Marking of expected/unexpected action or result

Verbal Categories - Mood
There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Western Mono
Southern Paiute
Southern Ute
Idaho Shoshone
Northern Paiute
Achagua no info Wilson & Levinsohn 1992
Resígaro no No indication of such an affix in the discussion of verb stems or verb words. Allin, 1976: 105, 124
Bare no Aikhenvald, 1995: 33
Piapoco no Galindo, 2002: 156-178, 299-321
Yukuna no Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 42
Yavitero no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 66-69
Wapishana no Santos 2006: 169
Wayuu no Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 800
Tariana yes Referred to as "counter-expectation," but described as a marker that describes action contrary to either the speaker's or hearer's expectations. Aikhenvald, 2003: 396
Apurinã yes This is called "frustrative," has the meaning that the result of the action what not expected or desired. Facundes, 2000: 404
Asheninka Apurucayali no Payne 1981; Payne 1983
Maipure no Zamponi 2003
Yanesha' no There is a particle which conveys "surprise" meaning but it is not marking (un)expected information Duff-Tripp 1997:69-124
Kinikinau no info
Baure no info Danielsen 2007
Nanti no Michael, 2008. p. 247-289
Paresi yes Rowan and Burgess 1979:52-3
Palikur no Launey 2003
Yine no Matteson 1965:70-81
Añun no info no discussion of mood Patte 1989
Bora no Seifart - 2005
Makiritare no Hall 1988: 336
Makushi no info Abbott 1991: 117-122
Eñepa no Payne 2012
Pemon no de Armellada 1999: 121 to 136
Guna no Smith texts
Naso no Quesada 2000
Ika no Frank 1985:60-104
Kogi no info
Cabecar no info
Guaymí no info
Damana no
Sikuani no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000
Macaguan no info Buenaventura 1993
Aguaruna yes Overall 2007:375
Northern Emberá no Mortensen 1999:59-88 Catío
Waorani no info
Ingá no info
Matses yes Fleck:447
Mapudungun no Zúñiga 2006, p.102-94
Páez no info
Quechua Ayacuchano no info There is a verbal suffix which among its different meanings expresses that an action is caried out in a different way than it is usually done Soto 1976: 106
Tikuna no info
Urarina yes counterexpextation is marked by a verbal suffix Olawsky:474
Waunana no info
Andoke no info
Puinave yes speculative marker on verb Giron 2008: p286
Central Aymara no Huayhua Pari 2001: 135 to 140
Kakua no not sure yet Bolaños fieldnotes
Kaingang no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011
Minica Witoto no add note Minor and Minor 1982. p.88
Hup no Epps 2008
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no Weir 1984
Dâw no Martins 2004
Desano no Miller 1999, p. 81
Cubeo yes The probable evidential indicates that the speaker considers the action probable, based on his feelings. Morse & Maxwell 1999, p.34 desiderative expresses the desire of the subject to do the action (p.27)
Kotiria no Stenzel 2004
Makuna no Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.64
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.55-65, 82 look at 'intención' on p. 59
Barasano yes The aspect of fulfillment expressed by -koã includes both completive aspect as well as the idea of fulfillment of an expectation. Contraexpectation is expressed by -boa. Jones & Jones 1991, p.92-94,104 The fulfillment may be the expectation or the opposite of the expectation, depending on the context. The opposite is determined pragmatically and not marked. (or by contraexp.)
Tanimuca no Strom 1992, p.82-83
Siona no info Wheeler - 1970; Wheeler - 1987
Tukano yes unexpected action Ramirez 1997: 155
Yanomami yes Ramirez 1994: 319
Ninam no info Goodwin-Gomez
Sanumá no info
Surui no info
Karitiana no Everett 2006:223-95
Nheengatu no info Cruz 2011:358
Paraguayan Guaraní no Krivoshein and Acosta 2001:97-101
Aché no info
Kokama no Vallejos 2010
Nyangumarta no 0
Jingulu no info x
Wambaya no info x
Bunuba no info x
Walmajarri no info x
Nyulnyul no 0
Warrwa no info x
Worrorra no ms8.2.2 0
Garrwa no info X
Gooniyandi no info x
Warlpiri no info 0
Bardi no 0
Yorta Yorta no 83 0
Yir Yoront
Yindjibarndi no 0
Yidiny yes 1
Yanyuwa no info x
Yandruwandha no info x
Yalarnnga no info x
Woiwurrung no info x
Wirangu No 111 0
Wemba-Wemba no info x
Warumungu yes 34 1
Wangkumara no info X
Uradhi No 363 0
Paakantyi no info X
Pitta-Pitta No 201 0
Pintupi yes 214 1
Nyungar no info x
Nhanta no info x
Ngiyambaa no 0
Ngayawang No info x
Muruwari no info x
Mayi-Yapi No 55-60 0
Martuthunira yes 151-152 1
Marrgany yes 323 1
Kuuk Thaayorre No 582 0
Kuku Yalanji no 0
Kugu-Nganhcara No 406 0
Kaurna No info x
Kalkatungu no info x
Jaru no info x
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 80 0
Gureng Gureng no info x
Gumbaynggirr no 300 0
Gugu-Badhun no info x
Yuwaalaraay No info 59 x
Dyirbal No 246-9 0
Duungidjawu no 83 0
Djinang No 167 0
Diyari no info x
Dharawal no info x
Darkinyung no 47 0
Bularnu no 0
Biri no info x
Bidjara-Gungabula no info x
Batyala no info x
Arabana yes? 247-8 0
Alyawarr no info X
Nyikina yes 1
Yulparija No 36-43 0
Wathawurrung no info x
Mathi-Mathi no 97 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no 0
Thanggati no 42-3 0
Katthang no 75 0
Panyjima no info x
Ngarinyeri No info x
Kurrama no info x
Yingkarta no 0
Githabul No 22 0
Gunya yes 326 1
Kunjen No 113 0
WesternTorres yes? K85a 108 1
Wakaya no info x
Yindjilindji no info x
Bandjalang No 94 0
Ngaatjatjara No 122 0
Arrernte No 271 0
Kokatha No 38 0
Karajarri No 216 0
Pitjantjatjara No G 236 0
Ritharrngu No 71 0
Warrgamay No 52-9 0
Warluwarra no info x
Warnman no info x
Djapu no info x
Bilinarra no info x
Wiradjuri no info x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 70 0
Narungga No info 74 x
Tharrkari No 31 0
Wajarri No 96 0
Warungu no info X
Yagua no info Payne and Payne 1990
Baniwa yes counter-expective -tʃaa Ramirez 2001:262