Northern Paiute

Family
Uto-Aztecan
Region
North America
ISO 639-3
pao
Location
40.08°, -119.54°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (185)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location pa7a- “high, above” inheritance Thornes 03:241 Jane Hill
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar tiwau “again, also” unknown Thornes 03:241 Jane Hill
all todo todos other [nOO7yu “all (NOM)” inheritance Thornes 03:476 Jane Hill
and y e grammar jaisi “and then” loan thornes 03:166 Jane Hill
ankle tobillo tornozelo body ta7witsogo inheritance Thornes 03:112 Jane Hill
armpit axila, sobaco axila body anga inheritance Nichols 1974:318 Jane Hill
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment kutusiby inheritance Stubbs 08 Jane Hill
at en, a em, a location -ma "on, at, instr" inheritance SAA 1982 Jane Hill
back espalda costas body pi- inheritance Thornes 03:356 Jane Hill
bad mal mal quality syta “bad, badly” unknown Thornes 03:200 Jane Hill
belly barriga barriga body sa'py inheritance Nichols 74:335 Jane Hill
below abajo, debajo abaixo location pitami “down, below” inheritance Thornes 03:241 Jane Hill
big grande grande quality paba inheritance Thornes 03:75 Jane Hill
bite morder morder body -kyi SAA 82 64 inheritance SAA 1982:64 Jane Hill
black negro preto colour tuu-, tuhu inheritance Thornes 03:215 Jane Hill
blood sangre sangue body pyy (in mypyy “their blood”) inheritance Thornes 03:450 Jane Hill
blow soplar soprar body puuhi7yu inheritance Stubbs 08 Jane Hill
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body 7ya- (in 7yadui7hu “wound someone”) inheritance Stubbs 08 Jane Hill
bone hueso osso body oho inheritance Stubbs 08 Jane Hill
breast pecho, seno peito body nyngapy “chest” inheritance Thornes? Jane Hill
breathe respirar respirar body so/unga(') inheritance Nichols 1974:337 Jane Hill
burn quemar queimar environment nai (vt, vi) inheritance Thornes 03:387 Jane Hill
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body ky7waja unique Nichols 1974:165 Jane Hill
child niño, niña criança human duaki “children” inheritance SAA 1982 Jane Hill
climb subir subir motion po7ja (sg) unknown SAA 1982:62 Jane Hill
cloud nube nuvem environment kumiba inheritance Thornes 03:106 Jane Hill
cold frío frio quality ydzytsy “cold” inheritance Thornes 03:43 Jane Hill
come venir vir motion kima (sg), inheritance SAA? Jane Hill
cook cocinar cozinhar impact [kuha/ni inheritance Thornes 03:33 Jane Hill
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality toki loan direction unknown Thornes 03:128 Jane Hill
count contar contar mental sunaga “calculate, determine”(?) unknown Thornes 03:469 Jane Hill
cry llorar chorar mental /jaka inheritance Thornes 03:40 Jane Hill
cut/hack cortar cortar impact -ka7a (requires IP) inheritance Thornes 03:324 Jane Hill
day día dia time [tabi/ inheritance Thornes 03:34 Jane Hill
die/be dead morir morrer state jai,ja7i (sg), inheritance SAA 1982 Jane Hill
dig cavar cavar impact hiwi unique Thornes 03:136 Jane Hill
dingo/wolf fauna isa/ “wolf” inheritance Thornes 03:43 Jane Hill
dirty sucio sujo quality totsa7a inheritance Thornes 03:249 Jane Hill
dream soñar sonhar mental nossi inheritance Thornes 03:128 Jane Hill
drink beber, tomar beber body hipiu “drink!” inheritance Thornes 03:25 Jane Hill
dry seco seco quality pasa inheritance Thornes 03:46 Jane Hill
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality missing Jane Hill
dust polvo poeira environment [kuSSi “dust, dusty” inheritance Thornes 03:44 Jane Hill
ear oreja orelha body naka inheritance Thornes 04:476 Jane Hill
earth/soil tierra terra environment tiipy “earth, etc.” inheritance Nichols 1974:19 Jane Hill
eat comer comer body [tykka/ inheritance Thornes 03:34 Jane Hill
egg huevo ovo fauna no-(ho) “egg, testicles” inheritance Nichols 1974:174 Jane Hill
eye ojo olho body /pui inheritance Thornes 03:57 Jane Hill
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body kwita-'py inheritance Nichols 1974:142 Jane Hill
fall caer cair motion wi7i inheritance Thornes 03:231 Jane Hill
far lejos longe quality kwaya unknown Thornes 03:481 Jane Hill
fat/grease grasa gordura body juhupi inheritance Thornes 03:106 Jane Hill
father padre, papá pai kinship naa inheritance Thornes 03:91 Jane Hill
fear miedo medo mental sya7i inheritance Thornes 03:225 Jane Hill
feather pluma pena fauna missing Jane Hill
fire fuego fogo environment ku'su, ko'so inheritance Nichols 1974:327 Jane Hill
fish xx xx fauna bakwi inheritance SAA 1982:8 Jane Hill
flow fluir fluir motion hu7u loan Thornes 03:497 Jane Hill
flower flor flor environment tOnika “flower” [toni/ja] unknown Thornes 03:37 Jane Hill
fly volar voar motion yotsi (sg) inheritance Thornes 03:298 Jane Hill
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment pakymapa inheritance Nichols 1974:181 Jane Hill
foot pie body kyky- inheritance Thornes 03:219 Jane Hill
fruit fruta fruta flora pui berry, seed inheritance SAA 1982:30 Jane Hill
good bueno bom quality pisa/ “good” inheritance Thornes 03:43 Jane Hill
grow crecer crescer state na7a inheritance Thornes 03:57 Jane Hill
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body tsopyhy “head hair” inheritance SAA 1982:26 Jane Hill
hand mano mão body ma- inheritance Thornes? Jane Hill
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar u-su inheritance SAA82 Jane Hill
head cabeza cabeça body kwOO inheritance Thornes 03:77 Jane Hill
hear oír ouvir mental naka inheritance Thornes 03:90 Jane Hill
heavy pesado pesado quality nynykwi- inheritance Thornes 03:148 Jane Hill
hide esconder esconder motion watsi inheritance Thornes 03:224 Jane Hill
hit golpear, pegar bater impact kwiba “strike” inheritance Thornes 03:170 Jane Hill
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other tsahani “keep/hold” inheritance Thornes 03:170 Jane Hill
how? como como grammar ha7u inheritance Thornes 03:188 Jane Hill
1sg yo eu grammar ny inheritance Thornes? Jane Hill
if si se grammar -na inheritance SAA 1982:68 Jane Hill
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location pitakwana "inside" unknown Thornes 03:241 Jane Hill
intestines intestinos intestinos body si inheritance Stubbs 08 Jane Hill
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body missing Jane Hill
kill matar matar impact patsa kill sg. obj inheritance Thornes 03 125 Jane Hill
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental /supitakwatu “to know, understand” unknown Thornes 03:41 Jane Hill
lake lago lago environment panynady unknown Thornes 03:136 Jane Hill
laugh reír rir mental su-wa7i unique Nichols 1974:177 Jane Hill
leaf hoja folha environment naka inheritance SAA 1982:16 Jane Hill
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body oi-naggwa inheritance Stubbs 08 Jane Hill
leg/foot pierna perna body kaupa unknown Thornes 03:241 Jane Hill
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion hapi (sg), inheritance Thornes 03:316 Jane Hill
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment missing Jane Hill
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body nymy (sg); inheritance SAA 1982:62 Jane Hill
liver hígado figado body nywy inheritance Thornes 03:165 Jane Hill
long largo comprido, longo quality udy “tall, long, deep” loan direction unknown Thornes 03:200 Jane Hill
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna poziabbi “louse, flea” inheritance Stubbs 08 Jane Hill
lung pulmón pulmão body so'ngo inheritance Nichols 1974:177 Jane Hill
man/male hombre homem human nana loan SAA 1982 Jane Hill
meat/flesh carne carne fauna tuku inheritance Thornes 03:107 Jane Hill
moon luna lua environment myha inheritance Thornes 03:245 Jane Hill
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship pia/ inheritance Thornes 03:33 Jane Hill
mouth boca boca body typpa/ 27; inheritance Thornes 03:27 Jane Hill
name nombre nome human ni7a “to name, call by name” inheritance Nichols 1974:177 Jane Hill
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body ka7wotsobba unique Miller 88 Jane Hill
near/close cerca de perto quality tsagi7i unknown thornes 03:166 Jane Hill
neck cuello pescoço body ggutta (Yerington), kutta (McDonald) inheritance Miller 88 Jane Hill
new nuevo novo quality pydy “new, young, anew” inheritance Thornes? Jane Hill
night noche noite time [toqaano “night time” inheritance Thornes 03:45 Jane Hill
no/not no não grammar gai “No” inheritance SAA 1982:27 Jane Hill
nose nariz nariz body mubi inheritance Thornes 03:476 Jane Hill
old viejo velho quality moa inheritance Thornes 03:127 Jane Hill
one uno um number symy- inheritance Thornes 03:211 Jane Hill
open/uncover abrir abrir other -kwonao (sg), unknown SAA? Jane Hill
other otro outro grammar ky7ma inheritance Nichols 1974:13 Jane Hill
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body tyoja7i “sick” (sg) inheritance SAA 1982:13 Jane Hill
person/human being persona pessoa human /nymy/ inheritance Thornes 03:356 Jane Hill
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact pota “pound acorns” inheritance Stubbs 08 Jane Hill
rain lluvia chuva environment paumaba inheritance Thornes 03:106 Jane Hill
red rojo vermelho colour atsa unique Thornes 03:200 Jane Hill
right/right hand derecha direita location/body missing Jane Hill
road/path camino caminho manufacture [pOO “trail” inheritance Thornes 03:33 Jane Hill
root raíz raiz flora tyna/ “tree root” inheritance Thornes 03:27 Jane Hill
rotten podrido podre quality pihi “rotten, of meat” inheritance Thornes 03:298 Jane Hill
sand arena areia environment pasiwaby inheritance Stubbs 08 Jane Hill
say decir dizer mental yni “say” inheritance SAA 1982:64 Jane Hill
scratch rascar rasgar impact wongi unknown Nichols 1974:343 Jane Hill
see ver ver mental [puni inheritance Thornes 03:33 Jane Hill
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality kaakwaba unique Thornes 03:231 Jane Hill
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact akwi “shoot” inheritance Thornes 03:54 Jane Hill
short corto curto quality miitsi- inheritance Thornes 03:126 Jane Hill
shoulder hombro ombro body tsoaba inheritance Thornes 03:231 Jane Hill
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental nasuggwaidy “shamed someone” inheritance Stubbs 08 Jane Hill
sit sentar(se) sentar state katy (sg); inheritance Thornes 03:316 Jane Hill
skin piel pele body pyhy “skin, hide, fur” inheritance Stubbs 08 Jane Hill
sky cielo céu environment toko7pa7 inheritance Nichols 1974:339 Jane Hill
sleep dormir dormir body ywi inheritance Thornes 03:267 Jane Hill
small pequeño pequeno quality tyytsi inheritance Thornes 03:476 Jane Hill
smoke humo fumaça environment kwii- (vb) inheritance Thornes 03:431 Jane Hill
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body igwi loan into protolanguage Thornes 03:55 Jane Hill
spit escupir cuspir body tuhi loan into protolanguage Stubbs 08 Jane Hill
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact kutsa “split.wood” unique Thornes 03:268 Jane Hill
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact mapy'co-ma “to wring out, twist to squeeze” unique Nichols 1974:166 Jane Hill
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact -posa inheritance Thornes 03:325 Jane Hill
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state wynny (sg), inheritance Thornes 03:316 Jane Hill
star estrella estrela environment paatusuba unique Thornes 03:106 Jane Hill
steal robar roubar other tyha, dyha inheritance Thornes 03:171 Jane Hill
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora huupi inheritance Thornes 03 early page Jane Hill
stone piedra pedra environment typi inheritance Thornes 03 Jane Hill
suck chupar chupar body missing Jane Hill
sweat sudar suor, suar body kuna7a doubtful loan Nichols 1974:179 Jane Hill
swell hincharse inchar body pa7wa inheritance Nichols 1974:181 Jane Hill
swim nadar nadar motion pa-hapi “water-lie (sg)” inheritance Thornes 03:453 Jane Hill
tail cola, rabo rabo body kwassi inheritance Thornes 03:93 Jane Hill
that ese/esa esse grammar ma-su inheritance SAA 1982:42 Jane Hill
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar umy inheritance SAA 1982 Jane Hill
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality wogo7 (of cloth, canvas) inheritance Thornes 03:520 Jane Hill
thin delgado fino quality tykija7i “skinny (from hunger)” unknown Thornes 03:206 Jane Hill
think pensar pensar mental sunami inheritance Thornes 03:224 Jane Hill
this este/esta este grammar isu inheritance SAA 1982:42 Jane Hill
2sg xx xx grammar y inheritance Thornes 03:157 Jane Hill
three tres tres number pahi inheritance Thornes 03:142 Jane Hill
throat garganta garganta body nnodo inheritance Stubbs 08 Jane Hill
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact wynai inheritance Thornes 03:119 Jane Hill
thunder truenos trovão environment niniaba unique Thornes 03:106 Jane Hill
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact wy-'ca'ky “to tie, knot, fasten' inheritance Nichols 1974:161 Jane Hill
tongue lengua lingua body ikO inheritance Thornes 03:37 Jane Hill
tooth diente dente body tama inheritance Nichols 1974:337 Jane Hill
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other tsamyna (sg) inheritance Thornes 03:316 Jane Hill
two dos dois number waha inheritance Thornes 03:140 Jane Hill
vomit vomitar vomitar body oa7i7hu inheritance Stubbs 08 Jane Hill
walk caminar, andar andar motion nymmi (sg), inheritance Thornes 03:316 Jane Hill
water agua agua environment paa inheritance Thornes 03:113 Jane Hill
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar nymmi inheritance Thornes 03:110 Jane Hill
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar tammi inheritance Thornes 03:157 Jane Hill
wet mojado molhado quality sa:7mi inheritance SAA 1982 Jane Hill
what? que, qué que grammar haga, inheritance SAA 1982 Jane Hill
when? cuando quando grammar hanano inheritance Thornes 03:188 Jane Hill
where? donde onde grammar hanno inheritance Thornes 03:188 Jane Hill
white blanco branco colour toha- inheritance Thornes 03:215 Jane Hill
who? quien, quién quem grammar haga/ inheritance Thornes 03:28 Jane Hill
wife esposa esposa kinship /notykwa loan Thornes 03:41 Jane Hill
wind viento vento environment hykwaba inheritance Thornes 03:106 Jane Hill
wing ala asa body kassa inheritance Thornes 03:340 Jane Hill
woman/female mujer mulher human [moqo/7ni inheritance Thornes 03:40 Jane Hill
work trabajar trabalhar other missing Jane Hill
yawn bostezar bocejar body ydamuwyny “yawning” inheritance Stubbs 08 Jane Hill
yellow amarillo amarelo colour oha inheritance Thornes 03:140 Jane Hill
2pl ustedes vocês grammar ymy (pl) inheritance SAA 1982 Jane Hill


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (130)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
abalone flora-fauna Haliotis spp. pooedooa abalone unique first pooe- part is “green”, like in W. Mono puhiGede but note t. Shoshone po'owa “seashell, shell Stubbs 1907 same underived surely some kind of old phrase with green, but unanalyzable second part Yerington Dictionary 2 1 0 0 1 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae ha'enabe Ant unique may contain *anɨN, Stubbs 44 (2008:44) same other complex has -pi ABS Merriam 61:149 0 0 2 0 0 no
antelope flora-fauna Antilocapra americana tunna Antelope inheritance *tɨmɨna Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 52 (2008:45) same underived Merriam 61:135; Yerrington Dictionary 2 1 0 0 0 no
badger flora-fauna Taxidea taxus hoonna Badger inheritance *huLa Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 132 (2008:59) same underived Merriam 61:133; Yerington Dictionary 2 1 0 0 0 yes
bald eagle flora-fauna Haliaeetus leucocephalus toha tsopege ggwe'na'a Bald eagle (Halioeetus) (white hair eagle) unique might be a calqued neologism, “White-headed Eagle” appears in the W. Mono dictionary, possibly a local common name same phrase white head eagle (is tsopigi a bahuvrihi?? Dunno) Yerington Dictionary 1 2 0 0 1 no
band-tail pigeon flora-fauna Patagioenas fasciata missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp pedahana'a Bat unique unknown Yerington Dictionary 0 1 0 0 0 no
beaver flora-fauna Castor ha'ngisa Beaver inheritance *ha'ni Numic Stubbs 155 (2008:61), possibly a loan?? same underived Thornes 2003:53 2 1 0 0 0 no
beetle flora-fauna Coleoptera spp pepooze stinkbug inheritance *pippusi Numic Stubbs 311 (2008:83) narrower (a species of beetle) underived Yerington Dictionary 2 0 0 0 0 no
big round tule flora-fauna Schoenoplectus acutus sibe tule (M: Big round tule (Scirpus lacustris) inheritance *sɨyi Northern Uto-Aztecan I think this goes with Takic Stubbs 1735 (shown in reconstruction) which needs to be fixed since Numic is clearly sayi, see T. Shoshone same other complex has -pi ABS Merriam 61:157 2 1 2 0 0 no
big skunk flora-fauna Mephitis mephitis poh-ne'-dah; pong-e'-dah Big skunk (Mephitis) inheritance *po(C)ni Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1983 (2008:275); what is -da?? is it -dɨ, deverbalizing from “stink”?? broader (includes both kinds of skunks) derived may have the -dɨ nominalizer Merriam 61:133 2 2 0 0 0 no
big wolf (gray wolf) flora-fauna Canis lupus esa (Y) Big wolf (Canis ) semantic shift *isa'a(N)pa Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 552 (2008:112); usually this form is “coyote” same underived Merriam 61:133 1 2 0 0 0 yes
bighorn sheep flora-fauna Ovis canadensis koepa Bighorn (Ovis) unique same underived Yerington Dictionary 2 1 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna hootseba A bird inheritance Uto-Aztecan Miller put hootseba together with 205c hutti/hutu (Stubs 2008:67). Probably sound-imitative, may not have a good etymology narrower (doesn't include raptors) underived Yerington Dictionary 0 0 0 0 0 no
black ant flora-fauna Camponotus pennsylvanicus/Lasius niger anebe little black ants semantic shift *anɨN Uto-Aztecan usually this is “red ant”; Stubbs 44 (2008:44) same other complex has -pi ABS Merriam 61:149; Yerington Dictionary 2 0 0 0 0 no
black bear flora-fauna Ursus americanus wɨdaɂa Black bear, bear, brown bear inheritance Numic May be a loan, but see BSVS wyyta “bear”, Comanche wɨra “male bear”; may match the Merriam Walker Lake form (see “other notes”), which has “black” in it -- same underived Thornes 2003:192 1 2 0 0 0 yes
black-tail Jackrabbit flora-fauna Lepus californicus kammu Black-tail jackrabbit (Lepus texianus group) inheritance *kaNmu Numic Stubbs 1710 (2008:243) same underived Yerington Dictionary 2 1 0 0 0 no
blackberry flora-fauna Rubus ursinus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
blue grouse flora-fauna Dendrogapus? kah'-hih; kah'-hoo-ŭ kahɨ Blue grouse (Dendragapus) inheritance *kaka 'quail, grouse' Northern Uto-Aztecan I'm not sure about this -- Numic is good, but may not go with Takic (Stubbs 1702a (2008:241); note TS kahu and wonder why different from “quail” same underived Merriam 61:139 0 1 0 0 0 no
bobcat, lynx flora-fauna Lynx rufus toohoo'oo Bob-cat (Lynx californicus) inheritance *tukkuC Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1306 (2008:200) -- WHY does this language have /h/ from *kk??? Is this a loan? WW %tuku same underived Yerington Dictionary 1 2 0 0 0 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera soo-ap'-pah “spirit or ghost” (WL); tsoapu (Y) Butterfly semantic shift *so'aC Numic usually it's “moth” words that are the “ghost/spirit” word; Stubbs 2064 (2008:285), W. and Central Numic only broader (butterfly, ghost) other complex has -pɨ ABS Merriam 61:149 2 0 0 0 0 no
California condor flora-fauna Gymnogyps californianus missing missing missing 1 2 0 0 1 no
California jay flora-fauna Aphelocoma californica? we at'-se-m California jay (Aphelocoma) unique unknown Merriam 61:139 2 1 0 0 0 no
California woodpecker flora-fauna Melanerpes formicivorus? ă-sahk-kwi-yu wah'-pe pan-nă atsa kwoyu waape panna California woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus bairdi) loan unknown at the core of this is the panna loan word (see “Flicker” same phrase and what a phrase! atsa kwo-yu waape panna red head-nom juniper woodpecker ?? Merriam 61:139 2 1 0 0 1 no
chia flora-fauna Salvia columbariae missing missing missing 1 1 1 0 0 no
chipmunk flora-fauna Tamias spp. tabba Chipmunk inheritance *tapa Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2095 (2008:288) same underived Merriam 61:135 2 1 0 0 0 no
cliff swallow flora-fauna Petrochelidon pyrrhonota soggobbena mudswalow (M: Cliff swallow (Petrochelidon) inheritance Northern Uto-Aztecan new set for “swallow”, usually with pa- prefix same underived looks complex but no etymology of any parts Yerington Dictionary 2 1 0 0 0 no
coot flora-fauna Fulica americana saya mudhen (M: Coot (Fulica) inheritance *saya Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 217 (2008:69) same underived Yerington Dictionary 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottontail rabbit flora-fauna Sylvilagus audobonii taboo'oo (Y) Cottontail rabbit (Lepus audoboni) inheritance *tapuC/*taput Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1707 (2008:242) same underived Merriam 61:135 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottonwood flora-fauna Populus spp. sunngabe Cottonwood (Populus) inheritance *sɨŋa Numic Stubbs 2353 (2008:316); usually “aspen” broader (may extend to any “tree”; see below) other complex has -pi ABS Merriam 61:151 2 0 2 0 0 no
coyote flora-fauna Canis latrans etza'a Coyote (Canis lestes or ochropus) inheritance Western Numic only I think this is a consonant-gradation variant of the “wolf” form (Stubbs 552 (2008:112); it also occurs in W. Mono same underived Yerington Dictionary 1 2 0 0 0 no
crow flora-fauna Corvus brachyrhynchos kwē' ar'-rah' (arrah is “Raven”) ada “crow” (Y) Crow (Corvus americanus) inheritance *atta-wɨ-ta Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 582 (2009:116), without the increment same underived Merriam 61:139 2 1 0 0 0 no
datura flora-fauna Datura wrightii moohoo'oo opium loan Tumpisa Shoshone? Similar forms in other Numic, e.g. Tumpisa Shoshone muippüh. Might be ultimately from Takic “moon” word, -ppüh here is nominalizer/CL WW %moji ~ %moni broader (includes other hallucinogens) underived Yerington Dictionary 1 1 1 1 0 yes
deer, mule flora-fauna Odocoileus hemionus tuhudda deer (M: Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus group) inheritance *tɨkɨya Numic Stubbs 625a (2008:121); what is the -da stuff?? same underived Yerington Dictionary 2 1 0 0 0 no
digger pine flora-fauna Pinus sabiniana missing only “Ponderosa” in sources missing missing Merriam 61:149 2 1 2 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris sadɨɂɨ Dog inheritance *sati Numic may be an arealism; Stubbs 674 (2008:126) in NP, C. Numic, S. Numic, Hopi unknown Thornes 2003:111 0 0 0 0 0 no
dogbane flora-fauna Apocynum cannabinum numu weha Indian hemp calque English wiha is Stubbs 1796, a UA “string” form. same phrase literally: Indian string Yerington Dictionary 2 1 2 0 0 no
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna Zenaida macrocoura ehobe Dove (M: (Zenaidura) inheritance '*hayɨwi Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 675 (2008:126) same other complex looks like it has the -pi ABS (non-possessed noun suffix) but this may be a false etymology, may be from -wi 'animal classifier' in PUA Yerington Dictionary 2 1 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae puhu duck (M:All ducks inheritance *picV Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 706a (2008:130) same underived Merriam 61:143 0 1 0 0 0 no
elder flora-fauna Sambucus hooboo elderberry (M: Elder (Sambucus) inheritance *hup/*hu'up Numic Stubbs 186 (2008:65) same underived Merriam 61:151 2 1 1 0 0 no
elk flora-fauna Cervas elaphus pah'-too he'dah “Water horse” (not here) Elk (Cervus) inheritance *pa:-*tɨkɨya Numic Stubbs 625a (2008:121), all Numic has this phrase on “deer” same phrase big-deer (NOT “water-deer, doggone it) Merriam 61:133 2 1 0 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna paggwe Fish (any) inheritance *paNkwi/pakkwi < *pa:-kVyu Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 865 (2008:148) same underived etymologically a phrase, “water-fish” Merriam 61:147 0 1 0 0 0 no
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna Siphonaptera pozeabbe Flea, louse inheritance *pusi'a Numic Stubbs 1358a (2008:205) broader (fleas and lice) other complex has -pi ABS Merriam 61:149 2 0 0 0 0 no
flicker flora-fauna Colaptes sp. atzabanna woodpecker (M: Flicker (Colaptes) loan Western Numic only Gabrielino origin unknown; Western Mono yazabana', with the -bana element widely loaned (Troike) WW %palaka ~ %pana(k) same phrase red-banna? Yerington Dictionary (appears only in alphabet examples on first page of front matter!) 2 1 0 0 1 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera mooebe Fly inheritance *muwi-/*muCpi Numic Stubbs 887 (2008:151) same other complex has -pi ABS Yerington Dictionary 0 0 0 0 0 no
foothills yucca flora-fauna Yucca whipplei missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
fox flora-fauna Vulpes, Urocyon wannge'e Fox (M: Gray fox (Urocyon) inheritance *waCni Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 562 (2008:113) same underived Yerington Dictionary 2 2 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna pamogo Frog (Rana) inheritance this is not *pa: “water” which would yield pawogo.But see Tumpisa Shoshone pawaka (approx), must be the same word. WW %wakat same underived Yerington Dictionary 2 2 0 0 0 no
golden eagle flora-fauna Aquila chrysaetos kwēt'-nah; kwid-nah kwi'naa (Thornes 2003:53) Golden eagle (Aquila) inheritance *kwi'na Numic Stubbs 717b same underived Merriam 61:137 1 2 0 0 1 no
gooseberry flora-fauna Ribes spp. mababbooe currant, gooseberry (the plant) unique *-pui is Numic “eye, seed, berry”, maba- unknown same underived etymologically a phrase but unanalyzable initial modifier on “berry” Yerington Dictionary 2 1 1 0 0 no
gopher snake, bull snake flora-fauna Pituophis catenifer tuuhaba bullsnake' (Y) bullsnake (M:Gopher or bull snake for form in “notes” with haba) unique same phrase tuu- probably “black”; haba is some kind of “snake” word that I can't find any cognates for (based on Merriam's Walker Lake form, see notes) Merriam 61:147 2 2 0 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) wahabu hay, (M: Grass (any) inheritance Numic Stubbs 1635 same other complex has -pɨ ABS Merriam 61:157 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Caelifera wutata Grasshopper unique Could this be part of *wo'V (Stubbs 1034 (2008:167)?? same underived Merriam 61:149 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray ground squirrel flora-fauna Sphermophilus sp. ō'dĕgoo'-bah; ō'-re-kŭ-bah Gray ground squirrel (Citellus beecheyi group) unique unknown Merriam 61:135 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray tree squirrel flora-fauna Sciurus spp. eggwu squirrel inheritance *iCkwa/*iNkwa Numic Stubbs 2099 (2008:289) same underived Yerington Dictionary 2 1 0 0 0 no
great horned owl flora-fauna Bubo virginianus mŏ-hŏ, kō-hoo; moo-hoo “Once Shoshone people” Great horned owl (Bubo) inheritance *muhuN Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1542 (2008:227) same underived Merriam 61:137 1 2 2 0 1 no
grizzly bear flora-fauna Ursus arctos horribilis padooa Grizzly bear (Ursus horribilis) (WL), bear (Y) loan unknown WW %paha same underived Merriam 61:133; Yerington Dictionary 1 2 0 0 0 yes
horned toad flora-fauna Phrynosomatidae magatza'a Horned toad (Phrynosoma) inheritance *makaCta Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1333 (2008;202) same underived probably etymologically some kind of compound form Yerington Dictionary 2 2 2 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus puku Horse semantic shift *puNku Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 38 (2008:43); originally “dog, pet” broader (also reported in a Merriam expression for “dog”; see Other Notes at “dog” above) underived Thornes 2003:107 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae songoe'e Humming bird unique same underived Yerington Dictionary 0 0 0 0 0 no
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana spp. pooebahmoo Indian tobacco, Wild tobacco loan Yokuts has pooe- “green” on pamo form WW %pa7mo same phrase green-tobacco Yerington Dictionary 1 1 1 1 0 yes
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing missing missing 0 0 2 0 0 variable
junco flora-fauna Junco sppp nŭ-bah' ho-ze-vă//nuba hootseba Junco (Junco) unique All Numic languages have “snow”, but with diverse second elements. Except W. Mono which has “winter (bird)” same phrase snow bird Merriam 61:141 0 1 0 0 0 no
juniper flora-fauna Juniperus californica waape cedar, juniper, juniper trees (M: Juniper (Juniperus) inheritance *wa'aC Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 415 (2008:94) same other complex has -pi ABS Yerington Dictionary 2 1 1 0 0 no
louse flora-fauna order Phtiraptera bbooze'a Lice (M: Head lice [note the inconsistent transcriptions here JHH] inheritance *pusi'a Numic Stubbs 1358a (2008:205) broader (fleas and lice, according to the Yerington dictionary) underived Yerington Dictionary 2 0 0 0 0 no
mallard flora-fauna Anas platyrhynchos kooda duck (M: Mallard (Anas boschas) inheritance *kuta- Numic Note Chemehuevi kurásɨŋA 'mallard'; are these from 'neck'??? same underived Merriam 61:143 2 1 0 0 0 no
manzanita flora-fauna Arctostaphylos spp. kodabi/ɨɂ manzanita unique same other complex has pɨ ABS (in Burns) Thornes 2003:106 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, broad leaf flora-fauna Asclepias eriocarpa weha fishing line, string, gum made out of Indian hemp (M: Milkweed, broad leaf (Asclepias) -see “species notes” inheritance ? Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1796, a very problematic set, but ancient -- string as wi-, the protypical long object??? broader (quite a range of plants and derived stuff, I'm sure a lot of the Yerington data is bad) underived Merriam 61:157 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, narrow leaf flora-fauna Asclepias fascicularis missing missing missing 0 1 1 0 0 no
mission tule flora-fauna Juncus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
mockingbird flora-fauna Mimus polyglottos missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera woponga Mosquito inheritance *(mo/wɨ)-pon Numic Stubbs 891 (2008:152) same underived Yerington Dictionary 0 0 0 0 0 no
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna Heterocera pe-ag'-gah do-ve'-e (peaga “bull pine caterpillar” (Y)) Sphynx Moth unique peaga is a good NUA word, what is do-ve??? narrower (a species of moth) phrase larva X-ABS ??? Merriam 61:149 2 0 “The worms taste good” Merriam 0 0 0 no
mountain lion flora-fauna Puma concolor kaggwe toohoo'oo 'mountain lion' (matches M forms) Mountain lion (Felis hippolestes) inheritance *tukkuC Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1306 (2008:200) -- WHY does this language have /h/ from *kk??? Is this a loan? WW %tuku same phrase what is kaggwe? It isn't “mountain” Merriam 61:133, Yerington Dictionary 1 2 0 0 0 yes
mountain quail flora-fauna Oreortyx pictus took-tah; too'-hoo-tah Mountain quail (Oreortyx) loan Gabrielino direction unknown, note Tumpisa Shoshone tu'ukwittan same underived might have -tɨ nominalizer but impossible to tell from CHM's transcription Merriam 61:139 2 1 0 0 0 no
mussel flora-fauna Mytilus spp. missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
olivella (olive snail) flora-fauna Callianax biplicata namakoo old kind of beads ? loan Tumpisa Shoshone? Note Tumpisa shosone namokku(n) “money”, Perhaps from Stubbs 2333 “buy, sell, pay” where na- is reciprocal same underived Yerington Dictionary 2 2 0 0 1 no
pinyon jay flora-fauna Cyanocitta stelleri? aanga pinenut bird (M: Pinyon jay (Cyanocephalus) inheritance Numic Colorado River Southern Numic in Stubbs 220 (2008:69), but this form elevates it to Numic. Perhaps ultimately a loan from somewhere. unknown Merriam 61:139 2 1 0 0 0 no
pinyon pine flora-fauna Pinus monophylla tuba-pe pinyon (M: Pinyon or nut pine (Pinus monophylla) inheritance *tɨpat Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1583 (2008;231) same other complex has -pi ABS Merriam 61:149 2 1 2 0 1 no
pismo clam flora-fauna Tivella stultorum missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
pocket gopher flora-fauna Thomomys yu-nat'-zib-ba yɨŋŋaciba Pocket gopher (Thomomys) unique possibly part of Stubbs 1009?? see also BSVS jyha “gopher” same other complex has -tsi and -pɨ Merriam 61:135 2 1 0 0 0 no
poison oak flora-fauna Toxicodendron diversilobum missing missing missing 2 2 2 0 0 yes
rattlesnake flora-fauna Crotalus spp. togoggwa togokwa Thornes 2003:298 Rattlesnake (Crotalus) inheritance *tɨ-koNwa Numic UA “snake” word *koNwa is Stubbs 2009, but this form is only in Numic same underived etymologically a phrase, “earth-snake” Yerington Dictionary 1 2 0 0 0 yes
red ant flora-fauna Solenopsis spp hooedu, tsahooedda red ants unique note that at Walker Lake Merriam has hooedu as “black ants” same derived has -tɨ deverbalizing suffix, what is hooe??? Yerington Dictionary 1 0 1 0 0 no
red-shouldered blackbird flora-fauna Agelaius phoeniceus at-sut-saw-pă-ko'-ro'-bah pakoddoba (Y); pakotopA Thornes 2003:219 Red-shouldered blackbird (Agelaius) inheritance Northern Uto-Aztecan This is a new set with *paka ... with various increments, see notes under “bird” in Stubbs 2008 same phrase at-sut-saw “red-head? (atsa-tso-)” -pă-ko'-ro'-bah “blackbird” Merriam 61:141 2 1 0 0 0 no
red-tailed hawk flora-fauna Buteo jamaicensis naka'e hawk (M. has as Red-tailed hawk (Buteo borealis) inheritance *naka'i Numic Stubbs 724 (2008:132) unknown Merriam 61:137 2 2 0 0 0 no
roadrunner flora-fauna Geococcyx californianus poboyooha'a roadrunner calque English same phrase po 'road' - poyooha 'run.fast' Yerington Dictionary 2 1 0 0 0 no
ruddy duck flora-fauna Oxyura jamaicensis no-vah'-vah Ruddy duck (Erismatura) unique same underived might have -pɨ ABS Merriam 61:143 2 1 0 0 0 no
sage herb flora-fauna Artemisia californica missing missing missing 2 2 1 0 0 no
salmon/steelhead flora-fauna Oncorhynchus mykiss agi Trout (Y), salmon (Burns: Thornes 2003:112) inheritance *akai Numic Stubbs 868 (2008:148), western and central numic only same underived Yerington Dictionary 2 1 0 0 0 no
scaly lizard flora-fauna Pygopus lepidopodus? kah-wē'-dah Scaly lizard (Sceloporus) unique same underived may have the -dɨ nominalizer but impossible to tell Merriam 61:147 2 2 0 0 0 no
small bird flora-fauna missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
small brown lizard flora-fauna te-bod-za Small brown lizard (Uta) unique same underived Merriam 61:147 2 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna nooyooadu Snake unique same derived nuyua-dɨ “crawl-er” Merriam 61:147 0 1 0 0 0 no
soaproot flora-fauna Chlorogalum missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
sour berry flora-fauna Rhus trilobata missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
sparrow hawk flora-fauna Falco wobbe'e Sparrow hawk unique same underived Merriam 61:137 2 2 0 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae soo-ar'-rah Spiders unique same underived Merriam 61:149 0 0 2 0 0 variable
spotted skunk flora-fauna Spilogale gracilis pong-e'-dah Little spotted skunk (Spilogale) inheritance *po(C)ni Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1983 (2008:275); what is -da?? is it -dɨ, deverbalizing from “stink”?? broader (includes both kinds of skunks) derived may have the -dɨ nominalizer Merriam 61:133 2 2 0 0 0 no
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna Bufonidae ah'-buz-ze Toad (Bufo) unique same other complex has -tsi ABS Merriam 61:147 2 2 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) e-wi'-yu sing-av'-ve ewa'yoo A tree unique same as “cottonwood”, which is pretty standard same phrase e-wi'-yu sing-av'-ve = ewa'yoo sunngabe many cottonwood??? Merriam 61:159 0 0 2 0 0 no
tree yucca flora-fauna Yucca schidegera missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
turkey buzzard flora-fauna Cathartes aura weho buzzard (M: Turkey buzzard (Cathartes) inheritance *wiLhukuN Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 335 (2008:86), a crazy set same underived Yerington Dictionary 2 2 0 0 0 no
turtle (generic) flora-fauna Testudines missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 1 no
valley live oak flora-fauna Quercus agrifolia missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley oak flora-fauna Quercus lobata we-ap'; we-ab'-be (wea acorns) Black oak (Quercus californica) inheritance *wiya Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1507b (2008:224) same other complex has -pi ABS Merriam 61:151 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley quail flora-fauna Callipepla californica sekege'e quail (M: Valley quail (Lophortyx) unique almost certainly a loan, find source, might be Sierra Miwok *heke form?? same underived Merriam 61:139 2 1 0 0 0 no
Washington clam flora-fauna Saxidomus nuttalli missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
Western Canada goose flora-fauna Branta canadensis naguddu nagɨtɨ Thornes 2003:266 goose (M: Western Canada goose (Branta canadensis occidentalis) inheritance *nakɨ Numic Stubbs 711 (2008:130) same underived might have -tɨ nominalizer but than what is the verb? Yerington Dictionary 0 1 0 0 0 no
whale flora-fauna Eschrichtius robustus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
white pelican flora-fauna Pelicanus erythrorhynchos paanosa pelican (M: White pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) unique may have pa- 'water'? same underived Merriam 61:143 0 2 0 0 0 no
wild grapevine flora-fauna Vitis californica koodebesa grapes unique probably a loan narrower (perhaps just fruit) underived Yerington Dictionary 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild oats flora-fauna Avena (introduction) wi-av'-ve Wild oats (Avena sativa) “always here” unique same other complex has -pi ABS Merriam 61:157 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild rose flora-fauna Rosa californica tseabbe rose (M:Wild rose (Rosa sp.) inheritance *ci'aN Numic Stubbs 190 (2008:65) same other complex has -pi ABS Yerington Dictionary 0 1 2 0 0 no
wild sunflower flora-fauna Helianthus (and other genera) aku sunflower inheritance *(pa)-'akka(C) Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2191 (2008:299) same underived Merriam 61:159 0 1 0 0 0 no
willow flora-fauna Salix spp. suube silver willow (M: Willow (Salix lasiolepis) inheritance *sɨhɨ Numic Stubbs 2486 (2008:332) same other complex has -pi ABS Merriam 61:151 2 2 1 0 0 no
wood rat, round-tail flora-fauna Neotoma spp. kawa Packrat (M: Wood rat, roundtail (Neotoma) inheritance *kawa Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1423 (2008:213) same underived Yerington Dictionary 2 1 0 0 0 no
worm, hairy caterpillar flora-fauna Arctiidae (many species) sow-wah pe-ag'-gah (peaga “bull pine caterpillar” (Y)) Caterpillar “sloppy inside” inheritance *pi'akɨC Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2527 (2008:338); I don't know what sow-wa is. Could it be tsoa- “spirit” again?? narrower (a species of caterpillar) phrase sow-wa caterpillar??? Merriam 61:149 2 2 0 0 0 no
worm, smooth caterpillar flora-fauna Trichoplusia ni (?) cabbage looper wo'aba Mono Lake fly larvae inheritance *wo'a Numic Stubbs 2526 (2008:338), used because it's a good Numic “worm” word narrower (a species of larva) other complex probably the -ba is the -pɨ ABS Merriam 61:149 2 2 0 0 0 no
yellow jacket flora-fauna Vespula spp., Dolichovespula spp. nodda bee (M: Yellow jacket unique broader (seems to include bees) underived Merriam 61:149 2 0 0 0 0 no
yellowbird flora-fauna Dendroica petechia wah'-ho ze'-wah oha hootseba Yellowbird (Astragalinus) unique Perhaps a calque same phrase Merriam 61:141 0 1 0 0 0 no
yerba santa flora-fauna Eriodictyon californicum missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna anibi inheritance Thornes 03:106 Jane Hill
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna hudziba inheritance Thornes 03:543 Jane Hill
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna muibi loan into protolanguage SAA 1982:11 Jane Hill
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna sady7y inheritance Thornes 03:111 Jane Hill
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna wahaby “grass, hay” inheritance Thornes 03:106 Jane Hill
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna [tyhycha inheritance Thornes 03:38 Jane Hill
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna togokwa “rattlesnake” inheritance Thornes 03:298 Jane Hill
spider araña aranha flora-fauna missing Jane Hill


Cultural Vocabulary (115)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
acorn mush food missing missing Jane Hill
ball game food watsumo7e play ball game unique natsetsakadu womans hockey 51; we'-che moo'-e-we football Merriam 46:379 unknown Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
feather headband dress tso7wupaganoo headband unique so-hah'-ber headband worn when dancing, of feathers Merriam 46:361 compound tso7wupaga head-wrap.up Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool pongosa arrow unique could this somehow be from *pakaN with some increment that triggered vowel assimilation, loss of lenited *k??? simplex Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
arrow straightener other pa7aabi arrow straightener also huadatytinni 'groved arrow straightener' L p. 59 Liljeblad et al 2012:350 (note, this source is for the northern dialects, Yerington for the southern) Jane Hill
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool tywo7a bait worm woo7a 'worm' Liljeblad et al 2012:555 Jane Hill
school escuela escola acculturation sukoodunna sykudynna school loan English WW %school simplex in Numu puggwi sukoodunna "Stewart" (also sukoodu nobe) Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
stone bowl culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material tseda tsida cup or bowl unique must be old 'basket' word; also suu opo 'jar basket with large opening' p. 4; but tseda not at Bishop, Lone Pine, Big Pine simplex tsetake punch a bunch of holes?? Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material suu tseda syy tsida dish or cup shaped basket unique ap-po Merriam 46:367 phrase willow container Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
basketry hat culture-material suutsotu7a basket hat unique ap, apo Merriam 46:333; pawt'-no, so-pawt'-no Merriam 46:361 Bishop compound Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material namakoo old kind of beads inheritance *nammakku Numic unknown See also T. sho namokku(n) 'money', W. Mono naawakU 'string of shell money', N. Paiute namakko 'old kind of beads, Comanche 'clothes' WW %waku simplex Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
ochre culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
bow arco arco subsistence tool pongosa adu bow inheritance *aCta Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 275 phrase Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
canoe canoa canoa transport saki boat inheritance *saCki Numic see Comanche Liljeblad et al. 2012:429 Jane Hill
carrying net subsistence tool jana net unique yata on English side simplex Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
bottle botella garrafa acculturation suu osa willow bottle inheritance *hoCca Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 118 phrase Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
paper papel papel acculturation pipy, pipo paper (any kind) loan English WW %paper Liljeblad et al 2012: Jane Hill
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology poenabe poinabi special chief inheritance *pohaC Uto-Aztecan power word other complex Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool wutsaganoo wytsaganu hitting instrument unique paw'-ro, par-ro Merriam 46:365 Bishop (podo?) derived wutsaga7hoo 'kill with bat' Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress kwas'-să breechclout inheritance *kwasu Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 483 simplex Merriam 46:359 (Bishop) Jane Hill
cook food food sa7a cook, boil, melt inheritance *sa7aC Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 267 simplex Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
corpse food sato7o dead body unique simplex Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
dance (generic) culture-mythology nuga dance inheritance *nykkaC Numic Stubbs 2011 633 simplex Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology numu manumutoodu, manumutoopu Indian Creators unique sumatea Great Spirit, God (32) phrase Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool podo digging stick inheritance *poto Numic Stubbs 2011 673 simplex Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
dipper subsistence tool tyynahanu dipper unique derived instrumental Liljeblad et al. 2012:529 Jane Hill
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology nose to dream inheritance *nosi Numic Stubbs 2011 717 simplex Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
drone pipe culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology tukwubano drum unique derived Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
chicken gallina galinha acculturation kene chicken, red hawk, chicken hawk semantic shift from a hawk word simplex Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
earring other naka gooapu ear ornament unique naka goo7a 'earring, sometihing that is put on ear' p. 51 phrase Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology tsa7abu evil spirit inheritance *co7aC Numic Stubbs 2011 2114 W. and Central Numic, a loaN?? other complex Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
fire drill subsistence tool too-noo hin-yu fire drill inheritance *tunuhi Numic see W. Mono, Kawaiisu, S. Paiute derived Merriam 46:449 (Lone Pine & Big Pine) Jane Hill
fire-tender culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
fireplace hogar lareira other pe-dan' fireplace unique simplex Merriam 46:363 (Bishop) Jane Hill
firewood leña lenha other koona firewood inheritance *kunnaC Numic Stubbs 2011 884 simplex Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing missing Jane Hill
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food wuni fish with pole unique Bannock wynai (L. p 746) simplex Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool tooza7a fish poison (plant, Lomatium multifidum, also dissectum) unique Liljeblad et al. 2012:577 Jane Hill
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool weha fishing line, string inheritance *wika Uto-Aztecan simplex Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
fish hook subsistence tool agi-tsano fish hook unique compound fish-catch.er Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
acorn bread food missing missing Jane Hill
wheat food sonibihi- wheat semantic shift *soni Uto-Aztecan Liljeblad et al.2012:460 Jane Hill
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology wohinu flute ('made of horn or something like that' unique derived wohi 'whistle' -nu INST Liljeblad et al. 2012:698 Jane Hill
gambling sticks other nayaggwedu ddubbo handgame bones unique hō-pe Merriam 46:333 Bishop phrase nayaggwe-du 'handgame-ag 'handgame player' Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food missing missing Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology tah-ko-hub ghost unique tsa7aby L. 748 other complex Merriam 46:459 (Lone Pine, Big Pine) Jane Hill
glue subsistence tool tymazabikynnu glue unique derived mazabiky 'join, stick together' Liljeblad et al. 2012:539 Jane Hill
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology toohewepe tuhiwipi grave unique derived toohewe 'dig' Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
alcohol food wysiiki whiskey loan English WW %whiskey Liljeblad et al. 2012:785 Jane Hill
Datura wrightii narcotics moohoo7o muhu7o opium loan Tubatulabal Takic or Chumash by way of Tubatulabal, not cognate with Central Numic mui forms WW %moji ~ %moni simplex Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology pohaguma medicine man inheritance *puha Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1160a derived Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
honey miel mel food nodda pehabe honey inheritance *pisaC Uto-Aztecan phrase nodda bee Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
house other nobe house unknown Western Numic only, from 'cover'?? Also sinobe, kane 'tule house' 34 simplex Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
hunt cazar caçar food koemeakwu hunting (vt) unique li,e W. Mono, has 'kill', with maybe *mi 'go'?? What is -kwy? compound kill -? Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
initiate boy culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
initiate girl culture-mythology mooe peggwaha first roasting unique phrase Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
knife cuchillo faca culture-material wihi knife inheritance *wikiC Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1267 Liljeblad et al. 2012:667 Jane Hill
mat culture-material sona7a lower mattress semantic shift gapa 'bed' 42; see "tule boat" for Merriam simplex grass?? Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool paha mortar, rock with hole in it inheritance *paha Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1085 simplex Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
necklace other kakea beads around neck inheritance *kak(k)i Numic Stubbs 2011 1506 simplex Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
needle/awl subsistence tool tuggutageggunoo awl, leather punch unique wed-doo-be bone awl used in basketry Merriam 46:333 (Bishop) compound Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
paddle/oar remo remo transport wymiakyga paddle (n.) unique to make it go' Liljeblad et al. 680 Jane Hill
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool pahagono big pestle inheritance *paha Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1085 compound Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
pinole food missing missing Jane Hill
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other to7esa pipe (Merriam confirms) inheritance *to7i- Numic Sierra Miwok see Comanche to7i WW %to7i simplex in to7esa manigea 'light pipe' Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
pitch food sana, also sanape 'pitch' pitch, gum inheritance *salaC Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1634 simplex Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool saaggwetoa cooking pot inheritance *wiC-tuhuwa Numic Stubbs 2011 1713, also saano 'pot' 30 compound Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
quiver subsistence tool ho-goo'-t>n, hoo-goo-nah quiver inheritance *hu-kunnaC Numic *arrow-sack compound Merriam 46:445 (Lone Pine, Big Pine) Jane Hill
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology nubahoonna rattle unique wutzaba7ya7a deer hoof rattle 39 compound Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
red paint culture-mythology pesape red paint inheritance *pisa, *paisa Numic not in Stubbs other complex Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
salt sal sal food ongabe salt inheritance *omCa Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1865 other complex Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
seed beater subsistence tool tsegoo basket with handle inheritance *cikku Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 121; see tsikU in Western Mono; Merriam 46:333 comfirms tsee-go simplex Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology sagwatza clothing, possessions unique kwasu clothing, shirt, costumes 41 other complex Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
sinew-backed bow subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material madoohoonaggwe skirts unique tah-bo'-nah skirt for men & women Merriam 46:359 Bishop, Lone Pine 46:443 o'-ta'-po'-nah 'skirt worn bywomen' derived madoohoo put hand??? Madooha in words for shirt, underpants Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
snare subsistence tool tutzekunano snare, any type of trap (with rocks, etc.) unique o-nah-he-an, o-he-ran-nah Merriam 46:445 Lone Pine and Big Pine compound tutzekuna to trap Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology hoobea to sing inheritance *hupiya Numic Stubbs 2011 1985 simplex Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool tsegesa spear for fighting, sword inheritance *cik Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 797; also tutonganoo simplex Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
stirring stick food padoo stirring stick unique looks a bit like the 'pestle' words simplex Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture weha fishing line, string inheritance *wika Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1843 simplex Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
bag, sack culture-material mago7o bag inheritance *maku… Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 115a WW %mok simplex Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
string of shell money other namakko 'old kind of beads' loan unknown WW %waku Jane Hill
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation pihabi sugar semantic shift originally a sugar made from sap Liljeblad et al. 2012:377 Jane Hill
sweathouse other numu puggwitu ggoonanna sweat house unique taw'-ne (smaller), moo'-sah Merriam 446:363 (menstrual hut to'-ne); same at Lone Pine 46:445 phrase koonga7a to sweat Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
tell history culture-mythology netabu7e be told, tell in a story unique simplex Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
cremate culture-mythology ddookoo tuni cremate unique phrase Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
tobacco (native) narcotics pooebahmoo Indian tobacco, manzanita loan Yokuts the pooe part is pui 'green' WW %pa7mo simplex Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
tule boat transport sah'-ke,să-ke tule mat or raft inheritance *saCki Numic saisaki 'tule raft' Liljeblad et al. 2012: simplex Merriam 46:363 Jane Hill
white paint culture-mythology ebe white paint, white chalk inheritance *apiN Numic Stubbs 2011 2544 simplex Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
winnowing basket culture-material yadda inheritance *jata Numic can't find in Stubbs simplex Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
wood tray subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
shoes zapatos sapatos dress sogomoko moccasin loan Sierra Miwok only in W. Numic; Stubbs 2011 1958 WW %moko compound Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
medicine narcotics nat-tiz-zah-oo-be, nah-ta-zoob medicine inheritance *natysuC Numic can't find in Stubbs derived Merriam 46:375 Bishop Jane Hill
cradleboard culture-material hoobbu cradleboards semantic shift *huu Uto-Aztecan this is the 'wood, arrow' word, Stubbs 2011 63; tsokono7o hood, shade over cradleboard 28 other complex Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
policeman polícia policía acculturation tuggwutumadu police unique compound, other complex Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
soldier soldado soldado acculturation tokwasu-ga7yoo soldier unique also oodu wehe-ga7yoo compound kwasu 'shirt' Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
corn food missing missing Jane Hill
beans food missing missing Jane Hill
cat gato gato acculturation kaadu cat loan English WW %cat simplex Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation nabonngosa rifle semantic shift and I'll bet adu (without pongosa 'arrow') compound pongosa 'arrow' Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
hat sombero chapéu dress missing missing Jane Hill
clapper acculturation chah-vi'-ah music stick of split cane unique tsă-bah'-yah at Lone Pine, Big Pine Merriam 46:461 simplex Merriam 46:377 Jane Hill
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material missing Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture tygapu inheritance SAA 1982:42 Jane Hill
bottom grinding stone manufacture matta 223 inheritance Thornes 03:223 Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool podo inheritance Stubbs 08 Jane Hill
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture Jane Hill
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture missing Jane Hill
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing Jane Hill
spearthrower subsistence tool aty7 inheritance Nichols 1974:47 Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool pongosa “arrow” unique Stubbs 08 Jane Hill
house other nobi inheritance Thornes 03:75 Jane Hill


Grammatical Data (226)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] no Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] yes Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? no Jane Hill
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones no Jane Hill
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? Jane Hill
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments Jane Hill
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? Jane Hill
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony Jane Hill
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] Jane Hill
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone no Jane Hill
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word yes Jane Hill
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no Jane Hill
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes yes Jane Hill
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different no Jane Hill
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated yes Jane Hill
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated yes Jane Hill
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced Jane Hill
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection Jane Hill
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word Jane Hill
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' Jane Hill
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs Jane Hill
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment Jane Hill
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders 0 Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system 2 Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun 2 Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? no Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? no Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' yes Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' yes Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction Jane Hill
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order no Jane Hill
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject no Jane Hill
Word Order VS in transitive clauses no Jane Hill
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object no Jane Hill
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject no Jane Hill
Word Order Preposition-Noun no Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes Jane Hill
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) yes Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') no Jane Hill
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun yes Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun no Jane Hill
Word Order Dem-Noun yes Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Dem no Jane Hill
Word Order Num-Noun yes Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Num no Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies yes Jane Hill
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies no Jane Hill
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') no Jane Hill
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' no Jane Hill
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence Jane Hill


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
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