No fixed basic constituent order

Word Order


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla no Jane Hill
Cupeño no Jane Hill
Luiseño no Jane Hill
Serrano no Jane Hill
Kitanemuk no Jane Hill
Kawaiisu Jane Hill
Timbisha no Jane Hill
Western Mono no Jane Hill
Chemehuevi no Jane Hill
Southern Paiute no Jane Hill
Southern Ute no Jane Hill
Shoshone no Jane Hill
Comanche no Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone no Jane Hill
Northern Paiute no Jane Hill
Gabrielino Jane Hill
Achagua no SVO Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 2 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro no SV and SOV Allin, 1976: 311, 318 Aimee Lawrence
Bare no Aikhenvald, 1995: 44 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco no info Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna no Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 518 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 62 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no SVO Santos, 2006: 217 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu no Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 803 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana yes There is a tendency toward verb-final. Aikhenvald, 2003: 507 Ana Paula Brandao
Apurinã no Facundes notes that only VSO is not possible, and all orders but VSO and VOS appear in texts. However, many of the examples he gives have pronominal arguments. Aberdour (1985) discusses a basic constituent order. In addition, Facundes' corpora is mostly S Facundes, 2000: 548 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali no VSO word order Mihas 2010:13 Daniel Smith
Maipure no "Non-rigid" SVO. Zamponi 2003:48 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' no Basic constituent order seems to be VSO Duff-Tripp 1997:168 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no Constituent order tend to be fixes but it may be modified by topicalization strategies Couto 2005:54 Daniel Valle
Baure yes Danielsen 2007: p333 Daniel Valle
Nanti no Michael, 2008. p. 345 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no Brandão 2010:13 Daniel Valle
Palikur yes Green and Green 1972:57 Daniel Valle
Yine no SOV Matteson 1965:39 Daniel Smith
Añun no info Patte 1989:75, 113-119 Daniel Smith
Bora yes Free word order, with one exception: when using predicate marker on the verb, it must be preceded by an NP subject. Seifart - 2005:68 Amanda Meeks Most common: SOV
Makiritare no SOV order is the dominant order, but others are allowed Hall 1988 Melody Ann Ross
Makushi no "The normal order of nuclear constituents is subject-verb, with the exception of the transitive and quotative in which the order is object-verb-subject." Abbott 1991: 24 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa yes Payne 2012:20 Daniel Smith
Pemon no de Armellada 1999: 23 Shannon Dardis The basic order for transitive sentences is SOV, which alternates with OVS
Guna no SOV - strongly preferred Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso yes SOV is main order, allows OVS too Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika no Frank 1990:3 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí yes The author argues that SOV is the underlying constituent order. But this order may vary by pragmatics Quesada 2008:152 Daniel Valle
Damana yes Daniel Valle
Sikuani no SOV preferred Queixalós 2000 Daniel Smith
Macaguan no subject-verb-complement Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna yes Overall 2007:545 Daniel Valle However, it is preferred to have the V at the end of the sentence
Northern Emberá no Mortensen 1999:89 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani no Orr et all. 1991:20 Daniel Valle
Ingá no Levinson 1978:24-5 Daniel Valle
Matses yes Word order responds to pragmatic motivations. However, the SOV constituen order is the least marked Fleck:814 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun yes It depends mostly on pragmatics and the inverse system. Zúñiga 2006, p. 240-1 Daniel Valle
Páez no info Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no SOV and SV are the preffered orders Soto 1976:59 Daniel Valle
Tikuna no info Daniel Valle
Urarina yes However, constituents may be "moved" by discourse pressures Olawsky:652-ss Daniel Valle
Waunana yes Based on the list of possible or attested orders in the language Mejía 2000:90 Daniel Valle
Andoke no Landaburu 1979: 96 Kelsey Neely
Puinave yes Word order is quite variable in the language since grammatical functions are marked on the NP and the verb Giron 2008: p335 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no Huayhua Pari 2001: 290 Shannon Dardis Generally the order should be SOV, but there are cases where it can be OSV,OVS, VSO or VOS, particularly in areas where there's a lot of contact with Spanish.
Kakua no preference for OV: (S)O(S)V(S) Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no SOV basic order Goncalves 2011:14 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no SOV preferred Minor and Minor 1982. p.40 Daniel Smith
Hup no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no OSV Weir 1984:24 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no SVO Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano yes SOV is most popular order Miller 1999, p. 2 Amanda Novak
Cubeo yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 141 Amanda Novak
Kotiria no SOV preferred Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Makuna no Smotheron 1993, p.31 Chris Clack In general, the relative clauses and other nominal modifiers follow the noun, but may vary from this position and precede it.
Koreguaje yes Cook & Criswell 1993, p.89 Chris Clack
Barasano no Regarding word order, the subject is sentence initial when first introduced or in special focus and is sentence final elsewhere. Jones & Jones 1991, p.65 Chris Clack
Tanimuca no SOV Strom 1992, p.3 Chris Clack Word order is rigid only for the subject, which, apart from negative decalaritives, occurs before other major constituents.
Siona yes S(O)V Wheeler - 1970; Wheeler - 1987 Amanda Meeks
Tukano no Ramirez 1997: 109, 367-9 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami no absolutive always precedes verb, but ergative can be anywhere Ramirez 1994: 98 Kelsey Neely
Ninam no Goodwin-Gomez: 125 Kelsey Neely
Sanumá no Borgman 1990: 19 Kelsey Neely
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana no However, there are dfferent attested constituent orders which may be due to different constructions and information structure Everett 2006:320-1 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu yes SVO is more frequent, but VS and OV also occur Cruz 2011:412 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no Krivoshein and Acosta 2001:136-7 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama no SVO is pragmatically unmarked Vallejos 2010:466 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta yes done 1
Jingulu yes done 1
Wambaya yes done 1
Bunuba yes done 1
Walmajarri yes Done-Claire 1
Nyulnyul yes done? 1
Warrwa yes done 1
Worrorra yes 107 done 1
Garrwa yes? done 1
Gooniyandi yes done 1
Warlpiri yes h5-6 done 1
Bardi yes done-Claire 1
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no 104 done 0
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi yes 2, 158 done-Dan 1
Yidiny yes done-Catherine 1
Yanyuwa no info Done-Austin x
Yandruwandha yes 47 Done-Dan 1
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga yes 54 Done-Dan 1
Woiwurrung no 66 done-Amalia 0
Wirangu No 48-49 done 0
Wemba-Wemba no H 51 done-Amalia 0
Warumungu yes 42 done-Amalia 1
Wangkumara yes 46 done 1
Uradhi No 368 Y 0
Paakantyi no 236 Y-Hannah 0
Pitta-Pitta No 213 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi yes done-Hannah 1
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta yes 120 Done-Hannah 1
Ngiyambaa yes 236 Done-Emily 1
Ngayawang No info done-Amalia x
Muruwari yes 219 Done-Dan 1
Mayi-Yapi No 64 done 0
Martuthunira no 238-239 done 0
Marrgany No 335 Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 443 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji yes 139 Done-Jessica 1
Kugu-Nganhcara No 415 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna No info done-Amalia x
Kalkatungu yes 107 Done-Dan 1
Jaru no info Done-Amalia x
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 101 Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr no 341 done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun yes done-Jessica 1
Yuwaalaraay No 93 0
Dyirbal No 291 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu no 96 done 0
Djinang No 195 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari no 147-148 done-Hannah 0
Dharawal yes 46 done-Hannah w Dhurga) 1
Darkinyung no 51 done 0
Bularnu no 87 Done-Austin 0
Biri yes 47 done-Jessica 1
Bidjara-Gungabula no done-Jessica 0
Batyala No 4 Done-Amalia 0
Arabana yes 261; personal communication Done-Dan 1
Alyawarr yes 129 done 1
Nyikina yes done-Claire 1
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija Yes 44 Done-Amalia 1
Wathawurrung no 84 done 0
Mathi-Mathi no 109 done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no done-Amalia 0
Thanggati no 81 done 0
Katthang no 106-109 done-Amalia 0
Panyjima no 181-183 done 0
Ngarinyeri No info done-Amalia x
Kurrama yes 191 done-Dan 1
Yingkarta no Done-Claire 0
Githabul No 40 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya No 335 Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen No 138 Done- 0
WesternTorres yes? FO 129; K85c 81 done 1
Wakaya no 97 done 0
Yindjilindji no info done x
Bandjalang No 115 Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara No 36 done 0
Arrernte No 329 0
Kokatha No 66 0
Karajarri No 293 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara No G 40 0
Ritharrngu No 103 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay Yes 63 Done-Amalia 1
Warluwarra yes 874 Done-Amalia 1
Warnman No 11 Done-Amalia 0
Djapu no info x
Bilinarra yes 1.1000000000000000888 done 1
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala Yes 76 Y2 1
Narungga No 86 done 0
Tharrkari Yes 13 1
Wajarri No 138 0
Warungu yes 375 1
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua yes Payne and Payne 1990:254 Daniel Smith
Baniwa yes Aikhenvald 2002:167 Patience Epps