Walmajarri

Family
Pama-Nyungan
Region
Australia
ISO 639-3
wmt
Location
-19.85°, 125.54°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (185)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location kankarra inheritance Claire Bowern
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar yarnta inheritance Claire Bowern
all todo todos other nukarni inheritance Claire Bowern
and y e grammar jaa unknown Claire Bowern
ankle tobillo tornozelo body luku inheritance Claire Bowern
armpit axila, sobaco axila body kitikiti inheritance Claire Bowern
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment jumpul unknown Claire Bowern
at en, a em, a location -nga,-la inheritance Claire Bowern
back espalda costas body palpu unknown Claire Bowern
bad mal mal quality ngarla unknown Claire Bowern
belly barriga barriga body munta inheritance Claire Bowern
below abajo, debajo abaixo location kaniny inheritance Claire Bowern
big grande grande quality purlka inheritance Claire Bowern
bite morder morder body paja- inheritance Claire Bowern
black negro preto colour kurnkurn doubtful loan Claire Bowern
blood sangre sangue body nungu inheritance Claire Bowern
blow soplar soprar body puuma- inheritance Claire Bowern
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body jara inheritance Claire Bowern
bone hueso osso body kuji inheritance Claire Bowern
breast pecho, seno peito body ngamarna doubtful loan Claire Bowern
breathe respirar respirar body ngayirrma- inheritance Claire Bowern
burn quemar queimar environment manyji- inheritance Claire Bowern
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body janga- loan Claire Bowern
child niño, niña criança human yapa inheritance Claire Bowern
climb subir subir motion paraya- loan Claire Bowern
cloud nube nuvem environment ngumurru loan Claire Bowern
cold frío frio quality makurru inheritance Claire Bowern
come venir vir motion ya- inheritance Claire Bowern
cook cocinar cozinhar impact kampa- inheritance Claire Bowern
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality mapun loan Nyikina Claire Bowern
count contar contar mental ? missing Claire Bowern
cry llorar chorar mental lu- inheritance Claire Bowern
cut/hack cortar cortar impact junga- inheritance Claire Bowern
day día dia time jininyara unknown Claire Bowern
die/be dead morir morrer state pirlajarri- inheritance Claire Bowern
dig cavar cavar impact karla- inheritance Claire Bowern
dingo/wolf fauna marrany loan Claire Bowern
dirty sucio sujo quality missing Claire Bowern
dream soñar sonhar mental winkirrma- inheritance Claire Bowern
drink beber, tomar beber body nga- inheritance Claire Bowern
dry seco seco quality pulparr inheritance Claire Bowern
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality jata unknown Claire Bowern
dust polvo poeira environment jurtu unknown Claire Bowern
ear oreja orelha body pina inheritance Claire Bowern
earth/soil tierra terra environment nguwa inheritance Claire Bowern
eat comer comer body nga- inheritance Claire Bowern
egg huevo ovo fauna kampiny inheritance Claire Bowern
eye ojo olho body mil inheritance Claire Bowern
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body kura inheritance Claire Bowern
fall caer cair motion wanti- inheritance Claire Bowern
far lejos longe quality witparni unknown Claire Bowern
fat/grease grasa gordura body jira unknown Claire Bowern
father padre, papá pai kinship ngarpu inheritance Claire Bowern
fear miedo medo mental rayinjarri- inheritance Claire Bowern
feather pluma pena fauna pinkirr inheritance Claire Bowern
fire fuego fogo environment warlu inheritance Claire Bowern
fish xx xx fauna kapi inheritance Claire Bowern
flow fluir fluir motion lirrla- inheritance Claire Bowern
flower flor flor environment partiri inheritance Claire Bowern
fly volar voar motion ? loan Claire Bowern
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment puyurtuyutu loan Claire Bowern
foot pie body jina inheritance Claire Bowern
fruit fruta fruta flora miyi loan Claire Bowern
good bueno bom quality wulyu inheritance Claire Bowern
grow crecer crescer state turta(pu)- inheritance Claire Bowern
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body ral loan Claire Bowern
hand mano mão body kurrapa loan Claire Bowern
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar nyantu inheritance Claire Bowern
head cabeza cabeça body jurlu inheritance Claire Bowern
hear oír ouvir mental pinakarri- inheritance Claire Bowern
heavy pesado pesado quality loan Claire Bowern
hide esconder esconder motion jirtijirti inheritance Claire Bowern
hit golpear, pegar bater impact pu- inheritance Claire Bowern
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other tarrparta- inheritance Claire Bowern
how? como como grammar nyapartukarra inheritance Claire Bowern
1sg yo eu grammar ngaju inheritance Claire Bowern
if si se grammar puju loan Claire Bowern
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location takurr inheritance Claire Bowern
intestines intestinos intestinos body jilpirti inheritance Claire Bowern
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body jajapjarri- inheritance Claire Bowern
kill matar matar impact pirlakuji- inheritance Claire Bowern
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental pinarri inheritance Claire Bowern
lake lago lago environment warrngan unknown Claire Bowern
laugh reír rir mental jingkirtima- inheritance Claire Bowern
leaf hoja folha environment jalyirr inheritance Claire Bowern
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body jampukarti inheritance Claire Bowern
leg/foot pierna perna body kanyji loan Nyikina Claire Bowern
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion yuka- inheritance Claire Bowern
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment pirtpirt doubtful loan Claire Bowern
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body wanji karr- inheritance Claire Bowern
liver hígado figado body mirliki loan Claire Bowern
long largo comprido, longo quality juwal inheritance Claire Bowern
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna murrarta loan Claire Bowern
lung pulmón pulmão body kawu loan Claire Bowern
man/male hombre homem human piyirn inheritance Claire Bowern
meat/flesh carne carne fauna kuyi inheritance Claire Bowern
moon luna lua environment yakarn loan Claire Bowern
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship ngamaji inheritance Claire Bowern
mouth boca boca body lirra inheritance Claire Bowern
name nombre nome human yini inheritance Claire Bowern
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body nyanka inheritance Claire Bowern
near/close cerca de perto quality marnpa doubtful loan Mangarla? Claire Bowern
neck cuello pescoço body kangkurl loan Claire Bowern
new nuevo novo quality jalangjalang inheritance Claire Bowern
night noche noite time pukanyja loan Claire Bowern
no/not no não grammar ngajirta inheritance Claire Bowern
nose nariz nariz body jirrji inheritance Claire Bowern
old viejo velho quality jarlu-jangka inheritance Claire Bowern
one uno um number layi inheritance Claire Bowern
open/uncover abrir abrir other larntakpa- inheritance Claire Bowern
other otro outro grammar kanarlany inheritance Claire Bowern
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body mimi inheritance Claire Bowern
person/human being persona pessoa human piyirn inheritance Claire Bowern
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact tuka- inheritance Claire Bowern
rain lluvia chuva environment manypu unknown Claire Bowern
red rojo vermelho colour pirljipirlji inheritance Claire Bowern
right/right hand derecha direita location/body mayakarti inheritance Claire Bowern
road/path camino caminho manufacture warntarri inheritance Claire Bowern
root raíz raiz flora warnamirnti doubtful loan Claire Bowern
rotten podrido podre quality mantu inheritance Claire Bowern
sand arena areia environment walyarra inheritance Claire Bowern
say decir dizer mental ma- inheritance Claire Bowern
scratch rascar rasgar impact karlala- inheritance Claire Bowern
see ver ver mental nya- inheritance Claire Bowern
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality jiri inheritance Claire Bowern
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact turlluwa- inheritance Claire Bowern
short corto curto quality kuta inheritance Claire Bowern
shoulder hombro ombro body kilpirli inheritance Claire Bowern
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental kurntayi inheritance Claire Bowern
sit sentar(se) sentar state kirra- inheritance Claire Bowern
skin piel pele body partu inheritance Claire Bowern
sky cielo céu environment yalkiri inheritance Claire Bowern
sleep dormir dormir body manyan karri- inheritance Claire Bowern
small pequeño pequeno quality lamparn inheritance Claire Bowern
smoke humo fumaça environment ngunyjurr inheritance Claire Bowern
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body parntima- inheritance Claire Bowern
spit escupir cuspir body jumpajpu- inheritance Claire Bowern
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact larlarrma- inheritance Claire Bowern
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact nyulypu- inheritance Claire Bowern
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact la- inheritance Claire Bowern
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state karri- inheritance Claire Bowern
star estrella estrela environment wirl inheritance Claire Bowern
steal robar roubar other ngurruwarnta- inheritance Claire Bowern
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora mana inheritance Claire Bowern
stone piedra pedra environment pamarr inheritance Claire Bowern
suck chupar chupar body runyma- unknown Claire Bowern
sweat sudar suor, suar body jupart loan Claire Bowern
swell hincharse inchar body yimpirlma- unknown Claire Bowern
swim nadar nadar motion jawuma- inheritance Claire Bowern
tail cola, rabo rabo body nyawari loan Claire Bowern
that ese/esa esse grammar yala inheritance Claire Bowern
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar nyantuwarnti inheritance Claire Bowern
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality kakurrkakurr inheritance Claire Bowern
thin delgado fino quality rikirrkirr inheritance Claire Bowern
think pensar pensar mental pinapinakarri- inheritance Claire Bowern
this este/esta este grammar minyarti inheritance Claire Bowern
2sg xx xx grammar nyuntu inheritance Claire Bowern
three tres tres number mungkartu inheritance Claire Bowern
throat garganta garganta body kangkurl inheritance Claire Bowern
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact wilpu- inheritance Claire Bowern
thunder truenos trovão environment manji inheritance Claire Bowern
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact karrpi- inheritance Claire Bowern
tongue lengua lingua body jalany inheritance Claire Bowern
tooth diente dente body lirra inheritance Claire Bowern
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other kurnakkuji- loan Claire Bowern
two dos dois number kurriny inheritance Claire Bowern
vomit vomitar vomitar body kurlpaka- inheritance Claire Bowern
walk caminar, andar andar motion kitpu- unknown Claire Bowern
water agua agua environment ngapa inheritance Claire Bowern
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar nganampa inheritance Claire Bowern
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar ngalimpa inheritance Claire Bowern
wet mojado molhado quality nyurnmi inheritance Claire Bowern
what? que, qué que grammar nyapartu inheritance Claire Bowern
when? cuando quando grammar nyangurla inheritance Claire Bowern
where? donde onde grammar wanyjurla inheritance Claire Bowern
white blanco branco colour parpjarti inheritance Claire Bowern
who? quien, quién quem grammar ngana inheritance Claire Bowern
wife esposa esposa kinship marnin inheritance Claire Bowern
wind viento vento environment walypa inheritance Claire Bowern
wing ala asa body pinkirr inheritance Claire Bowern
woman/female mujer mulher human kartu inheritance Claire Bowern
work trabajar trabalhar other warrkamma- loan Claire Bowern
yawn bostezar bocejar body jawarlipu- inheritance Claire Bowern
yellow amarillo amarelo colour karntawarra inheritance Claire Bowern
2pl ustedes vocês grammar nyurrawarnti inheritance Claire Bowern


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (136)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
agile wallaby, river wallaby flora-fauna Macropus agilis wanyjirri wanyjirri inheritance wanytyirri Ngumpin underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae piŋa piŋa inheritance pingi Ngumpin underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Australian pelican flora-fauna Pelecanus conspicillatus mayarta mayarta loan Bunuban WW WW %mayarta underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Australian snubfin dolphin flora-fauna Orcaella heinsohnii missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
baler shell flora-fauna Melo amphora missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
bandicoot flora-fauna Peramelemorphia mali unique 0 0 0 0 0
barn owl flora-fauna Tyto alba missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
barramundi flora-fauna Lates calcarifer parlka parlka loan Bunuban WW %palka underived 1 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp pinyjirrmyi pinytyirrmiyi loan Kajirrabeng WW %pinytyirrminy underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
bindii, caltrop flora-fauna Tribulus terrestris missing prickle - kirli missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna tyiriki batyar loan Jarragan WW %tyiriki underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-breasted buzzard flora-fauna Hamirostra melanosternon missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-faced cuckoo-shrike flora-fauna Coracina novaehollandiae missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-headed python flora-fauna Aspidites melanocephalus lirramuŋa lirramuŋa unique compound mouth-dark 0 2 0 0 0 no
black-soil yam flora-fauna Ipomoea diamantinensis jirrilypaja jirrilypaja unique underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
bloodwood flora-fauna Eucalyptus (Corymbia) bleeseri kurntupungu kurntupungu unknown underived 0 1 1 0 0 no
blowfly maggots flora-fauna Diptera, Sarcophagidae pirniny pirniny loan Bunuba WW %pirniny underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
blue-tongue lizard flora-fauna Tiliqua species luŋkura luŋkura inheritance lungkurta Ngumpin-Yapa WW %lungkurta underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
blue-winged kookaburra flora-fauna Dacelo leachii kananakarrkarr kananakarrkarr unique reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
bluebone flora-fauna Choerodon cyanodus missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
brolga flora-fauna Grus rubicunda kurrartu kuraka loan Kija underived 1 0 0 0 0 no
brown goshawk flora-fauna Accipiter fasciatus missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
brush-tailed possum flora-fauna Trichosurus vulpecula jampiyinti jampiyinti unique same as skin name; also jangan (inheritance) in E. compound? 0 1 0 0 0 no
bush cockroach flora-fauna (many species) kumpurumpuru kumpurumpuru unique also kumpulanginy WW %kumpurla compound urine+? 0 0 0 0 0 no
bush stone-curlew flora-fauna Burhinus grallarius missing missing 1 0 0 0 0 no
bush tobacco flora-fauna Lobelia quadrangularis janyungu janyungu inheritance tyanyungu Ngumpin-Yapa underived 0 0 0 1 0 no
bush turkey, Australian bustard flora-fauna Ardeotis australis pinkirrjarti pinkirrtyarti inheritance pinkirr 'wing' inherited; also parrayan derived wing/feather-HAVING; pinkirr-tyarti 0 1 0 0 0 no
bush yam flora-fauna Vigna lanceolata var. lanceolata karnti karnti inheritance karnti Ngumpin-Yapa underived 0 1 2 0 1 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera pirrpirntipirnti pirrpirntipirnti unique reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
carpet snake flora-fauna Morelia spilota wirntingirriny unique 0 1 0 0 0
caterpillar flora-fauna Lepidoptera wapurra wapurra inheritance wanpurra Ngumpin uncertain cognate Ngainyman wanpurra kind of grub WW %wanpura underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
catfish flora-fauna (many species) kurlumajarti kurlumajarti inheritance kurluma+ Ngumpin-Yapa kurluma 'spike' cf.kirli 'thorn' compound spike-HAVING 0 1 0 0 0 no
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna Chilopoda, Myriapoda kanparr kanparr loan Karajarri WW %kanparr underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
channel-billed cuckoo flora-fauna Scythops novaehollandiae wiyurr wiyurr loan Karajarri Karajarri wiyurr black rain bird also cockatiel? underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
crested pigeon flora-fauna Ocyphaps lophotes jarralaparlparl jarralaparlparl inheritance tyarralapalpal Ngumpin-Yapa reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
darter/cormorant flora-fauna Anhinga melanogaster, Phalacrocorax species missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
death adder, five-minute snake flora-fauna Acanthophis praelongus yulurriny yulurriny loan Mangala Jiwaliny rainbow; Gur. Small snake (Death adder?) underived 0 0 0 0 0 yes
dingo flora-fauna Canis familiaris dingo marrany marrany inheritance marrany Ngumpin WW %marrany underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris kunyarr kunyarr inheritance kunyarr Ngumpin-Yapa underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae nyiman nyiman inheritance nyiman Ngumpin-Yapa underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
dugong flora-fauna Dugon dugong missing missing 1 1 0 0 0 no
earthworm flora-fauna Annelida, Oligochaeta missing unknown missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
emu flora-fauna Dromaius novaehollandiae karnaŋanytya karnaŋanytya loan WW from Qld? WW %karnanganytya underived 2 1 2 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna kapi kapi loan with meaning change Kajirrabeng Kapi 'water' WW %kapi underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
flower flora-fauna (NA) partiri partiri unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera ngurriny ngurriny inheritance ngurriny Ngumpin-Yapa also wirrika WW %ngurriny underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
flying-fox (generic) flora-fauna (many species) papaku papaku unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
freshwater crocodile flora-fauna Crocodylus johnstoni kuwarniya kuwarniya loan Marrngu Karajarri, Mangala also Nyikina WW %kuwaniya underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
freshwater mussel flora-fauna Velesunio wilsoni kakaru kakaru loan Nyikina maybe form a Marrngu language? underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
freshwater prawn flora-fauna Macrobrachium rosenbergii jarrampa jarrampa loan Nyikina WW %tyarramba underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
frill-necked lizard flora-fauna Chlamydosaurus kingii kayuku kayuku unknown underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna (many species) lirrajapal lirrajapal inheritance lirra-tyapal Ngumpin-Yapa compound mouth-open 0 0 0 0 0 no
galah flora-fauna Eolophus roseicapilla kilinykiliny kilinykiliny loan direction unknown WW %kulinykuliny 0 0 0 0 0
turtle (generic) flora-fauna (many species) jangkurr jangkurr unknown cf. Marrngu tyangkurr 'hat' underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
ghost gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus papuana (Corymbia bella) jarlpari jarlpari unique ?jarl 'separate' + -pari ADJ underived 2 0 1 0 0 no
goanna (generic) or sand goanna flora-fauna Varanus spp kakaji kakaji unique underived 0 1 2 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) yuka yuka inheritance yuka Ngumpin-Yapa underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Orthoptera jarrjun tyarrtyun unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
great bowerbird flora-fauna Chlamydera nuchalis jiwurrkurna jiwurrkurna loan Western Mirndi with suffix -kurna WW %tyurwirr underived 1 0 0 0 0 no
green ant flora-fauna Oecophylla smaragdina missing missing 0 2 2 0 0 no
green sea turtle flora-fauna Chelonia mydas missing missing 1 1 0 0 0 no
green tree snake flora-fauna Dendrelaphis punctulata kaljirr kaljirr loan Nyikina underived 0 2 0 0 0 no
head/body lice flora-fauna Pediculus capitis, Pediculus humanus murrarta murrarta unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus dimana dimana loan Western Mirndi WW WW %timana underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
humpback whale flora-fauna Megaptera novaeangliae yari yari loan =maggots, insect in Jaru; cf. Bunuban etc piyirn? missing 1 1 0 0 0 no
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic pirniny pirniny loan Bunuba =maggots, insect in Jaru; cf. Bunuban etc piyirn? WW %pirniny underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
jabiru flora-fauna Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus missing 0 0 0 0 0
jungle-fowl (scrub-fowl) flora-fauna Megapodius freycinet missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
kangaroo (generic) flora-fauna Macropodidae jamarnti jamarnti unknown underived 2 1 0 0 0 no
land snail flora-fauna Gastropoda missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
magpie goose flora-fauna Anseranas semipalmata kurrulyu kurrulyu loan Nyikina underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
military dragon flora-fauna Ctenophorus isolepis, Diporiphora spp., Lophognathus spp. janyju janyju loan Nyikina underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera kiwiny kiwiny inheritance kiwiny NGY-Marrngu-Wati WW %kiwiliny underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
mud wasp, hornet flora-fauna (many species) murnurrkunurrku murnurrkunurrku loan Jaminjung also murnurrkunurrku, purrumimi (E); Ylparitya munurr reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
native bee flora-fauna (many species) mawukarra mawukarra unique mawu- 'buzz' underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
native cat flora-fauna Dasyurus walyparti walyparti unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
northern brown bandicoot flora-fauna Isoodon macrourus mingajurru mingajurru unknown underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
northern kurrajong flora-fauna Brachychiton diversifolius missing missing 0 1 no? 0 0 no
nut tree flora-fauna Terminalia grandifolia marntarra marntarra inheritance marnta+SUFF cf. Warlpiri marntayaki; also partinyjal (E) cf partiki? other complex gum-? 0 1 0 0 0 no
octopus flora-fauna Octopus australis missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
pandanus palm flora-fauna Pandanus spiralis wakiri wakiri loan Yawuru Y. wangiri - doubtful; Kukaja wangir 'turpentine tree' underived 1 1 0 0 1 no
paperbark flora-fauna Melaleuca sericea, Melaleuca stenostachya kurrumpa kurrumpa loan Warluwarra Warluw. Kurrupa, could be retention >Goon. Jaru also pantawi<pantapi Walm. Polysemous with 'bark' underived 0 0 1 0 0 no
peaceful dove flora-fauna Geopelia placida kurlukuku kurlukuku loan direction unknown Nyangumarta Similar to Nyulnyul and Jarragan but may just be analogous imitation WW %kurutuk underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
pearlshell flora-fauna Pinctada spp tyakuli tyakuli loan Worrorran WW %tyakuli underived 1 1 0 0 1 no
peewee flora-fauna Gryllina cyanoleuca tiyatiya tiyatiya loan direction unknown 0 0 0 0 0 no
pied butcherbird flora-fauna Cracticus nigrogularis kurrparuparu kurrparuparu inheritance kurrparu Pama-Nyungan or could be WW WW %kurrparu reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
pike eel flora-fauna Muraenesox arabicus lantyi lantyi loan with meaning change Nyulnyulan missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna Mantodea missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
prickle bush flora-fauna Sclerolaena bicornis kirli kirli inheritance kirli Ngumpin-Yapa cf. kurlu Mimosa bush WW %kirli underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
quail (generic) flora-fauna Coturnix species, Turnix species purrinyjurru purrinyjurru inheritance purrinytyuru underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
red river gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus camaldulensis yapiliny yapiliny loan Arandic doubtful - Ar. Apere WW %pilirn? underived 2 0 1 0 1 no
red-tailed black-cockatoo flora-fauna Calyptorhynchus banksi tarrkaru tarrkaru loan Mangala underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
riflefish, archerfish flora-fauna Toxotes chatareus marrpawurl marrpawurl loan Nyikina Nyik. marrpakurl also marrpawurl (Fish report) WW %marrpawul underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
river mangrove flora-fauna Aegicera corniculatum majala majala loan Nyikina underived 0 0 2 0 1 no
rock fig flora-fauna Ficus brachypoda ngilimirnti ngilimirnti inheritance ngilimirnti W.Ngumpin underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
sacred kingfisher flora-fauna Todiramphus sancta luurn luurn inheritance luwurn NGY-Marrngu-Wati WW %luurn underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
saltwater crocodile flora-fauna Crocodylus porosus linykurra linykurra loan Bunuban also in Nyulnyulan WW %linykurra underived 2 2 0 0 0 yes
saltwater mussel flora-fauna Mytilidae missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
sawfish flora-fauna Pristis pectinata piyalpiyal piyalpiyal loan Marrngu also Nyikina, Yawuru WW %piyalpiyal reduplicated 1 0 0 0 0 yes
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna Arachnida, Scorpiones lirrajarra kurriny lirrajarra kurriny unique paarn (N) kanpatyarra (E) compound mouth-HAVING two 0 0 0 0 0 no
shark (generic) flora-fauna Selachimorpha nganku nganku loan Marrngu also in Nyikina WW %nganku underived 0 0 0 0 0 variable
shell (generic) flora-fauna pinyjapinyja pinyjapinyja loan Nyulnyulan cf, Gooniyandi pintyawinytya 'pearl shell' reduplicated 0 1 0 0 1 no
short-beaked echidna flora-fauna Tachyglossus aculeatus minaji minaji inheritance mina-tyi Ngumpin-Yapa mina 'nest, lair, shell' Warlpiri underived 0 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna tyilpirtitjarti tyilpirtitjarti unique compound guts-HAVING 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
snappy gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus brevifolia tinyjil tinyjil unknown rel'd to luytya/nunytya? underived 0 0 1 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae purlkartu purlkartu unique rel'd to purlka - old man, grey hair underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
spinifex flora-fauna Triodia species nyanmi nyanmi unknown murtun (N) underived 0 0 2 0 0 no
spoonbills (yellow-billed spoonbill, black-billed spoonbill) flora-fauna Platalea flavipes, Platalea regia missing purlingpurlung = ibis missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Dasyatidae paya paya loan Marrngu also in Nyikina WW %paya underived 0 1 0 0 0 variable
stripe-faced dunnart flora-fauna Sminthopsis macroura punypuny punypuny inheritance puwuny Ngumpin reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
sugarbag wax flora-fauna rlimirri rlimirri loan direction unknown 1 1 0 0 0 no
sulphur-crested cockatoo flora-fauna Cacatua galerita kurarr kurarr unique loan into Bunuba - could be opposite direction underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
swamp eel flora-fauna Ophisternon gutturale missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
swamp leech flora-fauna Annelida, Hirudinea junuru junuru loan Nyulnyul underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
tawny frogmouth flora-fauna Podargus strigoides miwa miwa loan Mangala underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
termite mounds, ant hills flora-fauna Isoptera mungku mungku loan into protolanguage mungku Ngumpin-Yapa Jarragan WW %mungku underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna (many species) ngurturr ngurturr inheritance ngurturr W.Ngumpin cf Jaru ngururr underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
ti-tree flora-fauna Melaleuca bracteata missing missing 0 0 1 0 0 no
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna Arachnida, Acarina miti miti loan into protolanguage mirtili Ngumpin Jingulu also in Nyulnyulan; miti forms without l in Walm. WW %mirti underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
tiger shark flora-fauna Galeocerdo cuvier missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 yes
torresian crow flora-fauna Corvus orru karnka karnka loan Marrngu WW %karnka underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) mana mana unique rel. to NGY marna 'base. Trunk'? underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
waterlily flora-fauna Nymphaea macrosperma lukarri lukarri unknown underived 0 1 2 0 0 no
wattle flora-fauna Acacia difficilis pulja pulja unknown underived 0 0 1 0 1 no
wedge-tailed eagle flora-fauna Aquila audax wamulu wamulu semantic shift wamulu Ngumpin-Yapa wamulu -fluff, down Warlpiri underived 1 0 0 0 0 no
willie wagtail flora-fauna Rhipidura leucophrys jintipirriny jintipirriny loan Worrorran also in Bunuban, Bardi, Nyulnyul WW %tyintipirri underived 1 0 0 0 0 no
witchetty grub flora-fauna (many species) lakarnti lakarnti loan Gooniyandi underived 0 1 2 0 0 no
woma flora-fauna Aspidites ramsayii ŋuwaŋarnutyuwal unique missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna pinga inheritance Claire Bowern
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna jiriki loan Claire Bowern
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna ngurriny inheritance Claire Bowern
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna kunyarr inheritance Claire Bowern
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna yuka inheritance Claire Bowern
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna jilpirtijarti inheritance Claire Bowern
spider araña aranha flora-fauna purlkartu inheritance Claire Bowern


Cultural Vocabulary (113)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology missing ngurra- camp/country, not afterworld ngurra- camp/country, not afterworld Patrick McConvell
armband dress wila inheritance wila or simiar not in R&H dictionary wila or simiar not in R&H dictionary Patrick McConvell
awl subsistence tool tingka unique not in R&H dict; rt initial nt in orth not in R&H dict; rt initial nt in orth Patrick McConvell
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool tarlakurr unique also kurra inheritance cf. Gur kurrwa, spec. 'stone axe' WW %tarlakurr; %kurrwa also kurra inheritance cf. Gur kurrwa, spec. 'stone axe' Patrick McConvell
bag (string) culture-material martangan loan Nyikina not in R&H dict; not in R&H dict; Patrick McConvell
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool missing Patrick McConvell
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material ngurti unique coolamon, vehicle (dict) coolamon, vehicle (dict) Patrick McConvell
body feather decorations culture-mythology pinkirr semantic shift feather WW %pinkirr feather Patrick McConvell
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool karli inheritance warraka, wirlki special types WW %karli warraka, wirlki special types Patrick McConvell
boomerang (number 7) subsistence tool wirlki loan wirlkin, wirlkirr = twisted WW %wilki wirlkin, wirlkirr = twisted Patrick McConvell
boomerang (small) subsistence tool missing Patrick McConvell
bowl (coolamon) culture-material ngurti unique large and generic large and generic Patrick McConvell
broom escoba vassoura culture-material missing Patrick McConvell
canoe canoa canoa transport paranu unknown not in dict not in dict Patrick McConvell
cicatrice culture-mythology limi loan direction unknown Patrick McConvell
clapsticks culture-mythology karnpity loan Gajirrabeng WW %karnpity possibly from Jarragan , but -ij>-ak not explained Patrick McConvell
club (nulla-nulla) subsistence tool kuturu inheritance pikurru-spearthrower WW %kuturu pikurru-spearthrower Patrick McConvell
cook food food kampa- inheritance cook/burn cook/burn Patrick McConvell
cook in earth oven food turnkampa- inheritance Patrick McConvell
damper food missing Patrick McConvell
dance (generic) culture-mythology kawilya loan direction unknown Mangala not in dict not in dict Patrick McConvell
digging stick subsistence tool kana inheritance WW %kana1 Patrick McConvell
dipper (small coolamon) subsistence tool tyirrkarra unique small coolamon small coolamon Patrick McConvell
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology winkirr unique Patrick McConvell
dreaming culture-mythology tyumangkarni unknown [source of djalnggugurru!]?? Tyalungka not in dict; tyumangkarni dreamtime [source of djalnggugurru!]?? Tyalungka not in dict; tyumangkarni dreamtime Patrick McConvell
drone pipe culture-mythology missing Patrick McConvell
fire drill subsistence tool kungkala loan direction unknown [also circumcision knife] not in dict in either send; plant name in east WW %tyimari [also circumcision knife] not in dict in either send; plant name in east Patrick McConvell
fire-saw other kurru inheritance [cf words for ‘flame, tongue of fire’] tyarra firestick not firesaw; saw only in S. WW %kurrwa [cf words for ‘flame, tongue of fire’] tyarra firestick not firesaw; saw only in S. Patrick McConvell
fireplace hogar lareira other kilyirr unique yawu N dialect; hot coals, ashes and sand from under a fire yawu N dialect; hot coals, ashes and sand from under a fire Patrick McConvell
firewood leña lenha other warlu inheritance warlu lalka - dry firewood warlu lalka - dry firewood Patrick McConvell
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool missing no limara is a barrier todrive fish no limara is a barrier todrive fish Patrick McConvell
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing Patrick McConvell
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food witykarra semantic shift <to whip wijkarra is a coverb but in relation to fishing seems to be only anoun'fishing line' Patrick McConvell
fish (with spear) food missing Patrick McConvell
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool wirlwirli loan Kriol ?Is this Kriol WW %wilwili ?Is this Kriol Patrick McConvell
fishtrap (permanent) subsistence tool missing Patrick McConvell
fishtrap (woven) subsistence tool missing Patrick McConvell
flour (European) food missing Patrick McConvell
flour (bush) food missing Patrick McConvell
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food kuyi inheritance Patrick McConvell
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology kukurr inheritance Patrick McConvell
glue subsistence tool missing Patrick McConvell
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology ngarpunyalangu doubtful inheritance grave for bones; <ngarpu 'father' + ? grave for bones; <ngarpu 'father' + ? Patrick McConvell
grog food ngapa semantic shift < water, inheritance < water, inheritance Patrick McConvell
hair belt dress tungkurr unknown Patrick McConvell
headband dress purntuwali loan Jarragan also wapuru WW %pentewale also wapuru Patrick McConvell
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology maparn loan direction unknown from Western Desert? WW %maparn from Western Desert? Patrick McConvell
honey miel mel food karlaka unknown perhaps inherited? Patrick McConvell
house (European) other mayaru loan Karajarri WW %mayaru Patrick McConvell
hunt cazar caçar food ruwa unique Patrick McConvell
initiation (circumcision) culture-mythology nganpayi kutyityila inheritance nganpayi kutyi- 'make a man' lit.; marlulu initiand nganpayi kutyi- 'make a man' lit.; marlulu initiand Patrick McConvell
initiation (subincision) culture-mythology missing not in dict Patrick McConvell
knife cuchillo faca culture-material tyumpalatyarra loan direction unknown Patrick McConvell
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress naka loan direction unknown widespread, Kriol? WW %naka widespread, Kriol? Patrick McConvell
love song culture-mythology yilpinytyi loan Arrernte tyutyu not love song WW %yilpintyi tyutyu not love song Patrick McConvell
mangrove raft transport kalpiya loan direction unknown WW %kalpiya Patrick McConvell
message stick culture-mythology missing Patrick McConvell
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool ngamanyan inheritance its mother -ie of the muller its mother -ie of the muller Patrick McConvell
nosepeg other nyinka unknown Patrick McConvell
paddle/oar remo remo transport missing Patrick McConvell
ochre culture-mythology papakuna unique yellow o. = karntawarra; red - pirltyi yellow o. = karntawarra; red - pirltyi Patrick McConvell
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology palangkurrpu- unknown Patrick McConvell
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool marangu loan direction unknown mara 'hand' +-ngu, from Pny lg to S or W mara 'hand' +-ngu, from Pny lg to S or W Patrick McConvell
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other missing Patrick McConvell
public song cycle culture-mythology missing Patrick McConvell
red paint culture-mythology pirlji inheritance red ochre; martarr E dial WW %piltyi Patrick McConvell
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool marnta unknown edible gum; eucalypt gum kiyimi Patrick McConvell
salt sal sal food karaka inheritance karaka not in dict; kara bitter, salty= langa WW %kerrela karaka not in dict; kara bitter, salty= langa Patrick McConvell
shelter (native) other mangkatya inheritance Patrick McConvell
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology tyutyu inheritance WW %tyutyu Patrick McConvell
song (for entertainment) culture-mythology tyutyu inheritance Patrick McConvell
spear lanza lança subsistence tool kularta loan direction unknown Western Desert? other types; tyinal, mangul, pilparli WW %kularta other types; tyinal, mangul, pilparli Patrick McConvell
spear (fighting) subsistence tool missing I NEED MORE TIME TO SORT THESE SPEARS OUT; FOR NOW 504-517 MARKED MISSING Patrick McConvell
spear (fishing) subsistence tool missing Patrick McConvell
spearthrower subsistence tool ngapaliny loan Gajirrabeng WW %ngapale Patrick McConvell
speartip subsistence tool tyimpirla loan direction unknown quartz/glass spearhead WW %tyimpila quartz/glass spearhead Patrick McConvell
string (from hair) culture-material tungkurr unknown hair belt hair belt Patrick McConvell
string (from vine) culture-material tyuntu loan direction unknown string or fishing-line only? string or fishing-line only? Patrick McConvell
sugar acculturation walyarra meaning shift from sand Patrick McConvell
tea food nalitya loan Mudburra from plant nalij WW %nalitya from plant nalij Patrick McConvell
tobacco (European) narcotics ngunytyu loan direction unknown WW %nguntyu Patrick McConvell
tobacco (native) narcotics ngunytyu loan direction unknown Patrick McConvell
spirit child culture-mythology tyarriny loan direction unknown conception totem/birthmark WW %tyarriny I HAVE LEFT THESE SPIRIT-CHILDREN WORKDS - NEED MORE WORK Patrick McConvell
wax cera cera other limirri unknown spinifex wax. Also watyarn spinifex wax. Also watyarn Patrick McConvell
white paint culture-mythology mawunti inheritance E mawuntu N. karltyi cf. Kija WW %mawuntu %kaltyi Patrick McConvell
windbreak other wurriny inheritance Jaru wirriny Patrick McConvell
yandy (n) culture-material missing missing Patrick McConvell
school escuela escola acculturation missing Patrick McConvell
net subsistence tool missing Patrick McConvell
bottle botella garrafa acculturation missing Patrick McConvell
paper papel papel acculturation tanginti semantic shift paperbark>letter Patrick McConvell
corpse food MISSING Patrick McConvell
chicken gallina galinha acculturation missing Patrick McConvell
tree coffin culture-mythology missing Patrick McConvell
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology kuluwuty loan English Patrick McConvell
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material missing Patrick McConvell
shoes zapatos sapatos dress semantic shift Patrick McConvell
medicine narcotics mirrityin loan Patrick McConvell
earth oven food missing Patrick McConvell
policeman polícia policía acculturation limpa loan direction unknown Patrick McConvell
cat gato gato acculturation miyawu loan Kriol Patrick McConvell
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation missing Patrick McConvell
hat sombero chapéu dress makarta loan direction unknown WW %makarta Patrick McConvell
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture juntu inheritance Claire Bowern
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material ? missing Claire Bowern
bottom grinding stone manufacture ngamanyan inheritance Claire Bowern
digging stick subsistence tool kana inheritance Claire Bowern
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture warpu- inheritance Claire Bowern
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture marangu loan Claire Bowern
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool karli inheritance Claire Bowern
spearthrower subsistence tool ngapaliny inheritance Claire Bowern
spear lanza lança subsistence tool kularta inheritance Claire Bowern
house other mayaru loan Kriol? Claire Bowern


Grammatical Data (295)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. no Done-Claire 0
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] no Done-Claire 0
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast yes ty j Done-Claire 1
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? yes Done-Claire 1
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels no Done-Claire 0
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme no Done-Claire 0
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] no Done-Claire 0
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? no Done-Claire 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones no Done-Claire 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? no Done-Claire 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments no Done-Claire 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? yes Done-Claire 1
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony yes Done-Claire 1
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] yes Done-Claire 1
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone no Done-Claire 0
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word yes Done-Claire 1
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no Done-Claire 0
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes yes Done-Claire 1
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different no Done-Claire 0
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated yes Done-Claire 1
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated no info Done-Claire x
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced no info Done-Claire x
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection no? Done-Claire 0
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word yes Done-Claire 1
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' no Done-Claire 0
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs yes Done-Claire 1
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment no Done-Claire 0
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns no Done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP no Done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders no 0 Done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. no Done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter no Done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates no Done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human no Done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only no Done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates no Done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates no Done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" no Done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals no Done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' no Done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups no Done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun yes Done-Claire 1
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no Done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun no Done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic no Done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only no Done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns yes Done-Claire 1
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' no Done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only no Done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness no Done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker no Done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you yes Done-Claire 1
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) yes Done-Claire 1
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system no info Done-Claire x
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) no info Done-Claire x
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns no Done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns no Done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no Done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no Done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix no Done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients no Done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun yes 12 Done-Claire 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are no Done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) yes Done-Claire 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates no Done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic yes Done-Claire 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic no Done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic no Done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change no Done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone no Done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' no Done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 yes Done-Claire 1
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 no Done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 no Done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. no Done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' yes Done-Claire 1
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used yes Done-Claire 1
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used yes Done-Claire 1
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no Done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no Done-Claire 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? no Done-Claire 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? no Done-Claire 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' yes Done-Claire 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' no Done-Claire 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities no Done-Claire 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no Done-Claire 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no Done-Claire 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form N/A Done-Claire 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father no Done-Claire 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg no Done-Claire 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) no? Done-Claire 0
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes yes Done-Claire 1
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco no Done-Claire 0
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb no info Done-Claire x
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb no info Done-Claire x
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb no info Done-Claire x
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective yes Done-Claire 1
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' yes Done-Claire 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere yes Done-Claire 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past no Done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future no Done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) yes Done-Claire 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no Done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes Done-Claire 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no Done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no Done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood yes Done-Claire 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) no Done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses no Done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' yes Done-Claire 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something no Done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction yes Done-Claire 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking no Done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis yes Done-Claire 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction no Done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking no Done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected no info Done-Claire x
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") no info Done-Claire x
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality yes Done-Claire 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' no info Done-Claire x
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' yes Done-Claire 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative no info Done-Claire x
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. no info Done-Claire x
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker no Done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) no Done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. no Done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' no Done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse no Done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above no Done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic no Done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs no Done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle no Done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme no Done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion no Done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction no Done-Claire 0
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order yes Done-Claire 1
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject yes Done-Claire 1
Word Order VS in transitive clauses yes Done-Claire 1
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object yes Done-Claire 1
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject yes Done-Claire 1
Word Order Preposition-Noun no Done-Claire 0
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes Done-Claire 1
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) yes Done-Claire 1
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') yes Done-Claire 1
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun yes Done-Claire 1
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun yes Done-Claire 1
Word Order Dem-Noun yes Done-Claire 1
Word Order Noun-Dem yes Done-Claire 1
Word Order Num-Noun no info Done-Claire x
Word Order Noun-Num no info Done-Claire x
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies no info Done-Claire x
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies no info Done-Claire x
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') no info Done-Claire x
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' yes Done-Claire 1
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause no info Done-Claire x
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects no Done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked no Done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker yes Done-Claire 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no Done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no Done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative no Done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative no Done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other yes Done-Claire 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no Done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no Done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs yes Done-Claire 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive no Done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) no Done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. no Done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects yes Done-Claire 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) yes Done-Claire 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no Done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no Done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes yes Done-Claire 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers yes Done-Claire 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers yes Done-Claire 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system yes Done-Claire 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system yes Done-Claire 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately yes Done-Claire 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes no Done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent no Done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently no Done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives no Done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently yes Done-Claire 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. no Done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. no Done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb yes Done-Claire 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted no Done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no info Done-Claire x
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency no info Done-Claire x
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb no info Done-Claire x
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb no info Done-Claire x
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb no Done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb yes Done-Claire 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix no Done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization no Done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' no info Done-Claire x
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event no info Done-Claire x
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency no info Done-Claire x
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element yes Done-Claire 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element no Done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix no Done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle yes Done-Claire 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb no Done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' no Done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' no info Done-Claire x
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase no info Done-Claire x
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle no Done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology yes Done-Claire 1
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no Done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only no Done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) no? Done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position no info Done-Claire x
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position no info Done-Claire x
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) yes Done-Claire 1
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) no info Done-Claire x
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. no info Done-Claire x
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause N/A Done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix no info Done-Claire x
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) no info Done-Claire x
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) no info Done-Claire x
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. yes Done-Claire 1
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined no info Done-Claire x
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence no info Done-Claire x
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have an iterative function? not done yet Done-Claire X
Morphology - General Does noun root reduplication have a plural/pluractional function? not done yet Done-Claire X
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘real’ X? not done yet Done-Claire X
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have a distributive function? not done yet Done-Claire X
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have a pluractional function? not done yet Done-Claire X
Morphology - General Does noun root reduplication have an iterative function? not done yet Done-Claire X
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘fake’ X? not done yet Done-Claire X
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘very’ X? not done yet Done-Claire X
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does the language have ergative and instrumental syncretism? not done yet Done-Claire X
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does the language have a distinct genitive case? not done yet Done-Claire X
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is the locative related to the ergative with vowel change? yes Done-Claire 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is case marked on just one word in an NP? no Done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is case marked on all (non-pronominal) words in an NP? yes Done-Claire 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Are any subordinate verbs (or whole clauses) marked with case to indicate their function? not done yet Done-Claire X
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does ergative mark discourse functions of focus/unexpectedness? not done yet Done-Claire X
Nominal Categories - Derivation Is there a evidence for derivational morphology being distinct from inflectional on nouns? yes to any of HG 95-97 entails yes to this; yep; this is more general but not just about derivation (would also include proprietive, for example, not necessarily derivation that changes word class) not done yet Done-Claire X
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have a minimal/augment system? no Done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have a unit augment system? no Done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language mark dual on nouns? no Done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language mark plural on nouns? no Done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have group/collective nominal suffixes? not done yet Done-Claire X
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have suppletive plural verbs? not done yet Done-Claire X
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have suppletive plural adjectives? not done yet Done-Claire X
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language have bound pronouns? yes to any of HG 173-175 entails yes to this; not necessarily? - CB yes Done-Claire 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are the bound pronouns distinct from the free pronouns? yes Done-Claire 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language mark moiety distinctions in pronouns? no Done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language mark generational distinctions in pronouns? no Done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are 'who' and 'what' distinct words? not done yet Done-Claire X
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there an inclusive/exclusive distinction in the dual? yes Done-Claire 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there an inclusive/exclusive distinction in the plural? yes Done-Claire 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there a gender distinction in third person dual pronouns? no Done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there clitic pronouns? yes Done-Claire 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there object clitic pronouns? yes Done-Claire 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there distinct possessive and IO pronouns? no Done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories When there are both object and subject clitic pronouns, does the object pronoun follow the subject one? yes Done-Claire 1
Simple Clauses - Discourse Is there a focus position? include the position in the ‘form’ notes not done yet Done-Claire X
Simple Clauses - Discourse Is there a topic position? include the position in the ‘form’ notes not done yet Done-Claire X
Simple Clauses - Negation Is verbal negation a separate word? related to, and maybe equivalent to, HG 206-207 (not equivalent if verbal negation is being treated separately from clausal negation) yes Done-Claire 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Does the negative marker precede the verb? related to, and maybe equivalent to, HG 203 (not equivalent if verbal negation is being treated separately from clausal negation) yes Done-Claire 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Are there second position clausal clitics? yes Done-Claire 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Is tense marked on pronouns? no Done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Are there predicative clitics (e.g. Darkinyung grammar p35) no Done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Tense Does the language have tense/mood/etc particles (free words)? not done yet Done-Claire X
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is reflexive/reciprocal marked on the verb? =yes to any of HG 188-190; not necessarily; e.g. YN has a reflexive marker but it doesn’t go on the verb. not done yet Done-Claire X
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Does reflexive/reciprocal change the conjugation class? not done yet Done-Claire X
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is there a reflexive/reciprocal particle? not done yet Done-Claire X
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is the passive typically used only with adversative semantics? n/a Done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there an inchoative suffix? not done yet Done-Claire X
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a distinct present tense verbal suffix? yes Done-Claire 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a continuous aspect suffix? not done yet Done-Claire X
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a punctual aspect suffix? not done yet Done-Claire X
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Can tense and aspect cooccur? not done yet Done-Claire X
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is tense marked on nouns? no Done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Do positive commands take the same morphology as negative commands? not done yet Done-Claire X
Verbal Categories - Mood Is a negative command formed from a nominalised verb (eg. "no talking!")? not done yet Done-Claire X
Verbal Categories - Other Is the verb ‘say’ the same as the verb ‘do’? not done yet Done-Claire X
Verbal Categories - Other Does the language have body part compound verbs? not done yet Done-Claire X
Verbal Categories - Other Are there verbal agreement clitics? no Done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a verb 'be'? no Done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Other Are there verb conjugation classes? yes Done-Claire 1
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a conjugation for uninflecting verbs? no Done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a grammatical category of associated motion? no? Done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Other Does the language have kinship verbs? That is, are the words which designate kinship relations such as ‘mother’ and ‘father’ verbs in the language? no Done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - VerbalNumber Does the language have suppletive plural nouns? no? Done-Claire 0
Word Order Are there discontinuous NP constituents? check Done-Claire 0
Word Order Is word order fixed in noun phrases? yes Done-Claire 1
Word Order Is word order fixed in verb phrases? no Done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: second position clitics Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. yes Done-Claire 1
Phonology - Segmental Prestopped segments list which segments in the ‘form’ column no Done-Claire 0


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
large HG low mobile unknown