Wirangu No info done x
Wemba-Wemba no info done-Amalia x
Warumungu No 58 done-Amalia 0
Wangkumara no info done X
Uradhi No 378 Y 0
Paakantyi no info Y-Hannah X
Pitta-Pitta No 216 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no info done-Hannah x
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta yes 130-131 Done-Hannah 1
Ngiyambaa yes 299 Done-Emily 1
Ngayawang No info done-Amalia x
Muruwari yes 226 Done-Dan 1
Mayi-Yapi No 72-73 done 0
Martuthunira no info done x
Marrgany No info Done-Amalia x
Kuuk Thaayorre No 533 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji no info 181 Done-Jessica x
Kugu-Nganhcara No 430 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna No info done-Amalia x
Kalkatungu yes 101 Done-Dan 1
Jaru no info Done-Amalia x
Guugu-Yimidhirr No info Done-Amalia x
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr no 361 done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun no info done-Jessica x
Yuwaalaraay No 113 0
Dyirbal No 99 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu yes 104 done 1
Djinang No 207 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari no 206 done-Hannah 0
Dharawal no info done-Hannah w Dhurga) x
Darkinyung no info done x
Bularnu n/a Done-Austin 0
Biri no 61 done-Jessica 0
Bidjara-Gungabula no info done-Jessica x
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana yes 267 Done-Dan 1
Alyawarr no 135 done 0
Nyikina no info done-Claire x
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija no info Done-Amalia x
Wathawurrung no info done x
Mathi-Mathi no info done-Amalia x
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no info done-Amalia x
Thanggati no 69-70 done 0
Katthang no info done-Amalia x
Panyjima no info done x
Ngarinyeri No 32 done-Amalia 0
Kurrama no info done-Dan x
Yingkarta no info Done-Claire x
Githabul yes 47 Done-Amalia 1
Gunya No info Done-Amalia x
Kunjen No 56 Done- 0
WesternTorres no info done x
Wakaya yes 240 done 1
Yindjilindji no info done x
Bandjalang No 122 Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara No 114 done 0
Arrernte Yes 321 1
Kokatha no info 33 x
Karajarri Yes 389 Done-Amalia 1
Pitjantjatjara No G 154, 158 0
Ritharrngu Yes 111 Done-Amalia 1
Warrgamay No 73 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no info Done-Amalia x
Warnman no info Done-Amalia x
Djapu no info x
Bilinarra no info done x
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 73 Y2 0
Narungga No info done x
Tharrkari No 53 0
Wajarri No 113 0
Warungu yes? 613 1
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua yes Payne and Payne 1990:346 Daniel Smith
Baniwa yes Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps