Kotiria

Family
Tukanoan
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
gvc
Location
1.08°, -69.57°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
Huber, R. and Reed, R. 1992. Comparative vocabulary: selected words in indigenous languages of Colombia. ILV, Bogotá. Stenzel, Kristine S. 2004. A reference grammar of Wanano. Ph.D. Disseration (Linguistics). Boulder University of Colorado. Stenzel, Kristine S. 2007. Glottalization and other suprasegmental features in Wanano. International Journal of American Linguistics 73.3:331-366. Stenzel, Kristine S. 2013. A Reference Grammar of Kotiria (Wanano). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. Waltz, Nathan E (compiler). 2007. Diccionario Bilingüe. Wanano o Guanano-Español. Español-Wanano o Guanano. Bogotá: Editorial Fundación para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Marginados.


Basic Vocabulary (192)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location be on top of: pisa pisa inheritance See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar tjoa (Waltz) tjoa (Waltz) unknown See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
all todo todos other pe'ri peʔɾi inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
and y e grammar ã jichᵾ; ã jiro; ã joa; tuhsᵾ (all Waltz) ã jiʧʉ; ã jiɾo; ã joa; tuhsʉ (all Waltz) unknown See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
ankle tobillo tornozelo body agã curiaca; dahporo dohsari curiaca (all Waltz) agã kuɾiaka; dahpoɾo dohsaɾi kuɾiaka (all Waltz) inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
armpit axila, sobaco axila body cjãroca (Waltz) kjãɾoka (Waltz) inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment niti; pichaca nuja (Waltz) niti; piʧaka nuja (Waltz) inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
at en, a em, a location missing See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
back espalda costas body sucunu sukunu inheritance See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
belly barriga barriga body pha pʰáá (stenzel) inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
below abajo, debajo abaixo location docai; docabᵾ (all Waltz) dokai; dokabᵾ (all Waltz) inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
big grande grande quality bʉhu; phi bʉhu; pʰíí unknown See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
bite morder morder body baka; ~kho'o baʰka; kʰõʔṍ inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
black negro preto colour ñina (Waltz) jina (Waltz) inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
blood sangre sangue body di díí (stenz) inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
blow soplar soprar body phuti pʰuʰtí inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body ñᵾchᵾcᵾ cohã jᵾʧᵾkᵾ kohã (Waltz) inheritance Branch 2, E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
bone hueso osso body ~kho'a ~kʰoʔa inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
breast pecho, seno peito body ~pe ~pe inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
breathe respirar respirar body yajeri nana (Waltz) jajeɾi nana (Waltz) inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
burn quemar queimar environment ~hʉ h˜ṹ inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body yahcara (Waltz) jahkaɾa (Waltz) inheritance Branch 2, E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
child niño, niña criança human ~ba('a) ~ba(ʔa) inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
climb subir subir motion to move upward/go uphill: ~baha/ -~baha bãhã/ -bãhã inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
cloud nube nuvem environment bu'i-ri buʔi-ri inheritance See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
cold frío frio quality yʉsʉri sãana (Waltz) jʉsʉɾi sãana (Waltz) inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
come venir vir motion ta/-ta'a táa/-táʔa inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
cook cocinar cozinhar impact do'a doʔá inheritance See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality potocã (Waltz) potokã (Waltz) unique See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
count contar contar mental quihõna; yahura (all Waltz) kihõna; jahuɾa (all Waltz) unique See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
cry llorar chorar mental tiira (Waltz) tiiɾa (Waltz) inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
cut/hack cortar cortar impact be; ~kha; yʉ'so; to cut open: waye kʰã; jʉʔsó; wajé unique See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
day día dia time ~dʉba ~dʉba inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
die/be dead morir morrer state yari jari inheritance cognate Piratapuyo See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
dig cavar cavar impact sa'a; dig into: dʉte saʔá; dʉʰte inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
dingo/wolf fauna missing See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
dirty sucio sujo quality wete tira (Waltz) wete tiɾa (Waltz) unique See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
dream soñar sonhar mental ~kha'a kʰãʔã inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
drink beber, tomar beber body ~si'di ~siʔdi inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
dry seco seco quality puhsia; puhsiria (both esp. For fruit) (Waltz) puhsia; puhsiɾia (Waltz) inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality u'ru u'ru missing See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
dust polvo poeira environment dihta manari; dihta me; me (all Waltz) dihta manaɾi; dihta me; me (all Waltz) inheritance Branch 2, E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
ear oreja orelha body ~kha'bo ~kʰaʔbo inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
earth/soil tierra terra environment dihta; dʉhtero; yahpa (all Waltz) dihta; dʉhteɾo; jahpa (all Waltz) inheritance See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
eat comer comer body chʉ čʉ unique See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
egg huevo ovo fauna die die inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
eye ojo olho body khapa kʰapa inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body tᵾ (Waltz) tᵾ (Waltz) unknown See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
fall caer cair motion bora boɾa inheritance See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
far lejos longe quality be far away: pase; to be far: yoa paʰse; joa inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
fat/grease grasa gordura body se (Waltz) se (Waltz) inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
father padre, papá pai kinship pɨ'kɨ, bãĩ́ pɨ'kɨ, bãĩ́ inheritance See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
fear miedo medo mental cuira (Waltz) kuiɾa (Waltz) inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
feather pluma pena fauna phoa pʰoa inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
fire fuego fogo environment pichaca (Waltz) piʧaka (Waltz) inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
fish xx xx fauna wa'i waʔi inheritance See Language page Epps Research Team
flow fluir fluir motion bɨ'rɨ- bɨ'rɨ- inheritance See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
flower flor flor environment cohoro (Waltz) kohoɾo (Waltz) inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
fly volar voar motion inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment buiriro (Waltz) buiɾiɾo (Waltz) inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
foot pie body da'po daʔpo inheritance E Tuk, at least Branch 2 See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
fruit fruta fruta flora dicha diʰʧá inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
good bueno bom quality hai hai unique See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
grow crecer crescer state bʉkʉ; ~basa bʉʰkʉ; mãʰsã inheritance E Tuk; compare Ocaina buuku See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body phoa pʰoa inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
hand mano mão body ~wabo ~wabo inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
head cabeza cabeça body dapo daʰpú (stenz) inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
hear oír ouvir mental thʉ'o tʰʉʔo inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
heavy pesado pesado quality nᵾcᵾ nina (Waltz) nᵾkᵾ nina (Waltz) inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
hide esconder esconder motion nᵾona (Waltz) nᵾona (Waltz) inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
hit golpear, pegar bater impact ~kha kʰã inheritance Branch 2, E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other khʉa kʰʉa inheritance Branch 2, E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
how? como como grammar do'se doʰʔse inheritance Branch 2, E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
if si se grammar ~pateni pãʰtẽnĩ unique See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location phʉ'icha; ~sa pʰʉʔiʧa; sã́ã́ inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
intestines intestinos intestinos body tᵾ misi da (Waltz) tᵾ misi da (Waltz) inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body ~wiki w˜ĩkĩ inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
kill matar matar impact ~waha ~wahá (entire word nas.) (stenz) inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
lake lago lago environment pari paɾi unique See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
laugh reír rir mental bʉhʉ bʉhʉ́ inheritance Branch 2, E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
leaf hoja folha environment ~phu ~pʰu inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body cõ bᵾhᵾsehe (Waltz) kõ bᵾhᵾsehe (Waltz) inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion ~kho (progessive use); ~khʉ'a; sʉka; yosa (sounds similar to Makuna) kʰõ; kʰʉ̃ʔã; sʉʰka; yoʰsa loan (into protolanguage?); inheritance Arawak See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment oroca sitero (Waltz) oɾoka siteɾo (Waltz) unique See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body kha'ti kʰaʔti inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
liver hígado figado body ñahma sahwaro (Waltz) jahma sahwaɾo (Waltz) inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
long largo comprido, longo quality yoara (Waltz) joaɾa (Waltz) inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna khʉ'a (plural form) kʰʉʔá inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
lung pulmón pulmão body yajeri naria; yajeri sãaria (all Waltz) jajeri naɾia; jajeɾi sãaɾia (all Waltz) inheritance Branch 2, E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
meat/flesh carne carne fauna di'i diʔi inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
moon luna lua environment sʉ̃ ñami macariro (Waltz) sʉ̃ ñami makaɾiɾo (Waltz) inheritance See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship missing See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
mouth boca boca body dʉse dʉʰsέ (stenz) inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
name nombre nome human ~waba w˜ãmã loan into protolanguage, direction unknown Boran, Witotoan, Tukanoan See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body missing See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
near/close cerca de perto quality to be close by: -ba'ro; to be nearby: du'tu; ka'a; thua; be next to: kha'a -baʰɾo; duʰʔtu; kaʔa; tʰúa; kʰaʔa inheritance See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
neck cuello pescoço body wamʉa (Waltz) wamʉa (Waltz) inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
new nuevo novo quality ~wa'ba ~waʔba inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
night noche noite time ~yabi ~jabi inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
no/not no não grammar ~de nẽ unknown See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
nose nariz nariz body ~ke ~ke inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
old viejo velho quality bʉcʉ; mʉna; panopʉ macari; for persons: bʉcʉro (m.), quiro bʉcoro (f.) (all Waltz) bʉkʉ; mʉna; panopʉ makaɾi; bʉkʉɾo (m.), kiɾo bʉkoɾo (f.) (all Waltz) inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
one uno um number kʉ̃ (stenz) kʉ̃ (stenz) inheritance Branch 2, E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
open/uncover abrir abrir other to open wide (intran.): bʉkʉ bʉʰkʉ unique See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
other otro outro grammar pa (Stenzel); pairo (esp. For persons) (Waltz) pá; paiɾo doubtful loan Arawak See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body missing See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
person/human being persona pessoa human ~basa/~basʉ ~basa/~basʉ inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact mᵾtana; mᵾtona; ña tihãhna; tihãna; dahra tihãna (between two fingers) (all Waltz) mᵾtana; mᵾtona; ja tihãhna; tihãna; dahɾa tihãna (all Waltz) inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
rain lluvia chuva environment coro (Waltz) koɾo (Waltz) inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
red rojo vermelho colour ~so'a ~soʔa inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
right/right hand derecha direita location/body poto (Waltz) poto (Waltz) unique cognate Piratapuyo See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
road/path camino caminho manufacture ~ba'a ~baʔa inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
root raíz raiz flora nʉhco (Waltz) nʉhko (Waltz) inheritance Andoke See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
rotten podrido podre quality ba báa inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
sand arena areia environment padʉro (Waltz) padʉɾo (Waltz) unknown See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
say decir dizer mental dĩ- dĩ- inheritance See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
scratch rascar rasgar impact ñacana; waquĩ nina (all Waltz) jakana; wakĩ nina (all Waltz) inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
see ver ver mental ~yʉ ~jʉ inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality sio sio unknown cognate Piratapuyo See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact phicha pʰiʧa semantic shift See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
short corto curto quality yahpa curero; yahpa wacũnu (Waltz) jahpa kuɾeɾo; jahpa wakũnu (Waltz) inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
shoulder hombro ombro body comapariaca (Waltz) komapaɾiaka (Waltz) inheritance See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental hikue hiʰkue unknown See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
sit sentar(se) sentar state duhi/-duhi duhi/-duhi inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
skin piel pele body ka'sa kaʔsa inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
sky cielo céu environment ~bʉa; me sehe; mᵾano mʉ̃ã (Stenzel); me sehe; mᵾano (Waltz) inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
sleep dormir dormir body ~khari ~kʰari inheritance E-W Tuk; Compare Northern Emberá - "kãaĩ́" See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
small pequeño pequeno quality ~ba('a); da ~ba(ʔa); dáá inheritance E Tuk? See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
smoke humo fumaça environment hu húú (stenz) unique See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body ~wihi w˜ĩh˜ĩ inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
spit escupir cuspir body chahcho putira; chahcho puti sãahna (to spit in something) (all Waltz) ʧahʧo putiɾa; ʧahʧo puti sãahna (all Waltz) inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact to separate: -boro; to divide in half: wa'chu -boɾo; waʔʧú unknown; unique See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact ña pura; tʉ pura (Waltz) ja puɾa; tʉ puɾa (Waltz) unknown See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact phu'a; si'o pʰuʔ'a; siʔo inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state duku/-ruku duʰku/-ɾuʰku inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
star estrella estrela environment mʉano macaria; ñahpichohaca (all Waltz) mʉano makaɾia; jahpikhohaka (all Waltz) unique See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
steal robar roubar other yacara (Waltz) jakaɾa (Waltz) inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora yucʉcʉ (Waltz) jukʉkʉ (Waltz) inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
stone piedra pedra environment ~ta tã`ã` (stenz) inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
suck chupar chupar body ~wibi w˜ĩmĩ inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
sweat sudar suor, suar body so witira (Waltz) so witiɾa (Waltz) inheritance? See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
swell hincharse inchar body pjura; wipira (all Waltz) pjuɾa; wipiɾa (all Waltz) inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
swim nadar nadar motion ba'a (stenz rev) baʔa (stenz rev) inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
tail cola, rabo rabo body ~phicho ~pʰičo inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
that ese/esa esse grammar ti ti inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality sẽ bʉtira; pjacʉ pjiriro, pjacʉ pjiricoro (f.) (esp. For a person's body) (all Waltz) sẽ bʉtiɾa; pjakʉ pjiɾiɾo, pjakʉ pjiɾikoɾo (f.) (all Waltz) unique See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
thin delgado fino quality pʉhãna; sẽ minina; pjĩ (person); pari pũ (form); pahri casaro (something thin that covers something) (all Waltz) pʉhãna; sẽ minina; pjĩ; paɾi pũ; pahɾi kasaɾo (all Waltz) inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
think pensar pensar mental thu tʰu inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
this este/esta este grammar a'ri aʔ.rί (stenz) inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
2sg xx xx grammar ~bʉ'ʉ/~bʉ ~bʉʔʉ/~bʉ inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
three tres tres number tia tia inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
throat garganta garganta body wamʉ copa (Waltz) wamʉ kopa (Waltz) inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact ~khoa; -roka kʰõã; -ɾoʰka inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
thunder truenos trovão environment wʉpo (Waltz) wʉpo (Waltz) inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact dʉ'te dʉʔte inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
tongue lengua lingua body ~ye'be ~jeʔbe inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
tooth diente dente body pi píi (stenz) inheritance E-W Tuk; compare Sape piika See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other majare pahara, sariãna majare pahara, sariãna inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
two dos dois number phʉa (stenz rev) pʰʉáro (stenz) pʰʉa (stenz rev) pʰʉáro (stenz) inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
vomit vomitar vomitar body chowe ʧowé unknown See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
walk caminar, andar andar motion ~tidi tĩnĩ unique See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
water agua agua environment ko kóo (stenz) inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
wet mojado molhado quality co waara (Waltz) ko waaɾa (Waltz) inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
what? que, qué que grammar ~yaba ~jaba inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
when? cuando quando grammar do'se doʔse inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
where? donde onde grammar do'se; ~do'o doʔse; nõʔõ inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
white blanco branco colour yehsera jehseɾa unique cognate Piratapuyo See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
who? quien, quién quem grammar ~doa ~doa inheritance E Tuk, at least Branch 2 See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
wife esposa esposa kinship nãmõ (o hi) (stenz) nãmõ (o hi) (stenz) inheritance E Tuk, at least Branch 2 See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
wind viento vento environment wihnono (Waltz) wihnono (Waltz) inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
wing ala asa body cjã pʉ dʉpʉ; wʉri dʉpʉ; wʉri pahma (all Waltz) cjã pʉ dʉpʉ; wʉɾi dʉpʉ; wʉɾi pahma (all Waltz) inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
woman/female mujer mulher human ~dubi ~dubi inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
work trabajar trabalhar other da 're (trans.); da 'ra (intrans.) daʔɾe; daʔɾa inheritance Branch 2, E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
yawn bostezar bocejar body wʉjo yahari witira; yahari witira (all Waltz) wʉjo jahaɾi witiɾa; jahaɾi witiɾa (all Waltz) inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
yellow amarillo amarelo colour ewʉ (Waltz) ewʉ (Waltz) loan (into protolg?), direction unknown Arawak > Branch 2 ET, e.g. Baniwa éewa See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
bad mal mal quality be bad: ~ya ɲã inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar tiro (he); ticoro (she) (Waltz) tíɾo; tikoɾo inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
1sg yo eu grammar yʉ'ʉ/ jʉ jʉʔʉ/ jʉ inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
leg/foot pierna perna body ~yʉchʉ; da'po jʉ̃ʰʧṹ; daʔpó inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
man/male hombre homem human ~bʉ ~bʉ inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar tίnã (stenz) tίnã (stenz) inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental ~basi ~basi inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar ~bari mãɾĩ inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar inheritance See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
2pl ustedes vocês grammar ~bʉsa mʉ̃sã inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
bark corteza casca environment pari cahsaro (Waltz) paɾi kahsaɾo (Waltz) inheritance See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
fingernail uña unha body wamo sero (hand); dahpo sero (foot) (all Waltz) wamo seɾo; dahpo seɾo (all Waltz) inheritance See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
heart corazón coração body yahiri~pho'da jahiri~pʰoʔda inheritance See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
sun sol sol time sʉ̃ (Waltz) sʉ̃ (Waltz) inheritance See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment tʉ̃cʉ (Waltz) tʉ̃kʉ (Waltz) inheritance See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
green verde verde quality ~wia ~wia unknown possible cognate Koreguaje See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
hot caliente quente quality si sίί (stenz) inheritance See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (138)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana bã'sĩ sõʔ'ã bã'sĩ sõʔ'ã inheritance May be inherited uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no shrub Amanda Meeks
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. ~bede ~bede inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) no Amanda Meeks
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. bu, boʔso bu, boʔso inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. so so inheritance East Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Throughout Amazonia no? Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Amanda Meeks
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis co puti sitero (Waltz) ko puti siteɾo (Waltz) inheritance or calque? Shared at least between Tuyuca, Tukano, Wanano, who all intermarry relative clause water-blow-scatter-NMZ See Language page 1 0 0 0 0 Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls no Amanda Meeks
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus bi'ʔi bi'ʔi inheritance East Tukanoan Broader (rat and mouse) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes pinono dia macariro (Waltz) pinono dia makaɾiɾo (Waltz), pĩ'dõ-dõ (H&R) inheritance East Tukanoan Most ET languages have same root for boa and anaconda phrase river boa' See Language page 2 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia yes Amanda Meeks
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora ~hu ~hu inheritance East Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae bã'tʃɨ̃-iro bã'tʃɨ̃-iro inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) ~bie bĩ'ẽ, ~bie inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonian lowlands no Amanda Meeks
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri ~phabo pã́'bṍ, ~pʰabo inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread in Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum kã'nɨ̃ kã'nɨ̃ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Compare Witoto kaní uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 tropical regions, especially river banks no plant Amanda Meeks
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no tree Amanda Meeks
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. ho ho, jo'a ho inheritance? Proto-Tukanoan possibly markedness shift from sororoca Likely family-wide semantic shift from 'bastard plantain' (wild banana look-alike) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Amanda Meeks
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. so pocanairo (Waltz) so, so pokanaiɾo (Waltz) inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Amanda Meeks
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis miquinairo (Waltz) mikinaiɾo (Waltz), bĩkĩdã-iro (H&R) unique shared Piratapuyo Shared with Piratapuyo uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna ~bidiche mĩnĩʧẽ, bĩ'dĩtʃaka (H&R) inheritance East Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forests, native to Brazil no tree Amanda Meeks
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba bacaba fruit ~jʉbʉ inheritance At least East Tukanoan, Branch I uncoded See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon no may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Amanda Meeks
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae pinono (Waltz) pinono (Waltz), pĩ'dõ-dõ (H&R) inheritance East Tukanoan Most ET languages have same root for boa and anaconda. Also akaɾiɾo (Waltz) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) waha (tree, Waltz dict); wa'ha-ka ('gourd', H&R) waha (tree, Waltz dict); wa'ha-ka ('gourd', H&R) missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 indigenous gardens no plant; tree Amanda Meeks
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. no tree Amanda Meeks
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata missing missing See Language page 2 0 0 0 0 yes Amanda Meeks
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera tataroairo (Waltz) tataɾoaiɾo (Waltz) inheritance East Tukanoan attested only Cubeo, Wanano uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris di'a wa'tʃɨ di'a wa'tʃɨ inheritance East Tukanoan phrase river-tapir' See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Amanda Meeks
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium giganteum missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Brazil, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela, Guyana no
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forest, floodplain no vine Amanda Meeks
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca putu pũ (Waltz) p'utu (H&R), putu pũ (Waltz) loan direction unknown - WW %patu Wanderwort; shared Arawak (also various others) WW %patu uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 1 1 secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes no plant Amanda Meeks
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria khasipo kʰasipo inheritance East Tukanoan, Branch II uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu je'se buʔuro je'se buʔuro inheritance East Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) ju'ta ju'ta semantic shift East Tukanoan original meaning kapok uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 1 secondary scrub vegetation no plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Amanda Meeks
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura ~pʉ ~pʉ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae poreroairo (Waltz) poɾeɾoaiɾo (Waltz) inheritance East Tukanoan Attested Wanano, Desano uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. waʔ'dõpĩ waʔ'dõpĩ inheritance East Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus ~yaba jã'bã, ~jaba inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris die di'e-ro, d`ié (i lo tone) (stenz) semantic shift/calque/loan w/in ET? East Tukanoan from jaguar + ? uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Not native; widespread no Amanda Meeks
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae buja; masi sohã buja (red dove) (all Waltz) buja; masi sohã buja (all Waltz) inheritance East Tukanoan masi sohã buja (red dove) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family pato (Spanish loan) (Waltz) pato (Spanish loan) (Waltz) loan Spanish WW %patu uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus ~sa'a ~saʔa inheritance East Tukanoan, Branch II uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 yes Amanda Meeks
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna wa'i waʔi inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
fish (large type) paiche, pirarucú o arapaima pirarucu flora-fauna Arapaima gigas missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 big rivers only no
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation yes [used to poison people] shrub/tree Amanda Meeks
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera nʉhcopeairo (Waltz) nʉhkopeaiɾo (Waltz), dɨ̃ʔ'kõpea-iro (H&R) inheritance East Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera flies: ~khobada (Stenzel); comanairo (Waltz); wihminairo (Waltz) kʰõmãnã (Stenzel); komanaiɾo (Waltz); wihminaiɾo (Waltz) unique Cognate Wanano and Piratapuyo. Also komanaiɾo, wihminaiɾo (Waltz) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana missing missing See Language page 1 0 0 0 0 widespread lowland SA no shrub Amanda Meeks
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis agã (Waltz) di'ejoʔo, agã (Waltz) unique Also di'ejoʔo uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) tha tʰáá, tʰa inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões no Amanda Meeks
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba yaja (Waltz) jaha (Waltz) inheritance East Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread South America no Amanda Meeks
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. ka'ta bã'hã ka'ta bã'hã inheritance East Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Different types have different localized ranges no Amanda Meeks
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi kʰapi kʰapi loan - WW %kaapi Wanderwort; e.g. Nadahup, Kakua-Nukak, Guahiban, North Arawak WW %kapi uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 1 0 semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW no vine Amanda Meeks
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae kha kʰa inheritance East Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus cawalu kawalu missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens bia bia inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden no plant Amanda Meeks
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] ~ebo ẽ'bũ, ẽmõ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae wĩ'bĩ wĩ'bĩ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Compare Arawak, e.g. Baniwa pími uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread no Amanda Meeks
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. jo'a so jo'a so inheritance East Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Amanda Meeks
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca yai jai, jai-ro doubtful loan into protolanguage, direction unknown Arawak (Chacon reconstructs); cf. TG *jawar Compare similar Arawak forms uncoded See Language page 1 2 0 0 0 yes Amanda Meeks
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no large tree Amanda Meeks
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas no tree Amanda Meeks
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. missing missing See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings no plant Amanda Meeks
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae saná (Waltz) saná (Waltz) inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. boka boka inheritance cf. Tukano uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae quedu (Waltz) kedu (Waltz) doubtful loan (into protolg?) - WW East Tukanoan, Branch II %kute uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. maja (red), daharo (little) (all Waltz) maha (red), dahaɾo (little) (all Waltz), bã'hã (H&R) inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Guahiban Proto-Guahiban; e.g. Macaguan máha. daharo (small macaw) uncoded See Language page 1 1 0 0 1 Widespread Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays yo jóó (stenz), jo (H&R) semantic shift (in protolg?) East Tukanoan from banana; cf. Hup, Bora Loan into Kakua ho uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 widespread, esp. in river floodplains no plant Amanda Meeks
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. ki kíí (stenz) inheritance East Tukanoan, Branch II uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta dʉkʉ, kʰɨ dʉkʉ, kʰɨ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Compare Arawak forms w/ ka uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. no Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Amanda Meeks
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere no No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Amanda Meeks
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa missing missing See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps no trunks contain sago-like starch Amanda Meeks
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. wihminairo (Waltz) wihminaiɾo (Waltz), bɨ̃'tẽ-iro (H&R) inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) missing missing See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Amanda Meeks
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis di'a tĩ'bĩ di'a tĩ'bĩ inheritance East Tukanoan Means both giant otter and small otter across various ET languages; not clear which meaning may have been original uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes wɨ'pɨ po'ko wɨ'pɨ po'ko doubtful loan into protolg - WW? onomatopoeic? East Tukanoan %pupu uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread no Amanda Meeks
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) sã'bã sã'bã inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. ~bako mãkõ unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana mujiõ (Waltz) muhiõ (Waltz) inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Same morpheme found in 'sun/moon'; probable cognate in Orejon uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests no palm Amanda Meeks
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica wa'tʃo wa'tʃo inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 Widespread no Amanda Meeks
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no palm Amanda Meeks
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes ɨ̃'rẽõ ɨ̃'rẽõ inheritance missing See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Amanda Meeks
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus ~sare ~sare inheritance East Tukanoan possibly from TG nana? uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Amanda Meeks
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae bʉ'ʉ bʉʔʉ, bɨ'ʔɨ (H&R) inheritance East Tukanoan, Branch II uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no [not in this region] Amanda Meeks
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation no compare entries for sweet potato Amanda Meeks
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no tree Amanda Meeks
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones pichõno soro (Waltz) piʧõno soɾo (Waltz) unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 yes Amanda Meeks
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua ~yʉbʉ ~jʉbʉ missing missing See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia no may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Amanda Meeks
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata agã dapu; wahpo (black lizard) (all Waltz) agã dapu; wahpo (all Waltz) doubtful loan North Arawak See e.g. Tariana dúpu. Also wahpo (black lizard) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda ~su'i ~suʔi inheritance East Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna ~phido ã'gã (H&R), ~pʰido inheritance Means 'boa, anaconda' in most other ET languages. Also ã'gã (H&R) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox ~phido soʔ'kõ-dõ ã'gã (H&R), ~pʰido semantic shift Means 'boa, anaconda' in most other ET languages. Also soʔ'kõ-dõ ã'gã (H&R) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread South America yes Amanda Meeks
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. ~boko (generic) mõkõ (generic) unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae wʉpʉ bɨ́'pɨ́ (H&R), w~vʉʰpʉ (ʉ hi tone) (stenz) inheritance East Tukanoan Also bɨ́'pɨ́ (H&R) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. wa'ha-ka wa'ha-ka missing East Tukanoan Also means 'bottle-gourd' in other ET languages uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Amanda Meeks
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae ~wiso ~wiso inheritance East Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas ñapi (Waltz) ja'pĩ, japi (Waltz) inheritance East Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Amanda Meeks
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris wachʉ waʰʧʉ (ʉ hi tone) (stenz), wa'tʃɨ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera butua butua, bu'tua-iro inheritance East Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura ta'ʔaro bɨ'kɨ ta'ʔaro bɨ'kɨ inheritance East Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum ~bʉ'do ~bʉʔdo, bɨ̃ʔ'dõ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 no plant Amanda Meeks
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria ku ku-ri inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Widespread no Amanda Meeks
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. dasa da'sa doubtful loan into protolanguage Proto-Tukanoan North Arawak See e.g. Mandawaka da:se, Baniwa dzatte uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna yʉkʉ jʉkʉ, ju'kɨ-kɨ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella kũɨ kũɨ unique shared Piratapuyo Cognate Piratapuyo uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
cunuri (tree) cunuri cunuri flora-fauna Cunurea spruceana missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Amazonia no
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions no other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Amanda Meeks
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae ju'ka ju'ka inheritance East Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread South America no Amanda Meeks
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita missing missing See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus wa'ʔu wa'ʔu inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari je'se je'se inheritance East Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia se se inheritance East Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times no a tree; not a true grape Amanda Meeks
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae seneno (black-blue); corẽ (all Waltz) seneno; koɾẽ (all Waltz) inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Also seneno (black-blue woodpecker) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. jãʔ'bũ jãʔ'bũ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Likely loan into Yukpa uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola ~wi'o ~wiʔo See Language page Amanda Meeks
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna dìé dìé inheritance See Language page Epps Research Team
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna ~yaba ~jaba inheritance See Language page Epps Research Team


Cultural Vocabulary (106)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology missing See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool bʉe bʉe inheritance Proto-East Tukanoan Simplex hunting, warfare See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool ~khoba ~kʰoba inheritance Proto-East Tukanoan Simplex especially for clearing fields See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool missing can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material missing See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material phʉʔʉ́ inheritance Proto-East Tukanoan Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material missing See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material missing See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
bed cama cama culture-material carĩni casario; coãri casario (all Waltz) kaɾĩni kasaɾio; koãɾi kasaɾio (all Waltz) unknown calque? Compound koãri probably rel to 'sleep'; kasario=bag See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material dujiro dujiro inheritance Proto-East Tukanoan, East branch (at least) Simplex See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool puka puka doubtful loan Proto-East Tukanoan cf. Quechua pukuna; Andoke uipúkə̃ Appears to have dropped final syllable. May derive from Iriartella palm, also possibly related to 'blow' Simplex currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
bottle botella garrafa acculturation garafaka garafaka loan Portuguese Simplex contains classifier? See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
bow arco arco subsistence tool bʉe~dete bʉe~dete inheritance from bʉe 'shoot'? Compound arco See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
broom escoba vassoura culture-material kasario kasario unknown Simplex See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
canoe canoa canoa transport bʉso bʉso unique Simplex See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
cat gato gato acculturation pisana pisana loan - WW %pisana probably originally from Port bicho 'small animal'; compare E. Tukano, (e.g. Desano pisana); Arawak (e.g. Tariana pisána); Carib (Makushi pisana; Pemon pitʃana); Kakua pitʃina. But note Quechua 'broom' pitʃana WW %pisana Simplex See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
chicken gallina galinha acculturation karaka karaka loan - WW %karaka Probably Arawak origin (see Nordenskiold 1922). Tukanoan, e.g. Wanano karaka; Arawak, e.g. Baniwa kaláka; Yanomamo, Nadeb; Macaguan takra, Sikuani wakara WW %karaka Simplex See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology pùhtoro pùhtoro inheritance shared Piratapuyo Compare Carib: Pemon eepuuruu; Makushi póotɨ-rɨ See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool yukùkù si yukùkù si unknown See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
coca narcotics putu pũ Doubtful loan Local Nheengatu ipadu; Arawak (e.g. Tariana hipatú); Carijona ihatu; E. Tukano (e.g. Bará 'pátu); Daw WW %patu See Language page Epps Research Group
cook food food doʔá inheritance Proto-East Tukanoan Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology boraró boraró unknown Also found Tukano Other complex ro is sing suffix malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
dance (generic) culture-mythology basa inheritance Proto-East Tukanoan dahpo tira Waltz) Compound lit. tener pie (to have/of feet) See Language page Epps Research Group
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool waka waka inheritance Proto-East Tukanoan Simplex hunting and warfare See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology kohamaku kohamaku calque, direction unknown North Arawak? 'Bone-Son' Compare Arawak, 'bone' in culture figure name. Also: cohamaco (feminine) Compound bone-son' In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
digging stick subsistence tool Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology kahara kahara unknown Also: purîna See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology tohati tohati loan - WW Eastern branch, Proto-East Tukanoan %toto (onomatopoeic?) But compare Urarina, tǫǫto See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool winino winino inheritance Proto-East Tukanoan Compare similar terms in Carib esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology tùhriro tùhriro inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Cognate? in Koreguaje, tuhivʉ See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology missing See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
fireplace hogar lareira other missing See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
firewood leña lenha other picha (Waltz) piʧa (Waltz) inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Simplex See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food generic fish v: jo'ga generic fish v: joʔga unknown See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food generic fish v:jo'ga generic fish v:joʔga fish (generic) unknown Simplex See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool jo’gárida jo’gárida unique Derived jo’gá+ri-da; fish+NOM-CLS:ropelike See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool káyé kájé unknown Simplex See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food ~dahó nahó inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Simplex usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food po'ka poʔka inheritance/sem shift Proto-East Tukanoan from 'powder' Simplex agriculture See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology teneniaka, ~da'bo, karisu teneniaka, ~daʔbo, karisu inheritance Proto-East Tukanoan multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food waʔí fish, animal missing Proto-East Tukanoan Simplex Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
genipap culture-mythology Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool yurumaoka, wa'ha-ka ('gourd', H&R) jurumaoka, wa'ha-ka ('gourd', H&R) unknown; inheritance See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool sohcõno sohkõno inheritance Proto-East Tukanoan esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology masa kopa masa kopa Calque common among Vaupes languages, different forms in ET Compound masa=people; kopa=hole See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool kasa-rio kasa-rio inheritance Proto-East Tukanoan, Eastern branch Similar form in Tukano; see also Kakua kâyaʔ See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool tju dihoria tju dihoria unknown Compound agriculture? See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation wamoa wamoa unique See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material pʉno (Waltz) pʉno (Waltz) inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Simplex See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
hat sombero chapéu dress ʦapea ʦapea loan Port chapeu Possibly via Arawak; Baniwa tsapéwa; Pemon sapewa Simplex See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology yai jai shaman semantic shift from 'jaguar' Also means 'jaguar' b/c of belief that shamans turn into jaguars Simplex ro Sing suffix In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics missing See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
honey miel mel food ~bi inheritance May be related to ET mumia Simplex only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
hunt cazar caçar food bʉe (hunt with arrows) bʉe (hunt with arrows) hunt with arrows inheritance Simplex See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
knife cuchillo faca culture-material sίórί pʰί (stenz) sίórί pʰί (stenz) unique Derived sió+rí-~phí; be.sharp+NOM-CLS:bladelike See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress wasuru wasuru missing See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
machete machete facão culture-material yoari pjĩ (Waltz) joaɾi pjĩ (Waltz) inheritance shared Macuna Derived joa+ri-~phi; be.long+NOM-CLS:bladelike See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool docaadʉ dokaadʉ inheritance? cf. Arawak, other toka terms See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
fence, palisade cerco cerca other pari kùnu pari kùnu loan TG pari Compound may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology karisu karisu unknown Also in Tukano and in regional Port; not clear whether a loan or native Tukanoan. Simplex See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
paper papel papel acculturation papera pû papera pû loan Span/Port 'papel' Spanish/Portuguese > Nheengatu > others? Ninam liplo (metathesis); Arawak (e.g. Yucuna papera); Macaguan papéna; Tukanoan (Cubeo papela, Wanano papera pû, Tukano papéra); Nheengatu papera; Yanomam, papʰeo WW %papera Simplex See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool docaadʉ dokaadʉ missing See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
plate plato prato culture-material waparo waparo inheritance Proto-East Tukanoan, Eastern branch 2 See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
policeman polícia policía acculturation surara surara loan WW Simplex See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool biato biato loan? Spanish/Portuguese Simplex See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology jã'sã-kã jã'sã-kã inheritance See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool yucùcù se yucùcù se unknown Compound See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology missing See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
salt sal sal food moa moa inheritance/sem shift? original meaning 'salt plant' Simplex See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
school escuela escola acculturation buheri wùhu buheri wùhu Calque Local study house/place' all over Vaupes. Compound buheri=to study/learn See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
shoes zapatos sapatos dress dahpo suhtiro dahpo suhtiro unique Compound foot clothes' See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material saya si saya si loan Port/Span saia Port > Nheengatu > others? Arawak (e.g. Baniwa tsʰaaja); Makushi u-saja-ri; Wanano saya si; Nheengatu saja; Ninam saja WW %saja See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
soldier soldado soldado acculturation surara surara loan - WW %surara Port via Nheengatu; also in Arawak, Carib, East Tukanoan, Yanomamo. Nheengatu surara; Makushi surara; Hup sudadu; East Tukanoan (e.g. Cubeo ʈʃulala); Ninam sotatu WW %surara Simplex See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology basaa basaa song, dance inheritance Proto-East Tukanoan Simplex See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
spear lanza lança subsistence tool jõ'sã-ri paro jõ'sã-ri paro inheritance Proto-East Tukanoan Or maybe family-internal loan Derived ~josa-dʉ; force.into-CLS:cylindrical.straight See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food wate wate inheritance Proto-East Tukanoan Simplex See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material missing See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation ~khadʉ ~khadʉ unknown See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food ñumucu ñumuku inheritance Proto-East Tukanoan Doubtful: found in 3 intermarrying ET languages and Tariana; loan Tuk > Tariana? agriculture See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material mujiõ (Waltz) muhiõ (Waltz) inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Simplex See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food ~wiʔo ~wiʔo unknown Simplex word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
tobacco (native) narcotics bɨ̃ʔ'dõ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool ñama ñama Calque, direction unknown North Arawak deer=tripod occurs in all regional ET and where attested in Arawak lgs Simplex agriculture See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool ~phuri (generic poison) (stenzel) pʰũɾĩ (generic poison) poison, venom (e.g. snake) unknown Simplex hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
wax cera cera other mi suhti mi suhti bee wax unique Compound honey clothes/covering See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool wʉhʉ batiro, misi batiro, sùhoca wʉhʉ batiro, misi batiro, sùhoka unknown Simplex agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology missing a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material generic: phʉ'ʉ generic: pʰʉʔʉ inheritance See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture missing Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology inheritance Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology suhtiro (Waltz) suhtiɾo (Waltz) inheritance See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology ~wati ~wati inheritance See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
paddle/oar remo remo transport sajari wajwa sahari wahwa inheritance See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture ~da'bo nãʔmṍ unique See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology missing See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology pakʉ pakʉ See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other missing See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture phayuru phajuru loan (into protolanguage?) - WW %pajaru prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
bottom grinding stone manufacture missing if different word from top grinding stone See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
digging stick subsistence tool missing See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture missing use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
spearthrower subsistence tool missing See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
house other wʉ'ʉ wʉʔ `ʉ (stenz) inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein


Grammatical Data (226)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. no info Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] no Stenzel 2007 IJAL Amanda Novak
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast no allophonic Waltz p. 29 Amanda Novak
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? no Waltz p. 34 Amanda Novak
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels no glottalization is a suprasegmental feature Waltz p. 32/ Stenzel 63, 95 Amanda Novak
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme no Stenzel 2007:38 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] yes Waltz p. 33 Amanda Novak
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? no Waltz p. 33 Amanda Novak
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones yes H and HL Stenzel 2004, p. 83 Amanda Novak
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? no Stenzel 2007 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments yes Stenzel 2004, p. 49 Amanda Novak
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? yes Stenzel 2004, p. 79 Amanda Novak
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony yes examples exist of vowel harmony but participation seems random; marginal as a 'system' Stenzel 2004, p. 66 Amanda Novak
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] no Stenzel 2007 Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone no Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word yes aspect, modal, negation, clausal Stenzel 2007:486 Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no Stenzel 2004, p. 96 Amanda Novak
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes yes Stenzel 2004, p. 96 Amanda Novak
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different no Stenzel 2004, p. 96 Amanda Novak
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated no info Stenzel 2007 Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated no info Stenzel 2007 Daniel Smith
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced yes Stenzel 2004, p. 147 Amanda Novak
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection no Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word yes Stenzel 2004, p. 273 Amanda Novak
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' yes Stenzel 2004, p. 240 Amanda Novak
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs yes Stenzel 2004, p. 237 Amanda Novak
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment yes Stenzel 2007:242 Daniel Smith
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns no Stenzel 2007 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP yes gender only for human Stenzel 2004, p. 122 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders 1 inanimate, masc., femine Stenzel 2004, p. 126 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. yes Stenzel 2004, p. 122 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter yes Stenzel 2004, p. 128 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates no Stenzel 2004, p. 139 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human yes Stenzel 2004, p. 127 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only yes Stenzel 2004, p. 161 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates yes only occurs with certain lower-level animates Stenzel 2004, p. 122 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates yes Stenzel 2004, p. 122 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" yes Stenzel 2004, p. 123 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals yes Stenzel 2004, p. 186 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' yes Stenzel 2007:130 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups yes animate, non-human, collective nouns are marked by suffix -kiro and inanimate mass nouns are marked by a partitive suffix Stenzel 2004, p. 128 & 139 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun yes marked by suffixes Stenzel 2004, p. 128 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no Stenzel 2004, p. 128 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun no Stenzel 2004, p. 128 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic no Stenzel 2004, p. 128 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only no countable inanimate nouns can be pluralized by a suffix Stenzel 2004, p. 139 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns yes 3rd pronouns are derived from anaphoric particle root 'ti+' the noun class marker- in the 3P the animate plural class marker is used Stenzel 2004, p. 161 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' no but comitative marker may have historically been an associative Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only no Stenzel 2007 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness no re, the object marker, codes definiteness as one of its semantic components Stenzel 2004, p. 223 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker no Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you yes Stenzel 2004, p. 161 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) no Stenzel 2007 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system 0 Stenzel 2004, p. 184 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) no Stenzel 2004, p. 184 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns yes Stenzel 2007:142 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns yes Stenzel 2004, p. 161 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no Stenzel 2004, p. 161 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no Stenzel 2004, p. 161 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix no info Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients no Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun 0 Stenzel 2004, p. 166 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are no Stenzel 2004, p. 171 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) yes Stenzel 2004, p. 171 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates no Stenzel 2004, p. 171 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic yes Stenzel 2004, p. 171 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic no Stenzel 2004, p. 171 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic no Stenzel 2004, p. 171 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change no Stenzel 2004, p. 171 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone no Stenzel 2004, p. 171 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' yes =be're =be're Stenzel 2007:10 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 no Stenzel 2004, p. 190 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 yes Stenzel 2004, p. 190 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 no Stenzel 2004, p. 190 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. no Stenzel 2004, p. 190 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' yes five means 'one hand; Stenzel 2004, p. 189 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used yes Stenzel 2004, p. 190 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used yes Stenzel 2004, p. 190 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no info Stenzel 2004 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no info Stenzel 2004 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? no pronouns can be cliticized to possessed noun Stenzel 2007:187 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? no Stenzel 2004, p. 195 Amanda Novak
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' no Stenzel 2004, p. 198 Amanda Novak
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' yes when the genetive marker is used it is on the possessed thing Stenzel 2004, p. 198 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities no the classifers used in the examples are the same classifiers used when the noun is not possessed Stenzel 2004, p. 195 Amanda Novak
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no Stenzel 2004, p. 197 Amanda Novak
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no Stenzel 2004, p. 197 Amanda Novak
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form no Stenzel 2004, p. 197 Amanda Novak
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father no Stenzel 2004, p. 197 Amanda Novak
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg no Stenzel 2004, p. 197 Amanda Novak
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) no Stenzel 2004, p. 197 Amanda Novak
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes no Stenzel 2004, p. 105 Amanda Novak
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco yes Stenzel 2004, p. 202 Amanda Novak
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb yes Stenzel 2004, p. 154 Amanda Novak
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb yes Stenzel 2004, p. 104 Amanda Novak
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb yes Stenzel 2004, p. 104 Amanda Novak
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective yes -ti -ti Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' no Stenzel 2004, p, 172 Amanda Novak
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere no no tense Stenzel 2007:255-263 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past no Stenzel 2007:255-263 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future no Stenzel 2007:255-263 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) no Stenzel 2007:255-263 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood yes -ga Stenzel 2004, p. 378 Amanda Novak
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) yes -~ba Stenzel 2004, p. 389 Amanda Novak
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses yes -era Stenzel 2004, p. 389 Amanda Novak
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' yes Stenzel 2004, p. 389 Amanda Novak
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something no Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction yes -~basi verb 'know' in compound can mean possibility, suggestion, or ability to do V. Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking no Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis no evidentials can have epistemic interpretations Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction yes -~basi verb 'know' in compound can mean possibility, suggestion, or ability to do V. Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking no Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected no Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") yes -~ba Stenzel 2004, p. 313 Amanda Novak
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality no habitual meaning expressed via visual evidential, imperfective aspect + activity verb Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' yes -ri Stenzel 2004, p. 390 Amanda Novak
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' yes Stenzel 2004, p. 377 Amanda Novak
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative no info Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. yes ~baha, bu'a, bʉria, yoha Stenzel 2004, p. 282 Amanda Novak
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker yes -i, -ha, -re, -ra Stenzel 2004, p. 345 Amanda Novak
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) yes koa(-ta)- Stenzel 2004, p. 345 Amanda Novak
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. yes ri hi- Stenzel 2004, p. 345 Amanda Novak
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' yes -yuʔka, -yuʔti heresay Stenzel 2004, p. 345 Amanda Novak
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse no Stenzel 2004, p. 345 Amanda Novak
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above yes -a, -ka assertion/presupposition Stenzel 2004, p. 345 Amanda Novak
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic yes Stenzel 2004, p. 345 Amanda Novak
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs yes Stenzel 2004, p. 345 Amanda Novak
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle no Stenzel 2004, p. 345 Amanda Novak
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme no Stenzel 2004, p. 345 Amanda Novak
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion no Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction yes noun suffix -di'ta 'solitary', compound verb root -so'a 'do together' Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order no SOV preferred Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject no Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Word Order VS in transitive clauses no Stenzel 2004, p. 220 Amanda Novak
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object no Stenzel 2004, p. 182 Amanda Novak
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject no Stenzel 2004, p. 182 Amanda Novak
Word Order Preposition-Noun no Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) yes Stenzel 2004, p. 183 Amanda Novak
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') no Stenzel 2004, p. 183 Amanda Novak
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun no no adj class, but property concepts do tend to precede nouns Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun no Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Word Order Dem-Noun yes Stenzel 2004, p. 183 Amanda Novak
Word Order Noun-Dem no Stenzel 2004, p. 184 Amanda Novak
Word Order Num-Noun yes Stenzel 2004, p. 185 Amanda Novak
Word Order Noun-Num no Stenzel 2004, p. 186 Amanda Novak
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies no Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies yes seems to be preferred Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') no Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' no Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause yes Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects yes objects occasionally are not marked. Stenzel's hypothesis is that any nominal constituent in a preverbal position in a transitive clause is the object. Stenzel 2004, p. 217 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked no Stenzel 2004, p. 217 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker no Stenzel 2004, p. 217 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no Stenzel 2004, p. 217 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no Stenzel 2004, p. 217 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative yes Stenzel 2004, p. 217 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative no Stenzel 2004, p. 217 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Stenzel 2004, p. 217 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no Stenzel 2004, p. 217 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no Stenzel 2004, p. 217 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs no Stenzel 2007 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Stenzel 2004, p. 217 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive no Stenzel 2004, p. 217 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) no Stenzel 2004, p. 217 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. no Stenzel 2004, p. 217 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects yes Stenzel 2004, p. 217 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Stenzel 2004, p. 217 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Stenzel 2004, p. 217 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no Stenzel 2004, p. 217 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no Stenzel 2004, p. 217 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes no Stenzel 2007 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers no Stenzel 2007 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers no Stenzel 2007 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no Stenzel 2007 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no objects not marked on the verb Stenzel 2007 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately no Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes no Stenzel 2004, p. 194 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent yes gender is neutralized in the third person Stenzel 2004, p. 213 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently no Stenzel 2004, p. 226 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives yes Stenzel 2004, p. 226 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently no Stenzel 2004, p. 226 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. yes -~kha'ba Stenzel 2004, p. 239 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. no info referential' -ta can have reflexive function? Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb no Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted no info Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no info Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency no Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb yes -bosa dependent verb root that compounds with the benefactive marker Stenzel 2004, p. 239 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb no Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb no Stenzel 2004, p. 207 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb no Stenzel 2004, p. 207 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix no Stenzel 2004, p. 207 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization yes construction with yoa codes causation Stenzel 2007:375 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' no info Stenzel 2004, p. 207 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event no info Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency no info Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element yes ~de Stenzel 2004, p. 158 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element no Stenzel 2004, p. 158 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix yes -era clitic Stenzel 2004, p. 315 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle no Stenzel 2004, p. 315 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb no Stenzel 2004, p. 315 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' no Stenzel 2004, p. 315 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' yes ~badia Stenzel 2004, p. 265 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase no info Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle no Stenzel 2004, p. 381 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology yes -hari (imperf), -ri (perf) Stenzel 2004, p. 381 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no Stenzel 2004, p. 381 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only no Stenzel 2004, p. 381 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) no Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position no info Stenzel 2007 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position no Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) no Stenzel 2004, p. 263 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) yes appear with nominalizer/classifier Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. no info unclear; depends on whether one considers RCs headed by a classifier to be headless Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause no info Stenzel 2007 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix no Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) yes nominalizer appears on RCs, may occur with or without another classifier Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) yes -dua Stenzel 2004, p. 312 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. yes verb sequence constructions, where last one takes inflection but they form separate phonological words (unlike SVCs/compounds) sect. 11.6 (Neb Press) Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined yes -chu -chu Stenzel 2007:320 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence yes sequence can be indicated via compounded root 'finish, though this is not required Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
1000 medium AG medium sedentary Riverine Linguistic exogamy