Evidentiality: separate particle

Category
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality
Notes

Languages

Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla no Jane Hill
Cupeño yes Jane Hill
Luiseño yes Jane Hill
Serrano no Jane Hill
Kitanemuk yes Jane Hill
Kawaiisu no Jane Hill
Timbisha no Jane Hill
Western Mono no Jane Hill
Chemehuevi no Jane Hill
Southern Paiute no Jane Hill
Southern Ute no Jane Hill
Shoshone yes Jane Hill
Comanche no Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone yes Jane Hill
Northern Paiute Jane Hill
Gabrielino yes Jane Hill
Achagua n/a Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 91 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro no The only evidential value uses an affix. Allin, 1976: 105, 124, 204, 212 Aimee Lawrence
Bare n/a Aikhenvald, 1995 Ana Paula Brandao
Warekena no No evidential system Aikhenvald, 1998: 334-386 Aimee Lawrence
Piapoco no Galindo, 2002: 172-178 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna n/a Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 42 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero n/a Mosonyi, 1987: p. 63-69 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu n/a Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 800 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana no Aikhenvald, 2003: 289 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã no No evidentials mentioned in section on particles. Facundes, 2000: 366-374 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali no Payne 1981; Payne 1982; Payne 1983 Amanda Meeks
Maipure no Zamponi 2003:37-47 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' no Duff-Tripp 1997:120-4 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure no info Danielsen 2007 Daniel Valle
Nanti yes The reportive and quotative are clitics that take their own person marking. The inferential evidential is a second-position clitic. Michael, 2008. p. 323-326 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Palikur no info no information on evidentials Launey 2003 Daniel Smith
Yine no info Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun no info no discussion of evidentiality Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora no Seifart - 2005:72-73 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare yes reportative particle Hall 1988:354 Daniel Smith No description of evidentials given in source
Makushi no Carson 1982; Abbott 1991 Melody Ann Ross, Amanda Meeks
Eñepa no Payne 2012:349 Daniel Smith
Pemon no info de Armellada 1999 Daniel Smith
Guna no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso yes derived from verb to say Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika no Frank 1985:60-104 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí no info Daniel Valle
Damana no Daniel Valle
Sikuani no no evidence of evidentials Queixalós 1998, 2000 Daniel Smith
Macaguan no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna no Overall 2007:471, 549 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá no Mortensen 1999:86-7 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani yes Peeke 1973:16-17 Daniel Valle
Ingá yes The evidentiality clitics tend to appear on vebrs but they can also attach to a preverbal constituent Levinson 1978:25 Daniel Valle
Matses no Fleck:327-426 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no Salas 1992, p.155, Zúñiga 2006 p. 155 Daniel Valle
Páez no Jung:75-87 Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no Parker 1965:88-97 Daniel Valle
Tikuna no info Daniel Valle
Urarina no Olawsky:496 Daniel Valle
Waunana no info Daniel Valle
Andoke no info Kelsey Neely
Puinave no Giron 2008: p281-293 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no Levin 2004: 7 Shannon Dardis
Kakua no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no Minor and Minor 1982. p.94 Daniel Smith
Hup no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect yes Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw yes Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano no Miller 1999, p. 64 Amanda Novak
Cubeo no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 32 Amanda Novak
Kotiria no Stenzel 2004, p. 345 Amanda Novak
Makuna no Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.47-52 Chris Clack
Koreguaje yes Cook & Criswell 1993, p.86-87 Chris Clack
Barasano no Jones & Jones 1991, p.83 Chris Clack
Tanimuca no Strom 1992, p.90-91 Chris Clack
Siona no info Wheeler 1987 Daniel Smith
Tukano no West and Welch 2004: 51-52; Ramirez 1997: 120 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami no Ramirez 1994: 316-317 Kelsey Neely
Ninam yes Goodwin-Gomez, p.97 Kelsey Neely
Sanumá yes Borgman 1990: 165, 170 Kelsey Neely
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana no Everett 2006:281-4 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu yes Cruz 2011:349 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní yes Krivoshein and Acosta 2001:101 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama yes Vallejos 2010:172 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu no done 0
Wambaya no done 0
Bunuba no done 0
Walmajarri no Done-Claire 0
Nyulnyul no done? 0
Warrwa no info done x
Worrorra no ms15 done 0
Garrwa no info done X
Gooniyandi no done 0
Warlpiri no info done 0
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no info done x
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi no 129-136 done-Dan 0
Yidiny no done-Catherine 0
Yanyuwa no info Done-Austin x
Yandruwandha no info Done-Dan x
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no 64-5 Done-Dan 0
Woiwurrung no info done-Amalia x
Wirangu No done 0
Wemba-Wemba no info done-Amalia x
Warumungu no done-Amalia 0
Wangkumara no info done X
Uradhi No 363 Y 0
Paakantyi no info Y-Hannah X
Pitta-Pitta N/A Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no info done-Hannah x
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta no info Done-Hannah x
Ngiyambaa yes 275-277 Done-Emily 1
Ngayawang No done-Amalia 0
Muruwari no info Done-Dan x
Mpakwithi
Mayi-Yapi No done 0
Martuthunira no done 0
Marrgany No Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 66 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji n/a Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara No done-Amalia 0
Kaurna No done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu n/a Done-Dan 0
Jaru n/a Done-Amalia 0
Guugu-Yimidhirr N/A Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gupapuyngu
Gumbaynggirr no done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun no info done-Jessica x
Yuwaalaraay No 74 0
Dyirbal No done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu no done 0
Djinang No 167 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari yes 173 done-Hannah 1
Dharuk
Dharawal no info done-Hannah w Dhurga) x
Darkinyung no done 0
Bularnu no info Done-Austin x
Biri no info done-Jessica x
Bidjara-Gungabula no info done-Jessica x
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana no Done-Dan 0
Alyawarr n/a done 0
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru Y-Claire
Ngarinyin
Yulparija No 35 Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung no info done x
Mathi-Mathi no 96 done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no done-Amalia 0
Thanggati n/a done 0
Katthang no done-Amalia 0
Panyjima no 208-209 done 0
Ngarinyeri No done-Amalia 0
Kurrama yes 178 done-Dan 1
Yingkarta no Done-Claire 0
Githabul No 23 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya No 326 Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen No Done- 0
WesternTorres n/a done 0
Wakaya no done 0
Yindjilindji no info done x
Bandjalang No Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara No 30 done 0
Arrernte No 49 0
Kokatha No 28 0
Karajarri No 165 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara No Y 8 0
Ritharrngu No 71 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay No 52-9 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no info Done-Amalia x
Warnman No 45 Done-Amalia 0
Djapu n/a 0
Bilinarra n/a done 0
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 70 Y2 0
Narungga No 74 done 0
Tharrkari No 31 0
Wajarri No 96 0
Warungu n/a 0
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Baniwa no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps