Wapishana

Family
Arawakan
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
wap
Location
2.59°, -59.80°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
dos Santos, Manoel Gomes. 2006. Uma Gramática do Wapixana (Aruák) – Aspectos da Fonologia, da Morfologia e da Sintaxe. Universidade Estadual de Campinas. Campinas, SP: Univ. xviii+280pp. (Doctoral disseration). Tracy, Frances V. and Melville, Colette and Williams, Olive. 2000. Wapishana. South American Indian Languages, Computer Database (Intercontinental Series, vol. 1) General Editor Mary-Ritchie Key. Irvine: University of California.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location dukʰu ii dukʰu ii unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
and y e grammar naʔik naʔik unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment paɽitiʔi paɽitiʔi inheritance Proto North Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B.
at en, a em, a location i: i: unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
back espalda costas body baɽai baɽai unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
bad mal mal quality idikʰaɨda idikʰaɨda inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
belly barriga barriga body -tʰuˀba -tʰuˀba Doubtful loan, direction unknown Compare Cofán thopa See Language page Ana Paula B.
below abajo, debajo abaixo location [-]waranɨ ii [-]waranɨ ii unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
big grande grande quality ɨdarɨ; tɨbarɨ ɨdarɨ; tɨbarɨ inheritance Proto-Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B.
black negro preto colour pʰudidi-ʔu pʰudidi-ʔu Doubtful loan Carib, esp. Eñepa ti-puru-ke See Language page Ana Paula B.
blood sangre sangue body iẓai iẓai inheritance Proto-Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B.
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body -ˀbaišin -ˀbaišin unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
bone hueso osso body niwaʔɨ niwaʔɨ unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
breast pecho, seno peito body -ˀdɨn -ˀdɨn inheritance Proto-Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B.
child niño, niña criança human kuraiˀdaunaa kuraiˀdaunaa unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
cloud nube nuvem environment [-]waranɨ ii [-]waranɨ ii unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
cold frío frio quality wadidi-ʔu wadidi-ʔu inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality miʃu miʃu unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
day día dia time wakʰandan; kʰanda-ʔu wakʰandan; kʰanda-ʔu doubtful loan, direction unknown Yanomami wakara See Language page Ana Paula B.
dirty sucio sujo quality kaniɽibaʔu kaniɽibaʔu inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
dingo/wolf fauna missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
dry seco seco quality arada-ʔu arada-ʔu doubtful loan, direction unknown Wayana ahalap See Language page Ana Paula B.
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality manɨna-ʔu manɨna-ʔu inheritance Proto North Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B.
dust polvo poeira environment ɨnɨˀba ɨnɨˀba unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
ear oreja orelha body -tʰaini -tʰaini inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
earth/soil tierra terra environment imiʔi imiʔi unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
egg huevo ovo fauna kʰɨrɨkʰɨ dani ('chicken egg') kʰɨrɨkʰɨ dani unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
eye ojo olho body -awɨn -awɨn unknown Possibly inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
far lejos longe quality mɨnap mɨnap unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
fat/grease grasa gordura body kʰiwinii kʰiwinii doubtful loan, direction unknown Carib; Makushi kaiwan, Mapoyo kauri See Language page Ana Paula B.
father padre, papá pai kinship -ˀdarɨ -ˀdarɨ loan, direction unknown Warao dani See Language page Ana Paula B.
feather pluma pena fauna -iˀdi -iˀdi inheritance Proto-Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B.
fire fuego fogo environment tʰikʰaẓi tʰikʰaẓi inheritance Proto-Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B.
flower flor flor environment [-]suusu [-]suusu inheritance Proto-Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B.
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment amaẓaˀda šan amaẓaˀda šan inheritance Proto North Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B.
fruit fruta fruta flora akaj akaj inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
good bueno bom quality kʰaiman kʰaiman inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body -ẓuwaɨ-ˀdi 'head-hair' -ẓuwaɨ-ˀdi 'head-hair' unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
hand mano mão body -kʰaʔɨ -kʰaʔɨ inheritance Proto-Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B.
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar ɨrɨɨ; uruu ɨrɨɨ; uruu inheritance Proto North Arawak? See Language page Ana Paula B.
head cabeza cabeça body -ẓuwaɨ -ẓuwaɨ inheritance Proto-Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B.
heavy pesado pesado quality kimiʃaʔu kimiʃaʔu inheritance Proto North Arawak? See Language page Ana Paula B.
how? como como grammar naʔapam naʔapam unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
1sg yo eu grammar ũgar-ɨ ũgar-ɨ inheritance Proto North Arawak? See Language page Ana Paula B.
if si se grammar paɨgaɽɨ paɨgaɽɨ unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location uwɨʔ uwɨʔ unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
intestines intestinos intestinos body [-]ukʰuru [-]ukʰuru unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
lake lago lago environment kaɽiʃi: kaɽiʃi: inheritance Proto-Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B.
leaf hoja folha environment anaˀba anaˀba inheritance Proto North Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B.
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body ašaˀbaru ašaˀbaru inheritance Proto North Arawak? See Language page Ana Paula B.
leg/foot pierna perna body tabaɨj tabaɨj unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment tʰuruwanarɨ pʰiẓuwa-n tʰuruwanarɨ pʰiẓuwa-n semantic shift thunder See Language page Ana Paula B.
liver hígado figado body -kʰɨˀbaa -kʰɨˀbaa inheritance Proto-Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B.
long largo comprido, longo quality ɖawɨʔau ɖawɨʔau unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna nai nai inheritance Proto-Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B.
man/male hombre homem human ˀdaunaiura ˀdaunaiura doubtful loan Carib: Makiritare danwa, Makushi warayoʔ See Language page Ana Paula B.
meat/flesh carne carne fauna ˀdɨnaa ˀdɨnaa inheritance Proto-Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B.
moon luna lua environment kʰaɨẓ kʰaɨẓ inheritance Proto-Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B.
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship -ˀdaru -ˀdaru doubtful loan Carib; Pemon dan, Makiritare denɨ See Language page Ana Paula B.
mouth boca boca body -ˀdakʰu -ˀdakʰu inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
name nombre nome human ɨɨ ɨɨ inheritance Proto North Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B.
near/close cerca de perto quality maunapʰa maunapʰa doubtful loan Carib; Pemon mare, Yukpa mana, but cf. Warekena See Language page Ana Paula B.
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body ɖinaj ɖinaj unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
neck cuello pescoço body kanaɨ kanaɨ inheritance Proto-Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B.
new nuevo novo quality pʰaʔina-ʔu pʰaʔina-ʔu unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
night noche noite time wamarɨtʰan; marɨtʰa-ʔu wamarɨtʰan; marɨtʰa-ʔu unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
no/not no não grammar auna: auna: unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
nose nariz nariz body -iˀdiˀba -iˀdiˀba unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
old viejo velho quality ẓaam ẓaam doubtful loan Carib, e.g. Makiritare inʃomo 'old one' See Language page Ana Paula B.
one uno um number ˀbaɨdaʔapʰa ˀbaɨdaʔapʰa inheritance Proto-Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B.
other otro outro grammar missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body rinai rinai unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
person/human being persona pessoa human pʰiˀdan pʰiˀdan unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
rain lluvia chuva environment wɨnɨ wɨnɨ inheritance Proto North Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B.
red rojo vermelho colour wɨẓa-ʔu wɨẓa-ʔu inheritance Proto-Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B.
right/right hand derecha direita location/body diwaʔura diwaʔura unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
road/path camino caminho manufacture dɨnapʰu-saˀba dɨnapʰu-saˀba inheritance Proto-Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B.
root raíz raiz flora ištʰaˀbaʔɨ iʃtʰaˀbaʔɨ inheritance Proto North Arawak? See Language page Ana Paula B.
rotten podrido podre quality dyɨpʰɨša-ʔu dyɨpʰɨša-ʔu unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
sand arena areia environment kʰatʰɨ kʰatʰɨ inheritance Proto North Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B.
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality ɖimana ɖimana inheritance Proto North Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B.
short corto curto quality madiwaɨ madiwaɨ inheritance Proto North Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B.
shoulder hombro ombro body wauɖaj wauɖaj unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental kʰa-kʰiˀbaʔaẓunau-ʔu kʰa-kʰiˀbaʔaẓunau-ʔu inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
skin piel pele body maˀda maˀda inheritance Proto-Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B.
sky cielo céu environment aukaʐ aukaʐ unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
small pequeño pequeno quality kʰaikʰapʰasudi-ʔu kʰaikʰapʰasudi-ʔu unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
smoke humo fumaça environment tʰikʰaẓi šan tʰikʰaẓi ʃan inheritance Proto-Arawak? See Language page Ana Paula B.
star estrella estrela environment wiiẓi wiiẓi inheritance Proto North Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B.
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora atʰamɨnɨ atʰamɨnɨ inheritance Proto North Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B.
stone piedra pedra environment kʰɨˀba kʰɨˀba inheritance Proto-Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B.
tail cola, rabo rabo body -ˀdyɨu ˀdjɨu inheritance Proto-Arawak? See Language page Ana Paula B.
that ese/esa esse grammar ɖiwɨɽaː unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar ɨnau ɨnau inheritance Proto North Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B.
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality tuɽumaɽu tuɽumaɽu unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
thin delgado fino quality maɖaɖɨkaʔu maɖaɖɨkaʔu inheritance Proto North Arawak? See Language page Ana Paula B.
this este/esta este grammar ɖiwɨɽaː unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
2sg xx xx grammar pʰɨgar-ɨ pʰɨgar-ɨ inheritance Proto North Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B.
throat garganta garganta body [-]šararan [-]šararan unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
three tres tres number idikʰinaɨdaʔɨ idikʰinaɨdaʔɨ unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
thunder truenos trovão environment tʰuruwanarɨ tʰuruwanarɨ doubtful loan Portuguese trouvão See Language page Ana Paula B.
bite morder morder body arutʰa-n arutʰa-n unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
blow soplar soprar body pʰuutʰa-n pʰuutʰa-n unknown Onomatopoeic See Language page Ana Paula B.
breathe respirar respirar body [-]niẓuwa-n [-]niẓuwa-n unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
burn quemar queimar environment kʰaʔauˀda-n kʰaʔauˀda-n inheritance? See Language page Ana Paula B.
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body šumaɨa-n šumaɨa-n unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
climb subir subir motion ẓaida-n ẓaida-n unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
come venir vir motion waʔatin waʔatin inheritance Proto North Arawak? See Language page Ana Paula B.
cook cocinar cozinhar impact warakʰa-n warakʰa-n inheritance Proto North Arawak? See Language page Ana Paula B.
count contar contar mental aitan aitan unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
cry llorar chorar mental ẓaada-n ẓaada-n inheritance Proto-Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B.
cut/hack cortar cortar impact čʰuuta-n čʰuuta-n unknown Possibly inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
die/be dead morir morrer state mauwakʰa-n mauwakʰa-n unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
dig cavar cavar impact kʰičʰada-n kʰičʰada-n inheritance Proto-Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B.
dream soñar sonhar mental kʰa-ẓanˀdaʔautʰ-ĩĩa-n kʰa-ẓanˀdaʔautʰ-ĩĩa-n unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
drink beber, tomar beber body tʰɨẓa-n tʰɨẓa-n inheritance Proto-Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B.
eat comer comer body aruupʰa-n aruupʰa-n unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
fall caer cair motion wautʰa-n wautʰa-n inheritance? See Language page Ana Paula B.
fear miedo medo mental taɽian (be scared, have fear) taɽian (be scared, have fear) doubtful loan Carib, e.g. Waimiri-Atroari teneriki See Language page Ana Paula B.
flow fluir fluir motion ẓiutʰa-n ẓiutʰa-n unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
fly volar voar motion ẓɨɨtʰa-n ẓɨɨtʰa-n inheritance Proto-Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B.
grow crecer crescer state dyaɨpʰai-n dyaɨpʰai-n unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
hear oír ouvir mental aˀbatʰa-n aˀbatʰa-n inheritance see Guajiro See Language page Ana Paula B.
hide esconder esconder motion diẓa-n diẓa-n unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
hit golpear, pegar bater impact ʐuitʃ ʐuitʃ unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other ʐamt ʐamt unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
kill matar matar impact ẓuwia-n ẓuwia-n unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental aitʰapʰa-n aitʰapʰa-n inheritance Proto-Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B.
laugh reír rir mental ʃaʐutan ʃaʐutan inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion waʐti waʐti unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body kakɨp (viver), maʃaʔap (morar) kakɨp (viver), maʃaʔap (morar) unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
open/uncover abrir abrir other daʔatʰa-n daʔatʰa-n unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact tʰinikʰa-n tʰinikʰa-n unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
say decir dizer mental kʰia-n kʰia-n unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
scratch rascar rasgar impact kɨzɨt kɨzɨt unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
see ver ver mental tʰɨkʰapʰa-n tʰɨkʰapʰa-n inheritance Proto North Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B.
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact baʔi baʔi unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
sit sentar(se) sentar state sakantan sakantan inheritance Proto North Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B.
sleep dormir dormir body ˀdaʔawɨ-n ˀdaʔawɨ-n unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body dama-n dama-n inheritance Proto-Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B.
spit escupir cuspir body supʰitʰa-n supʰitʰa-n unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact tʰadaʔukʰa-n tʰadaʔukʰa-n inheritance? See Language page Ana Paula B.
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact raɨda-n raɨda-n unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact dakʰatʰa-n dakʰatʰa-n unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state kʰadišitʰa-n kʰadišitʰa-n inheritance Proto-Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B.
steal robar roubar other kʰuʔidapʰa-n kʰuʔidapʰa-n unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
suck chupar chupar body suẓukʰa-n suẓukʰa-n inheritance Proto North Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B.
swell hincharse inchar body šiia-n šiia-n unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
swim nadar nadar motion niutʰa-n niutʰa-n inheritance Proto North Arawak? See Language page Ana Paula B.
think pensar pensar mental diʔitʰapʰa-n diʔitʰapʰa-n inheritance Proto North Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B.
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact kabuʔutan kabuʔutan inheritance? See Language page Ana Paula B.
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact duʔutʰa-n duʔutʰa-n unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other pʰadantʰa-n pʰadantʰa-n unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
vomit vomitar vomitar body tait tait inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
walk caminar, andar andar motion čʰiʔikʰapʰa-n tʃʰiʔikʰapʰa-n unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
work trabajar trabalhar other kaʔɨɖiɲam kaʔɨɖiɲam unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
yawn bostezar bocejar body tʰaˀbaawa-n tʰaˀbaawa-n unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
tongue lengua lingua body -ninuˀba -ninuˀba inheritance Proto-Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B.
tooth diente dente body -ɨˀdakʰu -ɨˀdakʰu unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
two dos dois number dyaʔɨtʰam djaʔɨtʰam inheritance Proto-Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B.
water agua agua environment wɨnɨ wɨnɨ inheritance Proto-Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B.
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar waɨnau waɨnau inheritance Proto North Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B.
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
wet mojado molhado quality ẓaˀbi-ʔu ẓaˀbi-ʔu inheritance Proto-Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B.
what? que, qué que grammar kʰanu-m dii; naʔapʰam kʰanu-m dii; naʔapʰam inheritance Proto North Arawak? See Language page Ana Paula B.
when? cuando quando grammar naʔapainim naʔapainim unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
where? donde onde grammar naʔiam (di:) naʔiam (di:) unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
white blanco branco colour ˀbarakʰa-ʔu ˀbarakʰa-ʔu unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
who? quien, quién quem grammar kʰan-dii; kʰanu-m kʰan-dii; kʰanu-m inheritance Proto North Arawak? See Language page Ana Paula B.
wife esposa esposa kinship -ˀdaiaru -ˀdajaru unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
wind viento vento environment auwaɽɨ auwaɽɨ inheritance Proto North Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B.
wing ala asa body [-]kʰɨtʰɨˀba [-]kʰɨtʰɨˀba unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
woman/female mujer mulher human ẓɨna ẓɨna inheritance Proto-Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B.
yellow amarillo amarelo colour kʰidai-ʔu kʰidai-ʔu unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
2pl ustedes vocês grammar ɨnau ɨnau inheritance Proto North Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B.
foot pie body -kʰiˀdiˀba -kʰiˀdiˀba inheritance Proto-Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B.
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar kʰušan kʰušan unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
all todo todos other baukup baukup unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
ankle tobillo tornozelo body [-]ˀbaruriʔi [-]ˀbaruriʔi unknown Some similarity to Carib (e.g. Eñepa paraʔmu), but borrowing seems unlikely See Language page Ana Paula B.
armpit axila, sobaco axila body kiʃap kiʃap unknown Possibly inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body ɖik ɖik inheritance Proto-Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B.
lung pulmón pulmão body [-]šiin [-]šiin unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
sweat sudar suor, suar body mašikʰia-n mašikʰia-n unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body ˀdawɨ-n ˀdawɨ-n unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
bark corteza casca environment atʰamɨnɨ mada atʰamɨnɨ mada inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
fingernail uña unha body -ˀbaẓi -ˀbaẓi inheritance? See Language page Ana Paula B.
heart corazón coração body -nyɨkʰɨnɨɨ njɨkʰɨnɨɨ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
sun sol sol time kʰamuu kʰamuu inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment miˀdɨkʰɨu; nawaẓi miˀdɨkʰɨu; nawaẓi unknown; unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
green verde verde quality kʰuʔuri-ʔu kʰuʔuri-ʔu inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
hot caliente quente quality wičʰa-ʔu witʃʰa-ʔu inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (136)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana missing See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no shrub Ana Paula B.
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) no Ana Paula B.
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. sukuɽɨ sukuɽɨ doubtful loan Carib See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. kʰanawaˀda; atʰurɨ kʰanawaˀda; atʰurɨ unique second form is from 'canoe' May be inheritance See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Throughout Amazonia no? Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Ana Paula B.
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis pʰuuwa pʰuuwa unknown See Language page 1 0 0 0 0 Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls no Ana Paula B.
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus kʰurii kʰurii inheritance See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes pakubaʔi pakubaʔi unknown See Language page 2 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia yes Ana Paula B.
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora pʰaẓaru pʰaẓaru unique See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae generic ant: matʰɨ generic ant: matʰɨ unknown Gloss as 'generic' not clear from source. Might be cognate w/ 'sauva' in other lgs, but correspondences don't seem to match well. See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Ana Paula B.
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonian lowlands no Ana Paula B.
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri kapaʃi kapaʃi inheritance See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread in Amazonia no Ana Paula B.
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 tropical regions, especially river banks no plant Ana Paula B.
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no tree Ana Paula B.
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. tree: sɨẓ kʰadɨnaa tree: sɨẓ kʰadɨnaa loan Carib kurutana 'bastard plantain' See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Ana Paula B.
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. tʰamarɨu tʰamarɨu unique See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. kʰumaasa kʰumaasa loan (into protolanguage?) - WW North Arawak %kumana Wanderwort: May have TG source, loan into Wai Wai, various East Tukanoan, Puinave, etc. WW %kumana See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Ana Paula B.
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis maˀbaˀdarɨ maˀbaˀdarɨ inheritance Proto-Arawak See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna kutɨʔɨʐɨ kutɨʔɨʐɨ inheritance See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forests, native to Brazil no tree Ana Paula B.
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba missing See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon no may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Ana Paula B.
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) mutu mutu inheritance Proto-Arawak? History unclear; similar form attested in Paresi. See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 indigenous gardens no plant; tree Ana Paula B.
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. no tree Ana Paula B.
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata missing See Language page 2 0 0 0 0 yes Ana Paula B.
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera mapʰapʰaru mapʰapʰaru inheritance See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris kaʃu kaʃu inheritance North Arawak See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Ana Paula B.
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Brazil, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela, Guyana no
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda pʰišiˀbaʔi pʰiʃiˀbaʔi unique See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forest, floodplain no vine Ana Paula B.
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca missing See Language page 1 0 0 1 1 secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes no plant Ana Paula B.
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria ˀbašarau ˀbaʃarau loan Carib, e.g. Wai Wai mahčaru See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu bakɨɽ bakɨɽ loan Carib e.g. Akawaio pagira See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua kuatʃi kuatʃi loan Wayampi kwasi See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) kiɲaɽɨɖɨ kiɲaɽɨɖɨ inheritance See Language page 0 0 0 0 1 secondary scrub vegetation no plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Ana Paula B.
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Amazonia no Ana Paula B.
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus aru aru unique Possibly cognate Warekena See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris arimarakʰa arimarakʰa loan Carib (Pemon/Makushi) Pemon aɾimaɾaka See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Not native; widespread no Ana Paula B.
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B.
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae uriˀdi uriˀdi inheritance loan into Akawaio? Akawaio: werudʒi See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family ˀbai ˀbai inheritance Proto-Arawak? prob. related to S. Arawak *hopa See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus kʰasumi kʰasumi loan Carib: WaiWai kašmi See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 yes Ana Paula B.
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna kupaɨn kupaɨn inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
fish (large type) paiche, pirarucú o arapaima pirarucu flora-fauna Arapaima gigas missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 big rivers only no
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. uku uku inheritance Proto-Arawak See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation yes [used to poison people] shrub/tree Ana Paula B.
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera kʰuwaiˀba kʰuwaiˀba inheritance Carib e.g. Akawaio tʃiʔpoŋ; Also: kʰuwaiˀba (Melville IDS) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera tʰaruˀbaru tʰaruˀbaru unknown See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana missing See Language page 1 0 0 0 0 widespread lowland SA no shrub Ana Paula B.
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) piniɖi piniɖi unique See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões no Ana Paula B.
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread South America no Ana Paula B.
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. maɽata maɽata inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) WW%mare, Arawak origin See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Different types have different localized ranges no Ana Paula B.
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi missing See Language page 1 0 0 1 0 semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW no vine Ana Paula B.
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae kʰara-kʰarari kʰara-kʰarari doubtful loan, direction unknown Tupi-Guarani (see Aura kar'kara) or Tiriyo kahkakane: possibly onomatopoeic See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus kʰawaru kʰawaru loan Portuguese See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Ana Paula B.
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens ɖiːɖaɖa ɖiːɖaɖa unique See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden no plant Ana Paula B.
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae pimɨɖa pimɨɖa inheritance Central North Arawak See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread no Ana Paula B.
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Ana Paula B.
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Ana Paula B.
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca baɨɖukuɽɨ baɨɖukuɽɨ unique See Language page 1 2 0 0 0 yes Ana Paula B.
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no large tree Ana Paula B.
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas no tree Ana Paula B.
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. wabu wabu loan Carib See Carijona wahu See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia no Ana Paula B.
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings no plant Ana Paula B.
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B.
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. kaʐaɽa kaʐaɽa doubtful loan into protolg - WW %arara WW %ara See Language page 1 1 0 0 1 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B.
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays maẓikʰi maẓikʰi inheritance Proto-Arawak See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 widespread, esp. in river floodplains no plant Ana Paula B.
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B.
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta kanɨʐ kanɨʐ inheritance Proto-Arawak See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. no Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Ana Paula B.
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta makaʃiɽi makaʃiɽi loan Carib 'amaka sera' = 'sweet manioc' Found in some TG languages and in Warekena; probably a loan from TG, but inherited status in that group is unclear. See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere no No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Ana Paula B.
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa missing See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps no trunks contain sago-like starch Ana Paula B.
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. misu misu unknown Could be inheritance, but correspondences don't appear regular. See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) čʰamadaru; atʰamɨn tʰain tʃʰamadaru; atʰamɨn tʰain unknown Also: atʰamɨn tʰain See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Ana Paula B.
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae yawari jawari loan - WW %jawari Likely loan Carib (Wai Wai?) > Wapishana /jawari/; Hodï /yowale/; Yanomami /awaɾe/, Piaroa yäväre WW %jaware See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes masuwikʰi masuwikʰi inheritance See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread no Ana Paula B.
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) uɽanɨ uɽanɨ loan Carib; cf. Akawaio urana Akawaio urana See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana dyɨwɨẓɨadaʔɨ (IDS) missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests no palm Ana Paula B.
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica waru waru inheritance - WW? North Arawak %awaro See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 Widespread no Ana Paula B.
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no palm Ana Paula B.
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes missing See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Ana Paula B.
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Ana Paula B.
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no [not in this region] Ana Paula B.
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum kʰaẓɨɨ kʰaẓɨɨ inheritance Proto-Arawak See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation no compare entries for sweet potato Ana Paula B.
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no tree Ana Paula B.
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones kʰankʰurɨn kʰankʰurɨn unique See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 yes Ana Paula B.
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua missing See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Ana Paula B.
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B.
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata generic lizard: kʰuitʰu generic lizard: kʰuitʰu generic lizard inheritance North Arawak? See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda uwaɨ uwaɨ unique Similarity to Akawaio kuiwa, but no clear relationship. See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna generic snake: kʰuwaẓaẓ generic snake: kʰuwaẓaẓ unique See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox iʃaʐaɽɨ iʃaʐaɽɨ unique See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread South America yes Ana Paula B.
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B.
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae suuwa suuwa inheritance See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. kʰauwiam kʰauwiam loan Carib e.g. Wai wai awayama; Makushi kaiyuma See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Ana Paula B.
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. ˀdyɨɨˀbɨrɨ ˀdyɨɨˀbɨrɨ loan - WW Carib, e.g. Tiriyo cipari See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas kʰaaẓɨɨ kʰaaẓɨɨ inheritance Proto-Arawak See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Ana Paula B.
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris kudui kudui inheritance Cognate Paresi See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B.
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae mami mami inheritance Northern Arawak See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B.
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura frog: kʰiˀbaru frog: kʰiˀbaru frog inheritance North Arawak? See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum suuma suuma inheritance Proto-Arawak See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 no plant Ana Paula B.
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria turtle: ˀdaẓau turtle: ˀdaẓau jabuti unique Also: turtle: ˀdaẓau (Melville IDS) See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Widespread no Ana Paula B.
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. tʃakui tʃakui inheritance See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B.
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna atʰamɨnɨ atʰamɨnɨ inheritance Proto-Arawak See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Ana Paula B.
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella pʰuwatʰɨ (generic?) pʰuwatʰɨ (generic?) inheritance See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
cunuri (tree) cunuri cunuri flora-fauna Cunurea spruceana missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Amazonia no
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions no other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Ana Paula B.
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae watʰu watʰu inheritance North Arawak See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread South America no Ana Paula B.
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita čʰimikʰiʔi tʃʰimikʰiʔi loan, direction unknown Carib, Wayana simakani See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari kuʃi kuʃi pig (porco) missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times no a tree; not a true grape Ana Paula B.
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B.
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. generic yam: kʰiriča; čʰipʰuwii generic yam: kʰiritʃa; tʃʰipʰuwii unknown Also: čʰipʰuwii See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Ana Paula B.


Cultural Vocabulary (106)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool ˀbairii ˀbairii unique Possibly Carib loan; see Akawaio pöröu Simplex hunting, warfare See Language page Ana Paula B.
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool ˀbaru ˀbaru unique Spanish? See other Carib (e.g. Pemon kusupará); Urarina sa:beɽe; Iquito sáhuiri; Sikuani sipari (axe); Carib (spear) WW %sapara Simplex especially for clearing fields See Language page Ana Paula B.
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool maˀbai maˀbai unknown Simplex -n is verbal marker ("infinitival?") can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Ana Paula B.
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material ˀbuun ˀbuun unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material daẓuwan Unknown Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material generic basket: daẓuwan generic basket: daẓuwan missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material kʰašuru kʰaʃuru loan - WW %kasiru Carib (e.g. Akawaio kazuru); Matses (Pano) kasɨɾɯ; Hup g'ǎç WW %kasuru Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
bed cama cama culture-material missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material tabai tabai inheritance Possibly inherited -bai may be some sort of classifier? See Language page Ana Paula B.
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool missing currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Ana Paula B.
bottle botella garrafa acculturation missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
bow arco arco subsistence tool sumara sumara inheritance *sumeca Proto-Arawak cf. Tupi-Guarani sumara 'enemy'; Payne91 reconstructs Wap 'bow' Simplex arco See Language page Ana Paula B.
broom escoba vassoura culture-material pʰaraɨ-riˀbai pʰaraɨ-riˀbai unique from 'sweep' Other Complex -bai may be some sort of classifier? See Language page Ana Paula B.
canoe canoa canoa transport kʰanawa kʰanawa loan - WW %kanawa WW occurs in various Carib (kanau, kanawa, kanowa, kanáw); Guayabero, kanáw; Candoshi, kánó; Jivaro, kán; Matses, cano; Napo Lowland Quichua, kanu; Siriano, cũma; Yanomam (kanaw, kanae). Ultimate source sometimes claimed to be Carib, but Taylor 1957 argue WW %kanawa Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
cat gato gato acculturation piʃani piʃani loan - WW %pisana probably originally from Port bicho 'small animal'; compare E. Tukano, (e.g. Desano pisana); Arawak (e.g. Tariana pisána); Carib (Makushi pisana; Pemon pitʃana); Kakua pitʃina. But note Quechua 'broom' pitʃana WW %pisana Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
chicken gallina galinha acculturation kʰɨrɨkʰɨ kʰɨrɨkʰɨ loan - WW %karaka Probably Arawak origin (see Nordenskiold 1922). Tukanoan, e.g. Wanano karaka; Arawak, e.g. Baniwa kaláka; Yanomamo, Nadeb; Macaguan takra, Sikuani wakara WW %karaka Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology tʰuʃau tʰuʃau loan - WW %tuʃawa compare Pemón tusawa Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool t͡ʃʰipʰirari t͡ʃʰipʰirari semantic shift from 'axe' (%sipara) Via Pemon supararii; see also Akawaio suubararii; other Carib (e.g. Pemon kusupará); Urarina sa:beɽe; Iquito sáhuiri; Sikuani sipari (axe); Carib (spear) WW %sapara Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
coca narcotics Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
cook food food warakʰa-n Inheritance Proto North Arawak Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology missing malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Ana Paula B.
dance (generic) culture-mythology kʰunaɨpʰa-n Unknown Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool missing hunting and warfare See Language page Ana Paula B.
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology tʰumĩĩkʰarɨ tʰumĩĩkʰarɨ unknown In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Ana Paula B.
digging stick subsistence tool Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology kʰa-ẓanˀdaʔautʰ-ĩĩa-n kʰa-ẓanˀdaʔautʰ-ĩĩa-n unknown Other Complex -ĩĩa-n looks like some sort of "reflexive"/self-action suffix See Language page Ana Paula B.
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool awariˀbai awariˀbai doubtful loan Carib, e.g. Makiritare wadi-wadi Other Complex -bai may be some sort of classifier? esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Ana Paula B.
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
fireplace hogar lareira other tʰikʰaẓi wiiẓi tʰikʰaẓi wiiẓi unknown Compound fire house See Language page Ana Paula B.
firewood leña lenha other ẓuwaakʰarɨ ẓuwaakʰarɨ inheritance Proto North Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B.
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food kubawatan kubawatan unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool ukʰu Inheritance Proto-Arawak? Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool kʰuˀbauwɨ ẓɨnaa kʰuˀbauwɨ ẓɨnaa doubtful calque Carib Local Carib lgs also have 'hook-string'; but so does Baniwa (and other Arawak?) Compound hook CL(?):long, string See Language page Ana Paula B.
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool darukʰu darukʰu doubtful loan direction unknown Murui Witoto More likely Arawak > Witoto? Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food baɖa baɖa unknown Simplex usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Ana Paula B.
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food pʰuruuma pʰuruuma loan - WW %porowa Akawaio prowa; Wapishana phuruuma; Sikuani bawa; Hodi hyowã WW %porowa Simplex agriculture See Language page Ana Paula B.
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology kʰuwɨda kʰuwɨda inheritance Proto North Arawak May be cognate Yucuna Simplex multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Ana Paula B.
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food missing Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Ana Paula B.
genipap culture-mythology Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool mutu mutu inheritance? %koto/matoko Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool missing esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Ana Paula B.
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology ˀbaranai ˀbaranai unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool tʰaraʔapʰau tʰaraʔapʰau unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool warakʰ-ĩĩ-apʰa-kʰiẓai warakʰ-ĩĩ-apʰa-kʰiẓai (IDS, stove?) stove unique Derived cook-REFL?-NMLZ?-place? agriculture? See Language page Ana Paula B.
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation mukʰau mukʰau loan - WW %mokawa Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material z̨amaka ʐamaka inheritance Proto Arawak Wanderwort, Arawak source WW %amaka Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
hat sombero chapéu dress kʰuwama -kʰuwama unknown Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology missing In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Ana Paula B.
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
honey miel mel food riwɨ (Santos) maˀba (IDS, = 'bee') riwɨ (Santos) maˀba (IDS, = 'bee') unique; inheritance Alternate: maˀba Simplex only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Ana Paula B.
hunt cazar caçar food tʰiwaapʰa-n; waatʰapʰa-n tʰiwaapʰa-n; waatʰapʰa-n unknown Simplex -n is verbal marker ("infinitival?") See Language page Ana Paula B.
knife cuchillo faca culture-material marii marii loan (into protolg?), direction unknown - WW %marije Probably Carib > Baniwa-Tariana (+ Wapishana?) subgroup. Arawak: Wapishana, Baniwa, Tariana; Carib: Trio, Akawaio, Mapoyo, Yabarana, Pemon, Wai Wai, Waimiri-Atroari; Nadëb; possibly Ocaina WW %mariye Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
machete machete facão culture-material supaŗa supaŗa loan - WW %sipara/sapere Other Carib languages: Pemon, kasupara; Yanomami sipaɾa; Urarina sa:beɽe ? WW %sapara Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool akʰu akʰu loan Carib also Pemón ako; Alternate: imiʔitʰan-naa Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
fence, palisade cerco cerca other kʰurara kʰurara loan Spanish/Portuguese Nheengatu kurara; Northern Emberá korrá WW %kurara Simplex may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Ana Paula B.
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
paper papel papel acculturation kʰaritʰa kʰaritʰa loan Span/Port 'carta', via Carib? form only attested in Macushi, but data missing for Akawaio and others. Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool daɨri'bai daɨri'bai unknown Other Complex -bai may be some sort of classifier? See Language page Ana Paula B.
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
plate plato prato culture-material pʰarapʰi pʰarapʰi loan %parapi, via Carib Compare Akawaio. Attested various Carib and Arawak lgs. Possibly related to Span. plato. Strange p~k correspondence, but otherwise look like same etymon. Meaning varies between clay plate and clay pot. WW %karapi Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
policeman polícia policía acculturation missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool kʰaʔɨẓa-kʰin kʰaʔɨẓa-kʰin inheritance *kopi cf. Payne91 Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology šikʰi-šikʰi ʃikʰi-ʃikʰi doubtful loan onomatopoeia, but cf. Wayampi; also Cayapa, Bora, Jivaroan Onomatopoeic See Language page Ana Paula B.
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
salt sal sal food d̨i̵u d̨i̵u loan - WW *idɨwɨ Proto Arawak %jukira Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
school escuela escola acculturation missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
shoes zapatos sapatos dress missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
soldier soldado soldado acculturation missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
spear lanza lança subsistence tool čʰipʰirari tʃʰipʰirari loan - WW via Carib, %sipara/sapere Ultimate source Spanish; see Akawaio suubararii; other Carib (e.g. Pemon kusupará); Urarina sa:beɽe; Iquito sáhuiri; Sikuani sipari (axe); Carib (spear) WW %sapara Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food waiwai; waɨnii (also 'manioc, cassava') waiwai; waɨnii (also 'manioc, cassava') unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation kʰaiwara kʰaiwara sugar cane loan Carib Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food missing agriculture See Language page Ana Paula B.
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material dyɨwɨẓɨadaʔɨ dyɨwɨẓɨadaʔɨ unknown Also: anabaj (Santos 2006) See Language page Ana Paula B.
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food niz̧u niʐu unknown Simplex word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Ana Paula B.
tobacco (native) narcotics suuma Inheritance *yɨma Proto Arawak Sikuani tséːma; Cuiva tséma; Cofan ccumba; Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool missing agriculture See Language page Ana Paula B.
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool uɽaɽi uɽaɽi loan - WW %wirari Most direct donor or recipient is Akawaio hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Ana Paula B.
wax cera cera other maˀbaiˀba maˀbaiˀba unique from 'bee' See Language page Ana Paula B.
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool ẓuruwa-n ẓuruwa-n inheritance Proto North Arawak Simplex -n is verbal marker ("infinitival?") agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Ana Paula B.
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology missing a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Ana Paula B.
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material generic basket: daẓuwan daẓuwan unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture missing Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Ana Paula B.
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology missing Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Ana Paula B.
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology kʰamičʰa-n kʰamitʃʰa-n loan Spanish See Language page Ana Paula B.
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology uia-ʔu durunai uia-ʔu durunai unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
paddle/oar remo remo transport pʰuura pʰuura loan, direction unknown Carijona See Language page Ana Paula B.
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture ẓuupʰa ẓuupʰa unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B.
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture fermented drink: riwɨnii fermented drink: riwɨnii inheritance? - WW; unknown %pajaru prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Ana Paula B.
bottom grinding stone manufacture missing if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Ana Paula B.
digging stick subsistence tool missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture missing use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Ana Paula B.
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
spearthrower subsistence tool missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
house other kʰaˀbaɨnɨ kʰaˀbaɨnɨ inheritance Proto-Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B.


Grammatical Data (226)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. no Santos, 2006: 32 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] no Some consonants have "traces" of ejection or glottalization, but not enough for phonemic contrast. Santos, 2006: 32 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast no Santos, 2006: 32 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? yes Santos, 2006:34 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels no Santos, 2006:34 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme no Santos, 2006:69 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] no Santos, 2006:69 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? no Santos, 2006:69 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones no Santos, 2006:32 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? no Santos, 2006:32 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments no Santos, 2006:32 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? yes "Nasalization spreads to the right from a nasal vowel, carring through m, n, e w, but stopping just before any other consonant or before epenthetic a. The spread of nasalization crosses the border between prestem and stem." Santos, 2006:58 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony yes When the vowel /a/ occurs immediately after a consonant preceded by the vowel /i/, the /a/ harmonizes and becomes [ɛ]. Santos, 2006:47 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word yes Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes yes Santos 2006:23 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced yes Santos 2006:108 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection yes Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' no info Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs yes Santos, 2006: 156 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment yes Santos, 2006: 125 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns no Santos, 2006:139 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP yes Sets include masculine/feminine, animacy, alienable/inalienable, shape, location, and others. Each is treated as a noun class. Santos, 2006:139 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders 36 Includes gender, use, place, shape… Santos, 2006:3 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. yes The same morphology used for distinguishing noun class can also be used for noun classification, with the difference being in how the morphology affects the meaning of the noun. For example, the suffix "-ɖap" meaning (roughly) habitat. When used as noun c Santos, 2006:115 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter yes Santos, 2006:139 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates no Santos, 2006:139 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human no Santos, 2006: Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only yes Santos, 2006: 160 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates no Santos, 2006: 126 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates yes Santos, 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" no info Santos, 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals yes Santos, 2006: 118 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' no Santos, 2006:125 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups no Santos, 2006: 143 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun yes ,-nau ,-nau Santos, 2006: 143 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no Santos, 2006: 143 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun no Santos, 2006: 143 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic no Santos, 2006: 143 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only no Santos, 2006: 143 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns yes Santos, 2006: 185 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' no info Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker yes aimaakan ("thing, something") Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you no Santos, 2006: 185 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) no Santos, 2006: 159 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system 2 proximal and distant Santos 2006: 188 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) no Santos 2006:188 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns yes Masculine/Feminine Santos, 2006: 185 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns no Only realized as masculine (default). Santos, 2006: 185 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no Santos, 2006: 186 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no Santos, 2006: 185 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix no Santos 2006:185 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients yes Object, beneficiary/recipient Santos, 2006: 215 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun 3 Santos 2006:215 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are no Other grammatical relations (dative, instrumental, etc.) can get case markings, but they are not the primary--and certainly not the only--set. Santos 2006:216 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) yes Santos, 2006: 215 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates no Santos, 2006: 215 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic yes Usually suffixes. Santos, 2006: 215 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic no Santos, 2006: 215 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic no Santos, 2006: 215 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change no Santos, 2006: 215 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone no Santos, 2006: 215 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' no Comitative marked with unattached/free word, whereas instrumental is a case suffix. Santos 2006:216 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 no Santos, 2006: 197-201 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 yes "whole hand" Santos, 2006: 197-201 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 yes Word construction changes with each set of 10. Santos, 2006: 197-201 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. no Santos, 2006: 197-201 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' yes 5 = whole hand (with 1, 2, 3, and 4 meaning respective number of digits of the hand) Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? yes 1S: ũ-, 1P: wa-, 2S: pɨ-, 2P: ɨ-, 3S(M): ɨ-, -ɨʐ, 3S(F): u-, -ɨʐu, 3P: i- 1S: ũ-, 1P: wa-, 2S: pɨ-, 2P: ɨ-, 3S(M): ɨ-, -ɨʐ, 3S(F): u-, -ɨʐu, 3P: i- Santos, 2006: 101 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? no Santos, 2006: 101 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' no Santos, 2006: 131 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' yes Santos, 2006: 131 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities yes There are classifiers for both possessed and unpossessed; the function appears mostly to help semantically. Santos, 2006: 121 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no Santos 2006:99 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) yes ,-t, -n, -ʐ ,-t, -n, -ʐ Not clear what the situations are that call for the different affixes. Could be phonologically influenced. Santos 2006:132 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form no Santos 2006:99 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father yes Santos 2006:102 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg yes Santos 2006:102 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) no Santos 2006:102 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes no Adjectives are formed by taking a word from a different word class and adding an adjectivizing affix (which varies based on semantic goal). Santos 2006:176 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco yes Santos 2006:179 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb yes ,-kaɽɨ ,-kaɽɨ Santos 2006:136 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb yes ,-paɨʐu ,-paɨʐu Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb yes ,-kaɽɨ ,-kaɽɨ Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective yes ,-ʧ, -ɖ, -t ,-ʧ, -ɖ, -t Santos 2006:157 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' no Santos, 2006; 203 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere no Santos 2006:167 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past no Santos 2006:167 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) no Santos 2006:167 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no Santos, 2006: 116 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes Relatively few (including past, present, imperative, future). Santos, 2006: 116 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no Santos, 2006: 116 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no Santos, 2006: 116 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood no Santos, 2006:164 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) no Santos, 2006:164 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses no Santos, 2006: 165 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' no Santos, 2006:164 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something no info Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction no info Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking no info Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking yes man man Occurs as its own word, meaning "maybe." Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected no Santos 2006: 169 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") no Santos 2006: 169 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality no Santos 2006: 169 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' no Santos 2006: 164 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' no Santos 2006: 166 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative no Santos 2006: 169 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. no info Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction no Santos 2006: 169 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order no SVO Santos, 2006: 217 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject no Santos, 2006: 217 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Word Order VS in transitive clauses no Santos, 2006: 217 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object yes Santos, 2006: 217 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject no Santos, 2006: 217 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Word Order Preposition-Noun no Santos, 2006: 201 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes Santos, 2006: 201 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) no Santos, 2006: 222 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') yes Santos, 2006: 222 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun yes Santos, 2006: 179 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun yes Santos, 2006: 179 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Word Order Dem-Noun yes Santos, 2006: 188 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Word Order Noun-Dem no Santos, 2006: 188 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Word Order Num-Noun yes Santos, 2006: 198 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Word Order Noun-Num no Santos, 2006: 198 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies yes Santos, 2006: 247 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies no Santos, 2006: 247 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') no Santos, 2006: 247 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' no Santos, 2006: 247 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause yes Santos, 2006: 234 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects yes Santos, 2006: 210 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked no Santos, 2006: 210 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker no Santos, 2006: 210 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no Santos, 2006: 210 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no Santos, 2006: 210 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative yes Santos, 2006: 187 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative no Santos, 2006: 187 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Santos, 2006: 187 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no Santos, 2006: 187 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no Santos, 2006: 187 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs yes Santos, 2006: 160 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Santos, 2006: 160 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive no Santos, 2006: 160 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) no Santos, 2006: 160 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. no Santos, 2006: 160 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects yes In addition to pronominal prefixes. Do not usually co-occur; prefixes typically occur when there are multiple arguments, rather than just a subject/object. Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) yes In addition to free pronouns. Do not usually co-occur; prefixes typically occur when there are multiple arguments, rather than just a subject/object. Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers yes Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers yes Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent yes 3rd singular. Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently yes Usually marked or coupled with a prepostion or directional. Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. yes ,-aːk ,-aːk Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. yes ,-iɲ ,-iɲ Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted yes ,-ka ,-ka Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb yes ,-at ,-at Not a dedicated morpheme. Also used for designating recipient and dative. Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb yes Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb yes ,-kiɖ ,-kiɖ Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element yes Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle yes au-na au-na (where -na is a sort of completion/deictic affix) Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only yes Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) no Only presence of q-word. Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position yes Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) yes Possible, not always grammatical, and usually used under circumstances where a subject is being described with an adjective or a location. Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) yes Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause yes Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix yes ,-ʐ ,-ʐ Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) yes ,-ʐu ,-ʐu Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. no Each verb bears its own morphology. Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence yes ,-aːn ,-aːn Referred to as an "interrupter" or "intermitent" event. Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
large AG dense sedentary