Predicate adjectives: verbal

Simple Clauses - Predication
Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla yes Jane Hill
Cupeño yes Jane Hill
Luiseño yes Jane Hill
Serrano yes Jane Hill
Kitanemuk yes Jane Hill
Kawaiisu yes Jane Hill
Timbisha yes Jane Hill
Western Mono yes Jane Hill
Chemehuevi yes Jane Hill
Southern Paiute yes Jane Hill
Southern Ute yes Jane Hill
Shoshone yes Jane Hill
Comanche yes Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute yes Jane Hill
Gabrielino Jane Hill
Achagua no info Wilson & Levinsohn 1992 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro no Adjectives seems to appear in predicates with very little verbal morphology, seems more like a noun. Allin, 1976: 285 Aimee Lawrence
Bare yes They can be used predicatively as stative verbs Aikhenvald, 1995: 25 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco yes Adjectives can take all derivations that verbs can, while nominals cannot. Galindo, 2002: 239-240 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna no Adjectives don't seem to get any person/tense marking in predicative position. Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 520 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero yes Adjectives take personal reference suffixes to reference the subject, while nouns must take either full pronouns or full NPs as arguments and verbs can also take cross-referencing prefixes. All can take time affixes when used predicatively. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 55, 87-88 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana yes Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu no Mansen & Captain (2000) note that there are few true adjectives, most are stative verbs. However, they lump together numerals and adjectives. There is one example of a numeral in a predicate--this acts like a noun, rather than a verb. Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 803 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana yes When adjectives are used as predicates, they take the same morphology as stative verbs, but nouns do not. Aikhenvald, 2003: 76 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã n/a No adjectives in Apurinã. Facundes, 2000: 342 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali no Payne 1981; Payne 1982; Payne 1983 Amanda Meeks
Maipure yes Zamponi 2003:30 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' yes Duff-Tripp 1997:58-9 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure yes Danielsen 2007:105 Daniel Valle
Nanti no Many adjective roots are also verbal roots, so the same concept can be expressed with a verb or an adjective. However, when an adjective is used predicatively, a copular verb is used. Michael, 2008. p. 312-313 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Palikur no info Launey 2003 Daniel Smith
Yine yes can take aspect Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun yes Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora yes Seifart - 2005:133 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no Hall 1988: 78 Daniel Smith
Makushi no "There are no adjectives. Only nouns occur to modify nouns in noun phrases" Abbott 1991: 129 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa no info Payne 2012 Daniel Smith
Pemon no info Daniel Valle
Guna no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no info Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika yes Frank 1990:619-20 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí no info Daniel Valle
Damana no info Daniel Valle
Sikuani no Queixalós 2000 Daniel Smith
Macaguan no info Buenaventura - 1993 Daniel Smith
Aguaruna yes Overall 2007:238-9 Daniel Valle Based on the examples
Northern Emberá yes The adjective predicate has to take the verbalizer {-a} Aguirre 1999:56-7 Daniel Valle Chamí
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá no Levinson 1974, 1976, 1976b Daniel Valle
Matses no info Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no It is conveyed by just juxtaposing the elements Zúñiga 2006, p. 225-7 Daniel Valle
Páez yes Jung:120 Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no info Daniel Valle
Tikuna no Montes 2004b:78 Daniel Valle
Urarina no info Daniel Valle
Waunana no info Daniel Valle
Andoke no info Kelsey Neely
Puinave no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no info Shannon Dardis
Kakua no info Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto yes Minor and Minor 1982. p.42, 73, 99-100 Christopher Clack
Hup yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect yes small adj class; mostly descriptive verbs Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw yes But arguably no adjective class; descriptive verbs Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano no there are virtually no predicate adjectives Miller 1999, p. 125 Amanda Novak; Chris Clack Adjective concepts are normally expressed by nominalizing a stative verb.
Cubeo yes adjectives derived from stative verbs Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 16 Amanda Novak
Kotiria no info Stenzel 2007 Daniel Smith
Makuna yes Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.44 Chris Clack
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.34-36 Chris Clack
Barasano yes There is a single set of roots which may take either regular verbal inflection and serve as predicates, Jones & Jones 1991, p.63 Chris Clack Barasano is a verb-adjective language.
Tanimuca no Strom 1992, p.51 Chris Clack
Siona no Wheeler - 1970:144; Wheeler - 1987 Amanda Meeks
Tukano yes Ramirez 1997 Kelsey Neely examples from 4.5
Yanomami yes no true adjectives Ramirez 1994: 202 Kelsey Neely see examples
Ninam yes Goodwin-Gomez Kelsey Neely evidenced by examples
Sanumá yes Borgman 1990: 209-210 Kelsey Neely
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana yes Based mainly on examples Everett 2006:309-10 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu yes Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní yes Ayala 1996:34-5 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama no no adjective in Kokama Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu no done 0
Wambaya no done 0
Bunuba no info done x
Walmajarri no info Done-Claire x
Nyulnyul no done? 0
Warrwa no done 0
Worrorra no ms17 done 0
Garrwa no 74-6 done 0
Gooniyandi no done 0
Warlpiri no LG26-7 done 0
Bardi yes done-Claire 1
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no 105 done 0
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi no cf texts, e.g. text 7, sentence 1 (203) done-Dan 0
Yidiny no done-Catherine 0
Yanyuwa no Done-Austin 0
Yandruwandha no info Done-Dan x
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no info Done-Dan x
Woiwurrung no 76 done-Amalia 0
Wirangu No 138 done 0
Wemba-Wemba no H 25 done-Amalia 0
Warumungu No 40 done-Amalia 0
Wangkumara no r24 done 0
Uradhi No 371 Y 0
Paakantyi no info Y-Hannah X
Pitta-Pitta No 223 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no info done-Hannah x
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta no Done-Hannah 0
Ngiyambaa no 70 Done-Emily 0
Ngayawang No info done-Amalia x
Muruwari no info 190, 217 Done-Dan x
Mayi-Yapi No 66 done 0
Martuthunira no 205 done 0
Marrgany No 333 Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 97 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji yes 138 Done-Jessica 1
Kugu-Nganhcara No 418 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna No 6 done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu no info Done-Dan x
Jaru no? 123 Done-Amalia 0
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 115 Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr no 337 done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun yes 140 done-Jessica 1
Yuwaalaraay No 69 0
Dyirbal No 71 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu no 92-3 done 0
Djinang No 209 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari no 101-106 done-Hannah 0
Dharawal yes 56 done-Hannah w Dhurga) 1
Darkinyung no 46 done 0
Bularnu no Done-Austin 0
Biri yes 47 done-Jessica 1
Bidjara-Gungabula yes 54 done-Jessica 1
Batyala No 4 Done-Amalia 0
Arabana no 287-90 Done-Dan 0
Alyawarr no 122 done 0
Nyikina yes done-Claire 1
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija No 47 Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung no info done x
Mathi-Mathi no 72-73 done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no 92-3 done-Amalia 0
Thanggati no 85-6 done 0
Katthang no 108 done-Amalia 0
Panyjima no 136 done 0
Ngarinyeri Maybe 36 done-Amalia 1
Kurrama no 182-189 done-Dan 0
Yingkarta no Done-Claire 0
Githabul No 43 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya No 333 Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen no 68 Done- 0
WesternTorres no info done x
Wakaya no 99 done 0
Yindjilindji no info done x
Bandjalang No 105 Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara No 28 done 0
Arrernte No 332 0
Kokatha No 65 0
Karajarri No 75 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara No Y 10 0
Ritharrngu No 97 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay No 63 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no 864 Done-Amalia 0
Warnman No 17 Done-Amalia 0
Djapu no 108 0
Bilinarra no 7.2 done 0
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 82 Y2 0
Narungga No info done x
Tharrkari No 24 0
Wajarri No 36 0
Warungu no 186 0
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no info Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Baniwa yes Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps