Case: asymmetrical

Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions
Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla no Jane Hill
Cupeño yes Jane Hill
Luiseño no Jane Hill
Serrano no Jane Hill
Kitanemuk no Jane Hill
Kawaiisu no Jane Hill
Timbisha no Jane Hill
Western Mono no Jane Hill
Chemehuevi no Jane Hill
Southern Paiute no Jane Hill
Southern Ute no Jane Hill
Shoshone no Jane Hill
Comanche yes Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone no Jane Hill
Northern Paiute yes Jane Hill
Gabrielino no Jane Hill
Achagua no Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 71 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro no Allin, 1976: 238-279 Aimee Lawrence
Bare no Aikhenvald, 1995: 15 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco no Examples show case marking on a number of types of entities, including animate and inanimate. Galindo, 2002: 209-218 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna no No subset is mentioned, the examples include both case-marked animates and inanimates. Shauer & Shauer, p. 37-38 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no Mosonyi, 1987: 52-55 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no Santos, 2006: 215 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu no Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 800 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana no Aikhenvald, 2003: 140-148 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã no Facundes, 2000: 385-390 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali yes Mostly inanimates are marked. Payne 1981:110111 Amanda Meeks
Maipure no Zamponi 2003:21-35 Daniel Smith
Yanesha' no Case does not occur in core arguments. Thus, this questions is not applicable to the Yanesha case Duff-Tripp 1997:36 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure no Danielsen 2007: p116, Figure 4.2 Mitz Perez
Nanti no Michael, 2008. p. 354-355 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Palikur no Launey 2003 Daniel Smith
Yine no Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun no Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora yes Seifart - 2005:68 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no Case marked by independent postpositions Hall 1988: 287-300 Melody Ann Ross
Makushi no Carson 1982: 79 Melody Ann Ross, Amanda Meeks
Eñepa no info Daniel Valle
Pemon no de Armellada 1999: 16-25, 54-5 Daniel Valle
Guna no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika yes Ergative case is dependent on the pragamtic status of the subject with respect to the object. The subject gets ergative case if it is less "given" than the object Frank 1985:49 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí no Quesada 2008:155-67 Daniel Valle
Damana no Daniel Valle
Sikuani no No evidence of cases. Instead, Sikuani utilizes a very intricate verbal agreement system. Queixalós 2000:78 Daniel Smith
Macaguan no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna no Overall 2007:21-30 Daniel Valle However, some NP can be left without case mark according to a EAH
Northern Emberá no Mortensen 1999:47-57 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani yes Orr et all. 1991:22 Daniel Valle
Ingá yes Specificity is required to marked object NPs with accusative case. Unspecific NPs do not get accusative case. Levinson 1978:7 Daniel Valle
Matses no Fleck:280 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun yes Zúñiga 2006, p. 194-7 Daniel Valle
Páez no info Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no Parker 1965:26-7, Perroud 1973:16-20 Daniel Valle
Tikuna yes Only the animate object NPs can receive the accusative case (which is marked by the "dative" case) Faco Soares 1993:92-93 Daniel Valle
Urarina no Olawsky:224-44 Daniel Valle
Waunana no info Mejía 2000:88-89 Daniel Valle
Andoke no Landaburu 1979: 155-169 Kelsey Neely assumed from lack of information otherwise
Puinave no Giron 2008: p194-208 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no Huayhua Pari 2001: 263 Shannon Dardis
Kakua yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no Minor and Minor 1982. p. 31 Christopher Clack
Hup yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no info Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw yes appears to be limited to animates Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano no Miller 1999, p. 57 Chris Clack
Cubeo yes most of the cases where the object marker is omitted, it is inanimate Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 111 Amanda Novak The factors influencing when -RE may be omitted from a (nonincorporated) direct object, leaving it without an overt case marker, are the inanimacy of the object, introducing an animate object, and in lists.
Kotiria no Stenzel 2004, p. 171 Amanda Novak
Makuna no Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.33 Chris Clack
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.47 Chris Clack
Barasano no Jones & Jones 1991, p.65-72 Chris Clack
Tanimuca yes animates Strom 1992, p.59-61 Chris Clack The suffix -re marks subjects or objects which are human or referred to by a proper name.
Siona no Wheeler - 1987:124-130 Amanda Meeks
Tukano no Ramirez 1997 Kelsey Neely no evidence for this
Yanomami no Ramirez 1994: 195-198, 179-180 Kelsey Neely
Ninam no Goodwin-Gomez, p.76-80 Kelsey Neely
Sanumá no Borgman 1990, p. 119-126 Kelsey Neely no discussion of this, and from data in other languages, I'm assuming not
Surui no Van der Meer (?):2 Daniel Smith no info on oblique cases
Karitiana no Everett 2006:304-8 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní yes It is kind of unexpected in terms of EAH that human and animal nouns are marked when they appear as objects but pronouns are not… Krivoshein and Acosta 2001:130-1 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama no Vallejos 2010:279-304 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu yes done 1
Wambaya yes done 1
Bunuba yes done 1
Walmajarri no Done-Claire 0
Nyulnyul yes done? 1
Warrwa yes done 1
Worrorra no info done X
Garrwa no 4-6 done 0
Gooniyandi yes done 1
Warlpiri no info done 0
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no 79 done 0
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi no 54, 98-100 done-Dan 0
Yidiny no done-Catherine 0
Yanyuwa no 13 Done-Austin 0
Yandruwandha no 75-105 Done-Dan 0
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no 14-17 Done-Dan 0
Woiwurrung no info done-Amalia x
Wirangu No 46 done 0
Wemba-Wemba yes H 28-30 done-Amalia 1
Warumungu No 18 done-Amalia 0
Wangkumara no done 0
Uradhi Yes 335 Y 1
Paakantyi no 77, 120 Y-Hannah 0
Pitta-Pitta No 196 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi yes 50 done-Hannah 1
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta no 46 Done-Hannah 0
Ngiyambaa no 81 Done-Emily 0
Ngayawang No 6 done-Amalia 0
Muruwari no 53 Done-Dan 0
Mayi-Yapi No 34 done 0
Martuthunira yes 66 done 1
Marrgany No 302 Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 148 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji no Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara No 389 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna No 5 done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu no 27-38 Done-Dan 0
Jaru no 55 Done-Amalia 0
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 47 Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr no 254, 264-5 done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun no done-Jessica 0
Yuwaalaraay No 38 0
Dyirbal No 42 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu no 25 done 0
Djinang No 27 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari no done-Hannah 0
Dharawal no done-Hannah w Dhurga) 0
Darkinyung no 16 done 0
Bularnu no Done-Austin 0
Biri no 14 done-Jessica 0
Bidjara-Gungabula no done-Jessica 0
Batyala no info 5 Done-Amalia x
Arabana yes 60-61 Done-Dan 1
Alyawarr no 69-70 done 0
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija No 20 Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung no 72-73 done 0
Mathi-Mathi no 76 done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no 26 done-Amalia 0
Thanggati no 11-12 done 0
Katthang no 30 done-Amalia 0
Panyjima no 136-137 done 0
Ngarinyeri No 18 done-Amalia 0
Kurrama no done-Dan 0
Yingkarta no Done-Claire 0
Githabul No 9 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya No 302 Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen No 29 Done- 0
WesternTorres yes K85b 63 done 1
Wakaya no done 0
Yindjilindji no done 0
Bandjalang yes 54 Done-Amalia 1
Ngaatjatjara No 48 done 0
Arrernte No 126 0
Kokatha No 52 0
Karajarri No 113 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara No Y 16 0
Ritharrngu No 33 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay No 28 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra yes 881 Done-Amalia 1
Warnman No 14 Done-Amalia 0
Djapu yes 33 1
Bilinarra no 4.1, 5.1.1, 5.2.1 done 0
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 51 Y2 0
Narungga No 64 done 0
Tharrkari Yes 24-5 1
Wajarri No 39 0
Warungu no? 169 0
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Baniwa no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps