Headless relative clauses

Simple Clauses - Predication
Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head)


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Western Mono
Southern Paiute
Southern Ute
Idaho Shoshone
Northern Paiute
Achagua yes When relative clauses are juxtaposed Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 143
Resígaro yes Relative clauses do not seem to have heads-- the head function is indicated by a classifier. Allin, 1976: 361
Bare yes Headless relative clauses exist but they're difficult to distinguish from complement clauses. Aikhenvald, 1995: 47
Piapoco no The examples all occur with a gender marker on the verb in the relative clause. These gender markers are also used on adjectives, suggesting they are agreement markers rather than heads. Galindo, 2002: 341-342
Yukuna no The "appositive" (which the relative clauses are identified as) follows the noun. Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 28
Yavitero no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 94
Wapishana yes Santos 2006
Wayuu no Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 799
Tariana yes Aikhenvald mentions that "headless relative clauses are constituents of the main clause," suggesting that there are headless relative clauses. Aikhenvald, 2003: 537-538
Apurinã yes Facundes, 2000: 583-585
Asheninka Apurucayali yes Payne 1981:1738
Maipure yes Zamponi 2003:37-47
Yanesha' yes Duff-Tripp 1997:206
Kinikinau no info
Baure yes Danielsen 2007:398
Nanti yes There is a subtype of ranked relative clauses that can be headless. Michael, 2008. p. 410
Paresi no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010
Palikur no info Launey 2003
Yine no info Matteson 1965
Añun no info Patte 1989
Bora yes Seifart - 2005:70-71
Makiritare no info Hall 1988: 351-352
Makushi yes "Simple nominalization often results in an appositive relationship with another noun phrase, usually with an intonational break. The nominalized construction can also occur alone without a head noun." Abbott 1991: 70
Eñepa no info
Pemon yes de Armellada 1999:27
Guna yes Smith texts
Naso yes Quesada 2000
Ika no info more likely not Frank 19885:130-3
Kogi no info
Cabecar no info
Guaymí yes Quesada 2008:174
Damana no Williams 1993:149-54
Sikuani yes de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000
Macaguan no info Buenaventura - 1993
Aguaruna yes Overall 2007:253-5
Northern Emberá yes Mortensen 1999:129 Catío
Waorani no info
Ingá no info
Matses no info
Mapudungun no info
Páez no info
Quechua Ayacuchano no However, it is based on the few examples given in the source. It may be possible that headless relative clauses exist in the language. Soto 1976:152-4
Tikuna no info
Urarina no Olawsky:320
Waunana no info
Andoke no info
Puinave no info
Central Aymara no Huayhua Pari 2001: 304 The relative clause is externally headed (the head comes after the rel. clause), but it definitely has a head.
Kakua no info Bolaños fieldnotes
Kaingang no info Silva 2011
Minica Witoto no Relative pronouns are used as the head of these clauses. Minor and Minor 1982. p.95
Hup yes Epps 2008
Nadëb/Roçado dialect yes Weir 1984:63
Dâw yes Martins 509 Martins 2004
Desano yes Most of the clauses functioning as the complement of other clauses are nominalized and may be viewed as headless relative clauses. Miller 1999, p.145
Cubeo yes nominalized verbs can be considered relative clauses like when subjects are not overt and tehre is no relative pronoun- Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 152
Kotiria yes appear with nominalizer/classifier Stenzel 2004
Makuna no Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.41-42
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.41
Barasano no There seem to be no relative clauses in Barasano just as there are no relative pronouns. Jones & Jones 1991, p.149
Tanimuca yes When relativizing into the subject, object, or recipient and the head of the relative clause is pronominal, rather than full NP, the pronoun is omitted and the head is referred to only by the number/gender suffix Strom 1992, p.151-154 Relative clauses in Retuarã are not common. headless relative with number/gender inflection
Siona yes Wheeler - 1987:117-118
Tukano yes Ramirez 1997: 279
Yanomami no Ramirez 1994 no examples of this
Ninam yes Goodwin-Gomez, p. 131-132
Sanumá no Borgman 1990: 133
Surui no info
Karitiana no info
Nheengatu no Cruz 2011
Paraguayan Guaraní no Krivoshein and Acosta 2001:152-9
Aché no info
Kokama yes Vallejos 2010:583
Nyangumarta no 0
Jingulu no 0
Wambaya no 0
Bunuba no 0
Walmajarri no info x
Nyulnyul no info x
Warrwa no info x
Worrorra no? ms17.1.1.i 0
Garrwa no info X
Gooniyandi no info x
Warlpiri no info 0
Bardi yes 1
Yorta Yorta no info x
Yir Yoront
Yindjibarndi no 183 0
Yidiny yes 1
Yanyuwa n/a 0
Yandruwandha no info x
Yalarnnga no info x
Woiwurrung no info x
Wirangu No info x
Wemba-Wemba no info x
Warumungu No 58 0
Wangkumara no info X
Uradhi No 378 0
Paakantyi no info X
Pitta-Pitta No 216 0
Pintupi no info x
Nyungar no info x
Nhanta yes 130-131 1
Ngiyambaa yes 299 1
Ngayawang No info x
Muruwari yes 226 1
Mayi-Yapi No 72-73 0
Martuthunira no info x
Marrgany No info x
Kuuk Thaayorre No 533 0
Kuku Yalanji no info 181 x
Kugu-Nganhcara No 430 0
Kaurna No info x
Kalkatungu yes 101 1
Jaru no info x
Guugu-Yimidhirr No info x
Gureng Gureng no info x
Gumbaynggirr no 361 0
Gugu-Badhun no info x
Yuwaalaraay No 113 0
Dyirbal No 99 0
Duungidjawu yes 104 1
Djinang No 207 0
Diyari no 206 0
Dharawal no info x
Darkinyung no info x
Bularnu n/a 0
Biri no 61 0
Bidjara-Gungabula no info x
Batyala no info x
Arabana yes 267 1
Alyawarr no 135 0
Nyikina no info x
Yulparija no info x
Wathawurrung no info x
Mathi-Mathi no info x
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no info x
Thanggati no 69-70 0
Katthang no info x
Panyjima no info x
Ngarinyeri No 32 0
Kurrama no info x
Yingkarta no info x
Githabul yes 47 1
Gunya No info x
Kunjen No 56 0
WesternTorres no info x
Wakaya yes 240 1
Yindjilindji no info x
Bandjalang No 122 0
Ngaatjatjara No 114 0
Arrernte Yes 321 1
Kokatha no info 33 x
Karajarri Yes 389 1
Pitjantjatjara No G 154, 158 0
Ritharrngu Yes 111 1
Warrgamay No 73 0
Warluwarra no info x
Warnman no info x
Djapu no info x
Bilinarra no info x
Wiradjuri no info x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 73 0
Narungga No info x
Tharrkari No 53 0
Wajarri No 113 0
Warungu yes? 613 1
Yagua yes Payne and Payne 1990:346
Baniwa yes Ramirez 2001