Waorani

Family
Isolate (SAM)
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
auc
Location
-1.12°, -76.68°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
Holman, Thomas. 1998. Waorani Verb Affixes. In Pike, Evelyn and Saint, Rachael, Workpapers Concerning Waorani Discourse Features, SIL, Dallas. Orr, Carolyn and Pearson, Nancy S. 1979. Nombres de aves en cinco idiomas. (Cuadernos Etnolingüísticos, 7.) Quito: Instituto Lingüístico de Verano. Orr, Carolyn, Levinsohn, Stephen and Catherine Peeke. 1991. Estudios gramaticales en Napo Quichua y Huaorani. Cuadernos etnolinguisticos no. 16. SIL, Quito. Peeke, Catherine. 1973. Preliminary grammar of Auca. SIL, Glendale. Peeke, M. Catherine. 1979. El idioma huao: Gramática pedagógica, tomo 1. (Cuadernos Etnolingüísticos, 3.) Quito: Instituto Lingüístico de Verano. Peeke, Catherine. 1991. Negacion en Huaorani. In Orr, Carolyn, Levinsohn, Stephen and Catherine Peeke. Estudios gramaticales en Napo Quichua y Huaorani, Cuadernos etnolinguisticos no. 16. SIL, Quito. Peeke, M. Catherine. 2007. Waorani. Intercontinental Dictionary Series, ed. Mary Ritchie Key. http://lingweb.eva.mpg.de/ids/ Saint, Rachel and Kenneth Pike. 1959. Notas sobre fonemica huarani (auca). In Estudios acerca de las lenguas huaorani (auca), shimigae y zapara, SIL, Quito. Saint, Rachel and Kenneth Pike. 1962. In Elson, Benjamin (ed). Ecuadorian Indian Languages: I. SIL, Mexico D.F. Zander, Lynn. 1988. Keeping track of participants where they are not named. In Pike Evelyn and Saint, Rachael, Workpapers Concerning Waorani Discourse Features, SIL, Dallas.


Basic Vocabulary (192)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location æ̃-i-bæ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar wæætẽ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
all todo todos other tõbã-dã-di unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
and y e grammar ayæ̃ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
ankle tobillo tornozelo body õdõ-ka-wa unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
armpit axila, sobaco axila body õdõ-ĩdẽ-bæ̃ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment gõ-dãi unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
at en, a em, a location iñömö unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
back espalda costas body tækæ-yabæ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
belly barriga barriga body ǫ́nǫ́nę; gnanika unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
below abajo, debajo abaixo location gæ-epo-dẽ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
big grande grande quality ye; ñaena unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
bite morder morder body pokæ̃ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
black negro preto colour wẽ-ta-bõ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
blood sangre sangue body wepæ̃; bhepae unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
blow soplar soprar body wo õõ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body dã-tai unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
bone hueso osso body bami unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
breast pecho, seno peito body goõ-bæ̃ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
breathe respirar respirar body gẽbã unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
burn quemar queimar environment tã unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body kapo kapo kæ̃ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
child niño, niña criança human wẽẽñæ̃ wį́į́ñæ̨ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
climb subir subir motion æ̃; æ̃-i unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
cloud nube nuvem environment bogĩbã (cloud, fog) unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
cold frío frio quality yogi unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
come venir vir motion põ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
cook cocinar cozinhar impact æ̃dõ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality dõ ĩte unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
count contar contar mental 'æ-po-dõ ĩ, ' ã-te tee bã-po unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
cry llorar chorar mental ka ka wæ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
cut/hack cortar cortar impact ẽõ to unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
day día dia time itædẽ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
die/be dead morir morrer state wæ̃ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
dig cavar cavar impact æ̃æ̃ wo unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
dingo/wolf fauna missing See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
dirty sucio sujo quality wẽ-ta-bõ [='black'] unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
dream soñar sonhar mental wĩĩ-bõ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
drink beber, tomar beber body be unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
dry seco seco quality abĩbõ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality babe-doka unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
dust polvo poeira environment gidĩ-bõ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
ear oreja orelha body õnõmõka mõka ?? unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
earth/soil tierra terra environment õ-gipo unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
eat comer comer body kæ kǽ̨i unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
egg huevo ovo fauna ĩkĩ-bo unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
eye ojo olho body áwį́ka áwį́ga unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body goĩ bẽ 'defecate' unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
fall caer cair motion tæ̃ wæ̃æ̃ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
far lejos longe quality goo-bæ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
fat/grease grasa gordura body ogĩ-ye unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
father padre, papá pai kinship wæ̃po unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
fear miedo medo mental dã-dõ gĩyẽ-dõ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
feather pluma pena fauna õõ-bã unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
fire fuego fogo environment gõ-ga unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
fish xx xx fauna yǽyæ (a kind of fish) yǽmæ (a spotted fish) unique See Language page Epps Research Team
flow fluir fluir motion go-pæ̃ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
flower flor flor environment õgaĩ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
fly volar voar motion kæ-wo unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment bogĩbã unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
foot pie body ǫ́nǫ́wa doubtful loan Jivaro, e.g. Ashuar náwe See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
fruit fruta fruta flora tõbẽ-ka unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
good bueno bom quality waa píyǽ̨nę unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
grow crecer crescer state unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body okagĩ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
hand mano mão body onompo unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
head cabeza cabeça body o-ka-bo unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
hear oír ouvir mental ẽñẽ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
heavy pesado pesado quality te ẽbẽ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
hide esconder esconder motion wẽ wo-dõ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
hit golpear, pegar bater impact tei tei pã unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other pææ bã unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
how? como como grammar æ-bã-dõ kæ-te unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
if si se grammar ĩ-te baĩ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location gi-bõga kæ̃-ka-dẽ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
intestines intestinos intestinos body tækæ-bẽ-gõ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body õõ-ga-te unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
kill matar matar impact wæ̃-dõ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
lake lago lago environment gãwa-pæ̃ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
laugh reír rir mental ka ka to unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
leaf hoja folha environment mǫ́ǫ mǫ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body dipæ̃-bæ̃-ĩ-dõ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion dãyi yõ-gæ̃ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment dãĩ-pa unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body kẽwẽ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
liver hígado figado body batæ̃ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
long largo comprido, longo quality doyæ̃ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna kæ̃pæ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
lung pulmón pulmão body wĩdõta unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
meat/flesh carne carne fauna baõ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
moon luna lua environment apãi-kã unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship badã wããna; Mbarã unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
mouth boca boca body de ǫ́nǫ́ne unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
name nombre nome human ẽ-bõ-wo unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body õdõ-bẽka unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
near/close cerca de perto quality eye-ke-ĩ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
neck cuello pescoço body õdõ-bẽka unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
new nuevo novo quality bĩĩ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
night noche noite time woyowotæ̃ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
no/not no não grammar baa; wĩĩ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
nose nariz nariz body õnõkado kado unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
old viejo velho quality pikæ̃ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
one uno um number ado unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
open/uncover abrir abrir other wi æ̃de unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
other otro outro grammar wa unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body wẽdæ wẽdæ ĩ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
person/human being persona pessoa human wao-kã unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact te te ã-po unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
rain lluvia chuva environment ko-õdæ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
red rojo vermelho colour opatawæ̃ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
right/right hand derecha direita location/body tõbẽ-bæ̃-ĩ-dõ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
road/path camino caminho manufacture taa-dõ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
root raíz raiz flora gæyæ̃-bẽ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
rotten podrido podre quality yõbæ̃-ĩ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
sand arena areia environment ẽbõdai unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
say decir dizer mental ã missing See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
scratch rascar rasgar impact missing See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
see ver ver mental a unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality wa-ẽ-ga unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact ã-po unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
short corto curto quality okaa unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
shoulder hombro ombro body õdõ-dãkapæ̃ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental dã-dõ gĩgo i-bõ-bãbo (n. 'shame') unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
sit sentar(se) sentar state tæ̃æ̃ kõta unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
skin piel pele body ǽ̨mǫtái unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
sky cielo céu environment õ-õdæ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
sleep dormir dormir body bõ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
small pequeño pequeno quality ghiya, giya unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
smoke humo fumaça environment tẽbãa unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body we õgõ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
spit escupir cuspir body towæ tãdõ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact ti-yæ̃-gõ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact bã-po-ga; wæ yo-pæ̃ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact yaẽbẽ ko unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state gõõ kæ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
star estrella estrela environment dẽ-bõ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
steal robar roubar other a-wẽ-bõ æ̃æ̃ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora õgõ-to unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
stone piedra pedra environment di-ka unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
suck chupar chupar body wi õ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
sweat sudar suor, suar body missing See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
swell hincharse inchar body pæ̃kæ bẽ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
swim nadar nadar motion pãta unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
tail cola, rabo rabo body õdõ-kai-bĩyæ̃ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
that ese/esa esse grammar bãdĩĩ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality yæ̃dæ̃ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
thin delgado fino quality giiyæ̃ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
think pensar pensar mental o-ka-i-dẽ põdẽ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
this este/esta este grammar ĩĩ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
2sg xx xx grammar bi-tõ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
three tres tres number bẽ-a go ado-ke unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
throat garganta garganta body õdõ-gadæ̃ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact wo æ̃-to-dõ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
thunder truenos trovão environment detæ-bo unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact yã kæ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
tongue lengua lingua body õdõ-gẽdẽwa unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
tooth diente dente body baga gámį́æ̨ (wisdom tooth); Mbagha unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other dadi wẽdẽ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
two dos dois number mẽmaa bi mę́ná mę́a unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
vomit vomitar vomitar body awæ̃ wẽ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
walk caminar, andar andar motion dao dao go unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
water agua agua environment æ-pæ̃ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
wet mojado molhado quality a be-ĩ; kõye unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
what? que, qué que grammar k̃ĩnõ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
when? cuando quando grammar æ-yedẽ-dõ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
where? donde onde grammar æ-yõbõ-dõ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
white blanco branco colour dãbæ̃-ta unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
who? quien, quién quem grammar æ-kã-dõ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
wife esposa esposa kinship nãnogæ̃ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
wind viento vento environment woboyæ̃ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
wing ala asa body õdõ-bæ̃ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
woman/female mujer mulher human dãni unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
work trabajar trabalhar other [tadabako] kæ loan Spanish trabajar See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
yawn bostezar bocejar body æ̃ æ̃-de unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
yellow amarillo amarelo colour wĩyadæ̃ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
bad mal mal quality wẽdæ wẽdæ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar tõbẽ-gã unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
1sg yo eu grammar bo-tõ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
leg/foot pierna perna body õdõ-ti unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
man/male hombre homem human õgĩyæ̃-gã unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar dãia-s unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental ẽyẽ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar bõ-dõ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar bõ-di-tõ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
2pl ustedes vocês grammar bĩ-di-tõ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
bark corteza casca environment õtapo unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
fingernail uña unha body õta unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
heart corazón coração body mį́mǫ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
sun sol sol time dæ̃ke unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment gomi unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
green verde verde quality wĩyadæ̃ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
hot caliente quente quality okoi ã unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (138)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana kaka unique cf. Yagua kikã; see also ičoa-ka (Urarina) uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no shrub Amanda Meeks
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. ihua ahue unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) no Amanda Meeks
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. kóba (variety of agouti) unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. nõma doubtful loan, direction unknown Witoto naɯma uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Throughout Amazonia no? Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Amanda Meeks
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis gæyæ-keo 'fish-?' unique uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 0 Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls no Amanda Meeks
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus wegowæ̃ unique missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes missing missing See Language page 2 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia yes Amanda Meeks
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora áyábi (generic term) unique compare ãũãʔwɨ̃ (Tuyuka) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae gnhu, ghu (generic) unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonian lowlands no Amanda Meeks
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread in Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum kæwípa unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 tropical regions, especially river banks no plant Amanda Meeks
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana ocatoe (Persea sp.) unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no tree Amanda Meeks
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. pǽ̨ǽ̨næ̨ (cooking banana) loan Spanish Wanderwort; see Quechua palanda, Jivaroan pa:ntam, Arawak, etc.; banana (Portuguese) WW %palana uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Amanda Meeks
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. toõdæ unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. podoto loan Quechua (via Spanish?) Wanderwort: Quechua purutu, also Yagua purutu, Ocaina, etc.; from Sp. frijoles uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Amanda Meeks
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis gẽyĩ dẽ bã-dã-di unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna ayabõ unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forests, native to Brazil no tree Amanda Meeks
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba yemebe (Oenocarpus mapora) unique uncoded See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon no may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Amanda Meeks
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae obe unique compare Aguaruna wapú uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) ohuehue (Crescentia cujete) unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 indigenous gardens no plant; tree Amanda Meeks
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. no tree Amanda Meeks
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha woolly monkey missing see 'capuchin' entry uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata bodæ unique uncoded See Language page 2 0 0 0 0 yes Amanda Meeks
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera tegãtai unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Amanda Meeks
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium giganteum missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Brazil, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela, Guyana no
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda kebata unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. otome missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forest, floodplain no vine Amanda Meeks
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca missing missing See Language page 1 0 0 1 1 secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes no plant Amanda Meeks
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria yæ̃kata unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu ą́mǫ unique compare dzamolíto (Baniwa) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) dayõ unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 1 secondary scrub vegetation no plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Amanda Meeks
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura óto unique Yagua kõtu uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus kowãye doubtful loan North Arawak, cf. Yukuna kawaja Yucuna kawaja; see also Carib, Hodi uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris gĩta unique NOT the same as 'jaguar' uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Not native; widespread no Amanda Meeks
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae ñą́ñą́ unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family abharaeka unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus pogõ unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 yes Amanda Meeks
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna gæyæ unique No info (fish type - not clear whether generic exists. Might be yae.) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
fish (large type) paiche, pirarucú o arapaima pirarucu flora-fauna Arapaima gigas missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 big rivers only no
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. menico (Lonchocarpus nicou) unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation yes [used to poison people] shrub/tree Amanda Meeks
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera gĩta kæ̃pæ unique gĩta 'dog' uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera gobõbõ unique missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana missing missing See Language page 1 0 0 0 0 widespread lowland SA no shrub Amanda Meeks
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) gagĩbæ̃ unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões no Amanda Meeks
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba dãwæ̃ĩya 'heron' unique missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread South America no Amanda Meeks
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. kõwatái loan - WW %kujuwi / kurutsi missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Different types have different localized ranges no Amanda Meeks
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi mi unique uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 1 0 semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW no vine Amanda Meeks
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae pogæ̃ka unique but cf. Quechua anka uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus [kabayo] missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens gimo loan, direction unknown Jivaroan himo missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden no plant Amanda Meeks
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] iwã unique missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae bĩgõ missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread no Amanda Meeks
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. æ̃ebæ unique missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Amanda Meeks
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca méñe doubtful loan Tupi-Guarani jawa uncoded See Language page 1 2 0 0 0 yes Amanda Meeks
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no large tree Amanda Meeks
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra gemenehue missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas no tree Amanda Meeks
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. yimahue, guimahue unique uncoded See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings no plant Amanda Meeks
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. æ̃wæ̃ unique missing See Language page 1 1 0 0 1 Widespread Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays caguingo unique North Arawak ka-, kana uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 widespread, esp. in river floodplains no plant Amanda Meeks
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta manioc in general? unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. no Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Amanda Meeks
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta kẽnẽ loan North Arawak kai-ni uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere no No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Amanda Meeks
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa nontube unique uncoded See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps no trunks contain sago-like starch Amanda Meeks
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. giye unique Compare Hup g'i; may be onomatopoeic uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) dæ̃dæ̃tapæ̃ unique uncoded See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Amanda Meeks
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae kõgãye unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes pawæ̃ka unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread no Amanda Meeks
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests no palm Amanda Meeks
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica kawĩya doubtful loan Aguaruna kawau kawau 'yellow macaw' uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 Widespread no Amanda Meeks
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no palm Amanda Meeks
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes dagenga unique uncoded See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Amanda Meeks
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Amanda Meeks
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no [not in this region] Amanda Meeks
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum kõwæ unique Compare Tupi cará uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation no compare entries for sweet potato Amanda Meeks
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. nongogohue missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no tree Amanda Meeks
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones ebẽye unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 yes Amanda Meeks
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua petomo, petoba, petue unique compare Arawak ponáma uncoded See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia no may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Amanda Meeks
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. náį́mǫ unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata ibake unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda tiwæ̃-kade unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna tæ̃tæbó unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread South America yes Amanda Meeks
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae bokaya unique ya =ye suffix for insects? uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. tapayo loan Quechua (via Spanish?) Zapallos; see also Iquito uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Amanda Meeks
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. boyotai doubtful loan, direction unknown Yagua buryatu buryatu uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas akage, kõwæ doubtful loan Urarina aki: uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Amanda Meeks
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris titæ unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera kayæ̃ unique cf. Ninam missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae maiwæ, tomo unique missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura missing missing See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum okæ̃-ĩ unique uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 no plant Amanda Meeks
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria titæke (turtle) unique uncoded See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Widespread no Amanda Meeks
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. pegopæ doubtful loan North Arawak, Warekena ju:we e.g. yaje, yase (Yucuna) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna a-wæ̃ unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella gatã doubtful loan Urarina kati kati uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
cunuri (tree) cunuri cunuri flora-fauna Cunurea spruceana missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Amazonia no
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui meñegohue (Pouteria torta) unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions no other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Amanda Meeks
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae gapatai unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread South America no Amanda Meeks
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita mìkaye unique uncoded See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons bogĩ unique missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus deye (spider monkey) unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia gaganyohuí (Pourouma cucura), yohuemo unique also yówe uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times no a tree; not a true grape Amanda Meeks
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae kegitæ unique missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Amanda Meeks
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna gĩta unique See Language page Epps Research Team
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna kowãye loan Arawak See Language page Epps Research Team


Cultural Vocabulary (106)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology missing See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool too pijæ̃ka-ĩ (IDS) unique hunting, warfare See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool a-wæ̃-ka (IDS) unique Other complex a-wæ̃= tree/wood; ka=??? especially for clearing fields See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool missing can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material ką́ą́ta (clay bowl), owæ-ta clay bowl unique Also: owæ-ta 'basin' See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material óóto general basket Unique See Language page Epps Research Group
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material missing See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material wa-bõ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
bed cama cama culture-material bõĩ unique Other complex bõ 'sleep' See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material tæ̃æ̃ kõta-ĩ (chair) (IDS) chair unique Other complex tæ̃æ̃ kõta-ĩ=sit; ĩ=?? See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool missing currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
bottle botella garrafa acculturation missing See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
bow arco arco subsistence tool too piyæ̃ka-ĩ-wæ̃ unique Compound too piyæ̃ka-ĩ=arrow; a-wæ̃=tree/wood arco See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
broom escoba vassoura culture-material õbæpo yẽbæ̃-ĩ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
canoe canoa canoa transport wi-po unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
cat gato gato acculturation kede (IDS) loan English (prob via missionaries) See also Ninam kitikiti; probably entered via SIL missionaries See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
chicken gallina galinha acculturation tawadija (IDS) unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology awẽdẽ (IDS) unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool kãta (IDS) unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
coca narcotics Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
cook food food æ̃dõ Unique See Language page Epps Research Group
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology missing malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
dance (generic) culture-mythology ã-wa Doubtful loan Carib Source language might be Arawak, but no lexical evidence; no known contact with Caribs See Language page Epps Research Group
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool missing hunting and warfare See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology wǽ̨ŋǫ́ŋį (god) god unknown Unknown Similar forms appear in Carib (Makiritare wana:di); Hup also has this as an alternate term. Maybe from Arawak? In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
digging stick subsistence tool Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology wĩĩ-bõ unique Other complex bõ 'sleep' See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology ã-po-ĩ-kade unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool õõ-bã unique esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology missing See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology missing See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
fireplace hogar lareira other gõ-ga-pãbo (IDS) unique Other complex gõ-ga=stove; pãbo=?? See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
firewood leña lenha other tẽdẽ-wæ̃ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food missing See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool menico Lonchocarpus nicou Unique See Language page Epps Research Group
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool bogæ̃-bẽ (IDS) unique Compound bogæ̃-bẽ= fish hook; õ-bẽ=vine See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool gæjæ wẽ-te æ̃æ̃-ĩ-kade (IDS) unique Other complex gæyæ=fish; wẽ-te æ̃æ̃-ĩ-kade=?? See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food pãõ (general bread) (IDS) bread (general) loan Spanish or Portuguese Also in Wanano pão; Secoya ãɔ usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food [adĩda] (Sp harina) manioc dough doubtful loan + Semantic shift North Arawak agriculture See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology õõya baĩ unique multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food õõĩgã unique Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
genipap culture-mythology Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool owǽta unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool missing esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology wodi-do (IDS) unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool a-wæ̃-pa wæ̃æ̃-dõ-bẽ-dæka-pa missing Derived a-wæ̃-pa=board; wæ̃æ̃-dõ-bẽ-dæka=top; pa=?? See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool awẽdẽ-ka 'oven' (IDS) unique agriculture? See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation tẽjabõ (IDS) unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material ñõõ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
hat sombero chapéu dress o-ka-bo-ga-ta (IDS) unique Other complex o-ka-bo=head; ga-ta=?? See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology idõ unique In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics missing See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
honey miel mel food gẽyĩ unique only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
hunt cazar caçar food õõ-kæ-te (hunting with a blow gun) hunting with a blowgun See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
knife cuchillo faca culture-material bæ̃yetæ̃ unknown Spanish See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress missing See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
machete machete facão culture-material missing See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool ẽbõ-ka unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
fence, palisade cerco cerca other wææ kæ-ĩ unique Other complex wææ kæ= hinder, prevent; ĩ=?? may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology missing See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
paper papel papel acculturation bĩkajõ-ta unique Compare Nadeb makahɛ.bʌh See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool ao bæ̃-ĩ-ka unique Other complex ao bæ̃= crush, grind; ĩ-ka=??? See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
plate plato prato culture-material kæ̃-gĩ-ta unique Other complex kæ̃-gĩ-ta= meal; ta?? See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
policeman polícia policía acculturation missing See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool kǽ̨ŋæ̨, tyaegngya unique Alternate: tyaegngya See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology kada kada wæ-ka-ĩ-kade (IDS) unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool missing See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology missing See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
salt sal sal food kati (IDS) loan Quechua katʃi See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
school escuela escola acculturation ekoeda (Sp loan, IDS) loan Spanish See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
shoes zapatos sapatos dress awæ̃ka-ta (IDS) unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material õdõ-kadijæ̃-koo (IDS) unknown See Makiritari: oðaʔkuëkëno See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
soldier soldado soldado acculturation tõtado (IDS) loan Span/Port soldado WW %surara See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology ãbotabĩdi ã 'sing' (IDS) missing See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
spear lanza lança subsistence tool tapa doubtful loan Aguaruna, Bora See also Secoya ui tupɨ See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food missing See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material missing See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation owãdoka (IDS) unknown See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food missing agriculture See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material õõ-ba-kõ unique Compound õõ-ba=fan (n.); õ-kõ= house See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food missing word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
tobacco (native) narcotics okæ̃-ĩ Unique See Language page Epps Research Group
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool missing agriculture See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool ǫ́ǫ́mæ̨ unique hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
wax cera cera other gẽjĩ-ka (IDS) bees wax unique Other complex gẽyĩ=honey; ka=?? See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool ipagæ kæ unique Other complex ipagæ=??; kæ=do,make. agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology missing a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material óóto (generic) unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture missing Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology missing Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology ba-dõ-ĩ-koo unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology wę́næ (devil) unknown See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
paddle/oar remo remo transport a-wæ̃-pa unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture gægĩka-bẽ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology missing See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other missing See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture tĩ dã-bæ̃ unique prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
bottom grinding stone manufacture missing if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
digging stick subsistence tool missing See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture missing use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
spearthrower subsistence tool missing See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
house other õkõ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE


Grammatical Data (226)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. no Saint and Pike 1962:5-15 Daniel Valle There are phonetically prenasalized stops
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] no Saint and Pike 1962:5-15 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast no Saint and Pike 1962:5-13 Daniel Valle But there is phonetic palatalized stops
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? yes Saint and Pike 1962:15 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels no Saint and Pike 1962:15 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme no Saint and Pike 1962:14 Daniel Valle No consonant clusters are allowed
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] yes Saint and Pike 1962:14 Daniel Valle However, it is not stated in the source but it seems quite plausible to imply this
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? no Saint and Pike 1962:14 Daniel Valle no consonant can appear word-finally
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones no Saint and Pike1959:4-17 Daniel Valle more likely not
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? yes Saint and Pike 1962:24 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments no info Daniel Valle
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? no info Daniel Valle
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony no info Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] no info Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone no info Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word no info Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no Peeke 1973:39-40 Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes yes Peeke 1973:39-40 Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different no Peeke 1973:39-40 Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated no info Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated no info Daniel Valle
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced no info Daniel Valle
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection yes based on examples Peeke 1991:24-25 Daniel Valle
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word no info Daniel Valle
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' no info Daniel Valle
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs no info Daniel Valle
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment yes It is not clear if this process is productive but it is possible in the language Holman:62-3 Daniel Valle
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. yes Peeke 1973:125-8 Daniel Valle However, it is not clear the status of the "noun classifiers" as such from the examples which show them in compounding and incorporation processes
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only no However, there is a honorific third person female form Zander:94 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system 3 Peeke 1973:129 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns no Peeke 1973:40 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns no Peeke 1973:40 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no Peeke 1973:128 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns yes Peeke 1973:128 Daniel Valle There is a "honorific" form of pronouns but it seems that they do not distinguish number
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients yes There are postpositions Orr et all. 1991:22; Peeke 1991:22 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) no Orr et all. 1991:22 Daniel Valle Non-human object usually do not take the corresponding object-marking postposition
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates yes Orr et all. 1991:22 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere yes /-ta/ Peeke 1973:38-9 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past yes /-ga/ far past Peeke 1973:38-9 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future no Peeke 1973:39 Daniel Valle There is only one future tense marker
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) yes /-kĩ/ Peeke 1973:39 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no Peeke 1973:39 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes Peeke 1973:39 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no Peeke 1973:39 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no Peeke 1973:39 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood yes /-i/ Peeke 1973:16, 39 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses no The same strtegy for negation is used for both declarative clauses and imperatives Peeke 1991:25-28 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") yes /-aa/ Peeke 1973:18, 39 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' yes /-a, -gaa, -yaa/ Orr et all. 1991:41 Daniel Valle There is only overt marking for irrealis aspect
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. yes /-ĩ/ Peeke 1973:16-17 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above yes /-bẽ/ Peeke 1973:16-17 Daniel Valle There is a "speculative" verbal suffix
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic yes Peeke 1973:16-17 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs no Peeke 1973:16-17 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle yes Peeke 1973:16-17 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion no Peeke 1973:40 Daniel Valle Number is marked by a portmanteau suffix which also encodes person
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction no info Daniel Valle
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order no Orr et all. 1991:20 Daniel Valle
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject no info Daniel Valle
Word Order VS in transitive clauses no info Daniel Valle
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object no Orr et all. 1991:20 Daniel Valle
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject no Orr et all. 1991:20 Daniel Valle
Word Order Preposition-Noun no info Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix no info Daniel Valle
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) yes Orr et all. 1991:21 Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') no Orr et all. 1991:21 Daniel Valle
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun yes Orr et all. 1991:21 Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun no Orr et all. 1991:21 Daniel Valle Based on examples
Word Order Dem-Noun yes Orr et all. 1991:21 Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Dem no Orr et all. 1991:21 Daniel Valle
Word Order Num-Noun no info Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Num no info Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies yes Orr et all. 1991:22 Daniel Valle
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies yes Orr et all. 1991:22 Daniel Valle
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') yes Orr et all. 1991:22 Daniel Valle But I am not completely sure about it. In the source it says thay a relative clause can appear without a "nuclear noun"
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' no info Daniel Valle
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause no Peeke 1991:21 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs yes based on examples Holman:57-74 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element yes Orr et all. 1991:25-36 Daniel Valle In this case, it is a clitic which appears before the constituent which it negates: in the case of a clause, it appears sentence-initially.
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element yes Orr et all. 1991:25-36 Daniel Valle In this case, it is a verbal suffix.
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix yes Peeke 1991:19 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle no Peeke 1991:19 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' yes It is possible to combine the two strategies for marking negation in a single clause. It has an emphatic effect. However, this is an uncommon construction. Peeke 1991:44 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' yes There is a negative particle for "there is not" {dae} Peeke 1991:19, 38 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle no Orr et all. 1991:21 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology yes Orr et all. 1991:21 Daniel Valle This verbal morphology is optional; most of these sentences are only distinguished by raising intonation. The verbal morphology consists of reduplication of the final vowel of the verb
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no Orr et all. 1991:21 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only no Orr et all. 1991:21 Daniel Valle But intonation does distinguish most of these sentences
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) no Orr et all. 1991:21 Daniel Valle Word order is similar to declaratives sentences but a clitic is added to the questioned contituent
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence no info Daniel Valle


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
1500 medium HG low mobile