Yan-nhangu

Family
Pama-Nyungan
Region
Australia
ISO 639-3
jay
Location
-12.03°, 134.96°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (186)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar ŋapulu inheritance Claire Bowern
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar lima semantic shift Claire Bowern
1sg yo eu grammar ŋarra inheritance Claire Bowern
2pl ustedes vocês grammar nyili inheritance Claire Bowern
2sg xx xx grammar nhunu inheritance Claire Bowern
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar dhana inheritance Claire Bowern
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar nhaniḻa inheritance Claire Bowern
above encima, arriba acima location [missing] missing Claire Bowern
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar rathabi unknown Claire Bowern
all todo todos other bukmak inheritance Claire Bowern
and y e grammar ga inheritance Claire Bowern
ankle tobillo tornozelo body maṉḏurruk unknown Claire Bowern
armpit axila, sobaco axila body wäny loan Claire Bowern
ashamed xx xx mental goṉa Claire Bowern
ashes xx xx environment 1876 inheritance? Claire Bowern
at en, a em, a location -wa inheritance Claire Bowern
back espalda costas body diltji inheritance Claire Bowern
bad mal mal quality mewal inheritance Claire Bowern
be alive xx xx body wanŋa inheritance Claire Bowern
belly barriga barriga body bugaga loan Burarra Claire Bowern
below abajo, debajo abaixo location ḏilak-wuḏup'thana Claire Bowern
big grande grande quality yindi inheritance Claire Bowern
bite morder morder body dharrkthun inheritance Claire Bowern
black negro preto colour mol'mulŋu inheritance Claire Bowern
blood sangre sangue body maŋgu inheritance Claire Bowern
blow soplar soprar body dhaŋurru-waṉpuma inheritance Claire Bowern
blunt xx xx quality dhumuluŋu inheritance Claire Bowern
bone hueso osso body maḏirriny unknown Claire Bowern
boomerang xx xx manufacture dhandurruŋ Claire Bowern
breast pecho, seno peito body ŋamun inheritance Claire Bowern
breathe respirar respirar body ŋar'yun inheritance Claire Bowern
burn quemar queimar environment räwakthin unknown Claire Bowern
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body [missing] missing Claire Bowern
child niño, niña criança human ratha inheritance Claire Bowern
climb subir subir motion ŋal'thun inheritance Claire Bowern
cloud nube nuvem environment 2969 unknown Claire Bowern
cold frío frio quality 1969 Claire Bowern
come venir vir motion wiṉi unknown Claire Bowern
cook cocinar cozinhar impact bathan inheritance Claire Bowern
count contar contar mental bothurru loan Makassar Claire Bowern
cry llorar chorar mental 925 inheritance Claire Bowern
cut xx xx impact kulkthun unknown Claire Bowern
die/be dead morir morrer state 1801 inheritance Claire Bowern
dig cavar cavar impact dhäyan inheritance Claire Bowern
dingo/wolf fauna wuḻmabu unknown Claire Bowern
dirty sucio sujo quality [missing] missing Claire Bowern
dream soñar sonhar mental bukaway'yun inheritance Claire Bowern
drink beber, tomar beber body ŋurkthun unknown Claire Bowern
dry seco seco quality 2270 unknown Claire Bowern
dust polvo poeira environment ritji unknown Claire Bowern
ear oreja orelha body buthuru loan English Claire Bowern
earth/soil tierra terra environment munatha inheritance Claire Bowern
eat comer comer body 2813 doubtful loan Burarra Claire Bowern
egg huevo ovo fauna gäku inheritance Claire Bowern
eye ojo olho body maŋutji inheritance Claire Bowern
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body bugaḻ'tji unknown Claire Bowern
fall caer cair motion dhululu'yun inheritance Claire Bowern
far lejos longe quality dhawal unknown Claire Bowern
fat/grease grasa gordura body gandarr-yindi unknown Claire Bowern
father padre, papá pai kinship gunharrkuḻi unique Claire Bowern
fear miedo medo mental ḻawaŋdhun unknown Claire Bowern
feather pluma pena fauna guṯkuṯ unknown Claire Bowern
fire fuego fogo environment rulŋgitj inheritance Claire Bowern
fish xx xx fauna guya inheritance Claire Bowern
flow fluir fluir motion [missing] missing Claire Bowern
flower flor flor environment wurrkiyirri inheritance Claire Bowern
fly volar voar motion buṯthun unknown Claire Bowern
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment wakuluŋguḻ unknown Claire Bowern
foot pie body djalkiri unknown Claire Bowern
fruit fruta fruta flora biti Claire Bowern
good bueno bom quality 1672 inheritance? Claire Bowern
grow crecer crescer state yindiyirri unknown Claire Bowern
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body bupatj unknown Claire Bowern
hand mano mão body goku inheritance Claire Bowern
head cabeza cabeça body riya inheritance Claire Bowern
hear oír ouvir mental barrŋarra unknown Claire Bowern
heavy pesado pesado quality dhurrpalŋu unknown Claire Bowern
hide esconder esconder motion dharrpaṉ unknown Claire Bowern
hit golpear, pegar bater impact buma inheritance Claire Bowern
hit (with hand) xx xx impact buma inheritance Claire Bowern
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other ŋayathama inheritance Claire Bowern
how? como como grammar [missing] missing Claire Bowern
if si se grammar [missing] missing Claire Bowern
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location 1902 inheritance Claire Bowern
intestines intestinos intestinos body biyapiya inheritance Claire Bowern
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body gidjigidjiyun unknown Claire Bowern
kill matar matar impact ranu unknown Claire Bowern
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental marŋgi inheritance Claire Bowern
lake lago lago environment [missing] missing Claire Bowern
laugh reír rir mental 2027 inheritance Claire Bowern
leaf hoja folha environment [missing] missing Claire Bowern
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body wuykungu unknown Claire Bowern
leg/foot pierna perna body mukarr unknown Claire Bowern
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion [missing] missing Claire Bowern
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment 2260 inheritance Claire Bowern
liver hígado figado body ŋalthiri inheritance Claire Bowern
long largo comprido, longo quality 2986 unknown Claire Bowern
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna djuku' inheritance Claire Bowern
lung pulmón pulmão body burrugutj inheritance Claire Bowern
man/male hombre homem human ḏarramu unknown Claire Bowern
meat/flesh carne carne fauna däŋgu inheritance Claire Bowern
moon luna lua environment rangu loan Burarra Claire Bowern
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship ŋamarrkuḻi inheritance Claire Bowern
mouth boca boca body maraŋgarra unknown Claire Bowern
name nombre nome human Riya-djuŋgaliwarrway unknown Claire Bowern
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body ḏilak doubtful loan Dhuwal Claire Bowern
near/close cerca de perto quality dhä-mindapuma Claire Bowern
neck cuello pescoço body mani inheritance Claire Bowern
new nuevo novo quality [missing] missing Claire Bowern
night noche noite time munha inheritance Claire Bowern
no/not no não grammar manayala unknown Claire Bowern
nose nariz nariz body ŋurru inheritance Claire Bowern
old viejo velho quality galiŋu unknown Claire Bowern
one uno um number waḻip unknown Claire Bowern
open/uncover abrir abrir other ḻapmiyama inheritance Claire Bowern
other otro outro grammar gana unknown Claire Bowern
person/human being persona pessoa human ḏarramu inheritance Claire Bowern
pimple xx xx body mäpaṉ inheritance Claire Bowern
rain lluvia chuva environment gaṉaŋathala unknown Claire Bowern
red rojo vermelho colour miku inheritance Claire Bowern
right/right hand derecha direita location/body dhalthuŋu unknown Claire Bowern
road/path camino caminho manufacture dhukarr inheritance Claire Bowern
roof xx xx manufacture [missing] missing Claire Bowern
root raíz raiz flora guṉinyi unknown Claire Bowern
rotten podrido podre quality ṉurrukayirri unknown Claire Bowern
sand arena areia environment munatha inheritance Claire Bowern
say decir dizer mental gumurk'thun inheritance Claire Bowern
scratch rascar rasgar impact galŋa-waṉpuma unknown Claire Bowern
see ver ver mental nhäma inheritance Claire Bowern
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality dhalku unknown Claire Bowern
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact [missing] missing Claire Bowern
short corto curto quality guṯi unknown Claire Bowern
shoulder hombro ombro body muṉḏi inheritance Claire Bowern
sick xx xx body murthun inheritance Claire Bowern
sit sentar(se) sentar state nyena inheritance Claire Bowern
skin piel pele body galnga inheritance Claire Bowern
sky cielo céu environment [missing] missing Claire Bowern
sleep dormir dormir body ŋorra inheritance Claire Bowern
small pequeño pequeno quality gulkuruŋu unknown Claire Bowern
smell (tr/intr) xx xx body nhumaṉ inheritance Claire Bowern
smoke humo fumaça environment buny'tjun unknown Claire Bowern
spit escupir cuspir body [missing] missing Claire Bowern
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact [missing] missing Claire Bowern
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact buḏurrutjun Claire Bowern
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact [missing] missing Claire Bowern
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state bamparra inheritance Claire Bowern
star estrella estrela environment baṉumbirr unknown Claire Bowern
steal robar roubar other djaw'yun inheritance Claire Bowern
stone piedra pedra environment dhuŋupal unknown Claire Bowern
suck chupar chupar body [missing] missing Claire Bowern
sun sol sol time warlirr loan Claire Bowern
sweat sudar suor, suar body [missing] missing Claire Bowern
swell hincharse inchar body ḏulmuŋgurr'yun unknown Claire Bowern
swim nadar nadar motion guŋgar'yun unknown Claire Bowern
tail cola, rabo rabo body [missing] missing Claire Bowern
that ese/esa esse grammar balam unknown Claire Bowern
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality dhaŋaŋ Claire Bowern
thin delgado fino quality wir'yun unknown Claire Bowern
think pensar pensar mental gayaŋa unknown Claire Bowern
this este/esta este grammar nhaŋu unknown Claire Bowern
three tres tres number ḻurrkun inheritance Claire Bowern
throat garganta garganta body gurak inheritance Claire Bowern
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact waṉ'puma unknown Claire Bowern
thunder truenos trovão environment [missing] missing Claire Bowern
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact dhar'thun inheritance Claire Bowern
tongue lengua lingua body yan inheritance Claire Bowern
tooth diente dente body gikina inheritance Claire Bowern
true xx xx quality yuwali unknown Claire Bowern
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other mirradathun inheritance Claire Bowern
two dos dois number bulal' unknown Claire Bowern
vomit vomitar vomitar body garkthun inheritance Claire Bowern
walk caminar, andar andar motion watthamanha unknown Claire Bowern
water agua agua environment gapu inheritance Claire Bowern
wet mojado molhado quality gabaḻarrŋu unknown Claire Bowern
what? que, qué que grammar nhä inheritance Claire Bowern
when? cuando quando grammar nhätha inheritance Claire Bowern
where? donde onde grammar nhäŋara inheritance Claire Bowern
white blanco branco colour biriyanaraŋu loan English Claire Bowern
who? quien, quién quem grammar wara inheritance Claire Bowern
wife esposa esposa kinship gali inheritance Claire Bowern
wind viento vento environment wata inheritance Claire Bowern
wing ala asa body [missing] missing Claire Bowern
woman/female mujer mulher human muṉkaŋu unknown Claire Bowern
work trabajar trabalhar other warkthun loan English Claire Bowern
yawn bostezar bocejar body [missing] missing Claire Bowern
yellow amarillo amarelo colour buthalak inheritance Claire Bowern


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (139)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
grasshopper flora-fauna Caelifera ḻit'mirriŋu ḻit'mirriŋu unique mirriŋu kinship term? underived 2 1 0 0 0 no
agile wallaby, river wallaby flora-fauna Macropus agilis missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae guyguy guyguy inheritance I have seen this elsewhere. reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
Australian pelican flora-fauna Pelecanus conspicillatus yirryirrŋu na:ndya doubtful loan Burarra simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
Australian snubfin dolphin flora-fauna Orcaella heinsohnii bulanybirr bulanybirr semantic shift Djinang word for “dugong” or “porpoise”; “buḻanybirr” is Gaalpu word for “porpoise”; “-birr” suffix also found in words for starfish, star, and spiritDjinang word for “dugong” or “porpoise”; “buḻanybirr” is Gaalpu word for “porpoise”; “-birr” suffix al 0 0 0 0 0 no
baler shell flora-fauna Melo amphora ŋaḻawiḻi ŋaḻawiḻi inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
bandicoot flora-fauna Peramelemorphia garambarra unique 0 0 0 0 0
barn owl flora-fauna Tyto alba missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
barramundi flora-fauna Lates calcarifer ratjuk ratyuk loan Gupapuyngu simplex 1 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp warrnyu warrnyu doubtful loan Rembarrnga simplex 0 1 0 0 0 no
bindii, caltrop flora-fauna Tribulus terrestris ḏimirr ḏimirr unknown simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna warrakan’ warrakan’ inheritance =animal simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-breasted buzzard flora-fauna Hamirostra melanosternon missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-faced cuckoo-shrike flora-fauna Coracina novaehollandiae missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-headed python flora-fauna Aspidites melanocephalus missing missing missing 0 2 0 0 0 no
black-soil yam flora-fauna Ipomoea diamantinensis missing riny'tyaŋu inheritance missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
bloodwood flora-fauna Eucalyptus (Corymbia) bleeseri dhopal dhopal unknown simplex 0 1 1 0 0 no
blowfly maggots flora-fauna Diptera, Sarcophagidae nyinyipuwa nyinyipuwa unique simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
blue-tongue lizard flora-fauna Tiliqua species manugaḻarrngu manugaḻarrŋu unknown simplex 0 1 0 0 0 no
blue-winged kookaburra flora-fauna Dacelo leachii missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
bluebone flora-fauna Choerodon cyanodus win'ku win'ku inheritance simplex 0 1 0 0 0 no
brolga flora-fauna Grus rubicunda guḏurrku guḏurrku inheritance simplex 1 0 0 0 0 no
brown goshawk flora-fauna Accipiter fasciatus missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
brush-tailed possum flora-fauna Trichosurus vulpecula waṉ'kurra waṉ'kurra semantic shift? “waṉ'kurra” in Gupapuyngu meaning “possum” simplex 0 1 0 0 0 no
bush cockroach flora-fauna (many species) boḏuk boḏuk loan Dhuwal simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
bush stone-curlew flora-fauna Burhinus grallarius missing missing missing 1 0 0 0 0 no
bush tobacco flora-fauna Lobelia quadrangularis missing missing missing 0 0 0 1 0 no
bush turkey, Australian bustard flora-fauna Ardeotis australis missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
bush yam flora-fauna Vigna lanceolata var. lanceolata missing missing missing 0 1 2 0 1 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
carpet snake flora-fauna Morelia spilota missing 0 1 0 0 0
caterpillar flora-fauna Lepidoptera dhapalany dhapalany inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
catfish flora-fauna (many species) min'kalarrŋu munburri inheritance suffixed 0 1 0 0 0 no
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna Chilopoda, Myriapoda djaṯam dyaṯam inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
channel-billed cuckoo flora-fauna Scythops novaehollandiae missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
crested pigeon flora-fauna Ocyphaps lophotes missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
darter/cormorant flora-fauna Anhinga melanogaster, Phalacrocorax species birrpal birrpal unique simplex 0 1 0 0 0 no
death adder, five-minute snake flora-fauna Acanthophis praelongus baṉbalŋu baṉbalŋu inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 yes
dingo flora-fauna Canis familiaris dingo wuḻmabu wuḻmabu unique wuḻmabu also means possum simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris botji botyi loan English ‘pussy’ simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae muthali mukumul inheritance simplex 0 1 0 0 0 no
dugong flora-fauna Dugon dugong djunuŋgayŋu bikibiki inheritance Also has word “dyunuŋgayŋu” meaning “dugong” reduplicated 1 1 0 0 0 no
earthworm flora-fauna Annelida, Oligochaeta missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
emu flora-fauna Dromaius novaehollandiae wurrpaṉ wurrpaṉ inheritance simplex 2 1 2 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna guya guya inheritance simplex 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
flower flora-fauna (NA) wurrki' wurrki' inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera buṯthun buṯthun unknown simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
flying-fox (generic) flora-fauna (many species) missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
freshwater crocodile flora-fauna Crocodylus johnstoni missing not found missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
freshwater mussel flora-fauna Velesunio wilsoni mämbal ma:mbal doubtful loan Ngandi simplex 0 1 0 0 0 no
freshwater prawn flora-fauna Macrobrachium rosenbergii missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
frill-necked lizard flora-fauna Chlamydosaurus kingii mäywa ma:ywa unknown simplex 0 1 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna (many species) garkma garkma inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
galah flora-fauna Eolophus roseicapilla ŋi:rrk-lu:rrpu unique 0 0 0 0 0
turtle (generic) flora-fauna (many species) ḏopun garriwa unique also ‘miyapunu’ simplex 0 1 0 0 0 no
ghost gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus papuana (Corymbia bella) missing missing missing 2 0 1 0 0 no
goanna (generic) or sand goanna flora-fauna Varanus spp birininy birininy unique 0 1 2 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) mulmu dharrthal unknown simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Orthoptera ḻit'mirriŋu unique mirriŋu kinship term? simplex 0 0 0 0 0
great bowerbird flora-fauna Chlamydera nuchalis missing missing missing 1 0 0 0 0 no
green ant flora-fauna Oecophylla smaragdina galkal galkal loan direction unknown simplex 0 2 2 0 0 no
green sea turtle flora-fauna Chelonia mydas garriwa garriwa loan WW %karriwa underived 1 1 0 0 0 no
green tree snake flora-fauna Dendrelaphis punctulata garanaŋga garanaŋga inheritance simplex 0 2 0 0 0 no
head/body lice flora-fauna Pediculus capitis, Pediculus humanus tyuku tyuku inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus yarraman' yarraman' loan WW %yarraman simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
humpback whale flora-fauna Megaptera novaeangliae missing missing missing 1 1 0 0 0 no
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
jabiru flora-fauna Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus ganydyi inheritance 0 0 0 0 0
jungle-fowl (scrub-fowl) flora-fauna Megapodius freycinet missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
kangaroo (generic) flora-fauna Macropodidae gandalpurru wethi inheritance simplex 2 1 0 0 0 no
land snail flora-fauna Gastropoda missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
magpie goose flora-fauna Anseranas semipalmata gurrumaṯtji gurrumaṯtyi inheritance simplex 0 1 0 0 0 no
military dragon flora-fauna Ctenophorus isolepis, Diporiphora spp., Lophognathus spp. missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera ḏanbul ḏanbul semantic shift? I have seen this elsewhere.. simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
mud wasp, hornet flora-fauna (many species) missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
native bee flora-fauna (many species) missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
native cat flora-fauna Dasyurus missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
northern brown bandicoot flora-fauna Isoodon macrourus missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
northern kurrajong flora-fauna Brachychiton diversifolius missing missing missing 0 1 no? 0 0 no
nut tree flora-fauna Terminalia grandifolia missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
octopus flora-fauna Octopus australis mända ma:nda inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
pandanus palm flora-fauna Pandanus spiralis raniya raniya unique simplex 1 1 0 0 1 no
paperbark flora-fauna Melaleuca sericea, Melaleuca stenostachya raŋan barrwaṉ doubtful loan cf “raŋanŋaniŋ”, fish species in Yan-nhangu, Gupapuyngu simplex 0 0 1 0 0 no
peaceful dove flora-fauna Geopelia placida gurrubuk gurrubuk loan direction unknown WW %kurutuk simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
pearlshell flora-fauna Pinctada spp missing missing missing 1 1 0 0 1 no
peewee flora-fauna Gryllina cyanoleuca missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
pied butcherbird flora-fauna Cracticus nigrogularis missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
pike eel flora-fauna Muraenesox arabicus missing dhurray unique missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna Mantodea missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
prickle bush flora-fauna Sclerolaena bicornis missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
quail (generic) flora-fauna Coturnix species, Turnix species missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
red river gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus camaldulensis missing missing missing 2 0 1 0 1 no
red-tailed black-cockatoo flora-fauna Calyptorhynchus banksi ŋathili ŋathili inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
riflefish, archerfish flora-fauna Toxotes chatareus missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
river mangrove flora-fauna Aegicera corniculatum missing missing missing 0 0 2 0 1 no
rock fig flora-fauna Ficus brachypoda missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
sacred kingfisher flora-fauna Todiramphus sancta missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
saltwater crocodile flora-fauna Crocodylus porosus ba:ru ba:ru doubtful loan simplex 2 2 0 0 0 yes
saltwater mussel flora-fauna Mytilidae missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
sawfish flora-fauna Pristis pectinata missing missing missing 1 0 0 0 0 yes
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna Arachnida, Scorpiones missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
shark (generic) flora-fauna Selachimorpha maranydjalk maranydjalk inheritance also stingray simplex 0 0 0 0 0 variable
shell (generic) flora-fauna dungurrŋani ngaraka inheritance simplex 0 1 0 0 1 no
short-beaked echidna flora-fauna Tachyglossus aculeatus missing missing missing 0 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna mol’ mol’ unique simplex 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
snappy gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus brevifolia missing missing missing 0 0 1 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
spinifex flora-fauna Triodia species belka belka unique simplex 0 0 2 0 0 no
spoonbills (yellow-billed spoonbill, black-billed spoonbill) flora-fauna Platalea flavipes, Platalea regia missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Dasyatidae bambi ba:rrka semantic shift cf Gupapuyngu “ba:rrkarr” meaning penetrating simplex 0 1 0 0 0 variable
stripe-faced dunnart flora-fauna Sminthopsis macroura missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
sugarbag wax flora-fauna galanyin' galanyin' loan direction unknown WW %kalanyan underived 1 1 0 0 0 no
sulphur-crested cockatoo flora-fauna Cacatua galerita ŋaldjipa ŋaldyipa unique simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
swamp eel flora-fauna Ophisternon gutturale missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
swamp leech flora-fauna Annelida, Hirudinea mäthal ma:thal inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
tawny frogmouth flora-fauna Podargus strigoides missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
termite mounds, ant hills flora-fauna Isoptera dhilirr dhilirr unique simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna (many species) missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
ti-tree flora-fauna Melaleuca bracteata missing missing missing 0 0 1 0 0 no
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna Arachnida, Acarina missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
tiger shark flora-fauna Galeocerdo cuvier missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 yes
torresian crow flora-fauna Corvus orru garinymarrŋu garinymarrŋu unique 0 0 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) bambitj bambitj unique simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
waterlily flora-fauna Nymphaea macrosperma wakwak wakwak unique reduplicated 0 1 2 0 0 no
wattle flora-fauna Acacia difficilis missing missing missing 0 0 1 0 1 no
wedge-tailed eagle flora-fauna Aquila audax garrkiny garrkiny loan with meaning change Burarra cognate with garrkiny Burrara “goshawk” simplex 1 0 0 0 0 no
willie wagtail flora-fauna Rhipidura leucophrys missing missing missing 1 0 0 0 0 no
witchetty grub flora-fauna (many species) missing missing missing 0 1 2 0 0 no
woma flora-fauna Aspidites ramsayii missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna ḏambaŋani unknown Claire Bowern
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna guyguy inheritance Claire Bowern
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna warrakan inheritance Claire Bowern
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna rraypirraypi unknown Claire Bowern
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna 1757 loan Djinang Claire Bowern
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna mulmu inheritance Claire Bowern
kangaroo (generic) flora-fauna gandalpurru inheritance? Claire Bowern
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna moḻ' unknown Claire Bowern
spider araña aranha flora-fauna [missing] missing Claire Bowern


Cultural Vocabulary (111)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology Badu unique Claire Bowern
armband dress nganybak loan Burarra Claire Bowern
awl subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool ḏakul' inheritance Claire Bowern
bag (string) culture-material dyerrk loan Burarra Claire Bowern
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material bathi inheritance Claire Bowern
body feather decorations culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
boomerang (number 7) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
boomerang (small) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
bowl (coolamon) culture-material missing Claire Bowern
broom escoba vassoura culture-material missing Claire Bowern
canoe canoa canoa transport dyirparri unique Claire Bowern
cicatrice culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
clapsticks culture-mythology biḻma inheritance Claire Bowern
club (nulla-nulla) subsistence tool wakaṯa unique Claire Bowern
cook food food rebamthun inheritance Claire Bowern
cook in earth oven food missing Claire Bowern
damper food da:mpa loan English Claire Bowern
dance (generic) culture-mythology buŋgul inheritance Claire Bowern
digging stick subsistence tool dhoṉa inheritance Claire Bowern
dipper (small coolamon) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology bukaway inheritance Claire Bowern
dreaming culture-mythology guḻukuḻuŋu unique Claire Bowern
drone pipe culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
fire drill subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
fire-saw other ḏutyi inheritance Claire Bowern
fireplace hogar lareira other missing Claire Bowern
firewood leña lenha other missing Claire Bowern
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing Claire Bowern
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food missing Claire Bowern
fish (with spear) food missing Claire Bowern
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
fishtrap (permanent) subsistence tool betyŋu semantic shift Bag Claire Bowern
fishtrap (woven) subsistence tool ḏa:ku doubtful inheritance Claire Bowern
flour (European) food missing Claire Bowern
flour (bush) food missing Claire Bowern
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food warrakan' inheritance Claire Bowern
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology birrimbirr inheritance Claire Bowern
glue subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology baṉmarra-ŋayipul unique Claire Bowern
grog food ŋa:nityi loan Makassar Claire Bowern
hair belt dress missing Claire Bowern
headband dress matyka inheritance Claire Bowern
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology dokta loan English Claire Bowern
honey miel mel food ŋambaḻa unknown Claire Bowern
house (European) other bala loan Makassar WW %bala Claire Bowern
hunt cazar caçar food ŋaŋ'ŋaŋdhun unknown Claire Bowern
initiation (circumcision) culture-mythology dhapiyun inheritance Claire Bowern
initiation (subincision) culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
knife cuchillo faca culture-material ŋambi inheritance also in Ritharngu as stone spear Claire Bowern
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress dhirrithirri inheritance Claire Bowern
love song culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
mangrove raft transport missing Claire Bowern
message stick culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
nosepeg other missing Claire Bowern
paddle/oar remo remo transport galiyan unique Claire Bowern
ochre culture-mythology ratypa inheritance Claire Bowern
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other missing Claire Bowern
public song cycle culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
red paint culture-mythology miku inheritance Claire Bowern
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
salt sal sal food rrathaŋu semantic shift salt water Claire Bowern
shelter (native) other missing Claire Bowern
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology manikay inheritance Claire Bowern
song (for entertainment) culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
spear lanza lança subsistence tool dhindi CHECK Claire Bowern
spear (fighting) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
spear (fishing) subsistence tool dyutabata unknown looks like a loan to me Claire Bowern
spearthrower subsistence tool maŋal loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
speartip subsistence tool ŋarŋga semantic shift ‘hole’ Claire Bowern
string (from hair) culture-material missing Claire Bowern
string (from vine) culture-material missing Claire Bowern
sugar acculturation dyimirrkali semantic shift sugar-cane grass Claire Bowern
tea food de' loan English WW tea Claire Bowern
tobacco (European) narcotics dyambaku loan English WW tobacco Claire Bowern
tobacco (native) narcotics missing Claire Bowern
spirit child culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
wax cera cera other galanyin' unique Claire Bowern
white paint culture-mythology gamunuŋgu loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
windbreak other missing Claire Bowern
yandy (n) culture-material missing Claire Bowern
school escuela escola acculturation missing Claire Bowern
net subsistence tool djirrk doubtful loan Claire Bowern
bottle botella garrafa acculturation buthulu loan English WW bottle Claire Bowern
paper papel papel acculturation dyorra' loan Makassar WW %djorra Claire Bowern
corpse food missing Claire Bowern
chicken gallina galinha acculturation missing Claire Bowern
tree coffin culture-mythology yulumurru unique Claire Bowern
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology girri' semantic shift ‘things’ Claire Bowern
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material bikal semantic shift pandanus mat Claire Bowern
shoes zapatos sapatos dress dha:bathuŋ loan Makassar WW %dhapathung Claire Bowern
medicine narcotics missing Claire Bowern
earth oven food missing Claire Bowern
policeman polícia policía acculturation missing Claire Bowern
cat gato gato acculturation butyigat loan English WW cat Claire Bowern
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation marryaŋ loan Makassar Claire Bowern
hat sombero chapéu dress dyoŋgu unknown Claire Bowern
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture balku inheritance Claire Bowern
bottom grinding stone manufacture [missing] missing Claire Bowern
digging stick subsistence tool 1542 missing Claire Bowern
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture [missing] missing Claire Bowern
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture [missing] missing Claire Bowern
spearthrower subsistence tool ḏakarr' unknown Claire Bowern
spear lanza lança subsistence tool dhindi unknown Claire Bowern
house other bala loan Makassar Claire Bowern


Grammatical Data (295)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. no not yet 0
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] not yet
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast not yet
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? not yet
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels not yet
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme not yet
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] not yet
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? not yet
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones no not yet 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? not yet
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments not yet
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? not yet
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony not yet
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] not yet
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone not yet
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word not yet
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes not yet
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes not yet
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different not yet
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated not yet
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated not yet
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced not yet
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection not yet
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word not yet
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' not yet
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs not yet
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment not yet
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns not yet
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP not yet
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders not yet
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. not yet
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter not yet
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates not yet
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human not yet
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only not yet
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates not yet
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates not yet
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" not yet
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals not yet
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' not yet
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups not yet
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun not yet
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun not yet
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun not yet
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic not yet
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only not yet
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns not yet
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' not yet
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only not yet
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness not yet
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker not yet
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you not yet
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) not yet
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system not yet
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) not yet
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns not yet
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns not yet
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns not yet
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns not yet
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix not yet
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients not yet
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun not yet
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are not yet
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) not yet
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates not yet
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic not yet
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic not yet
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic not yet
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change not yet
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone no not yet 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' not yet
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 not yet
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 not yet
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 not yet
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. not yet
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' not yet
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used not yet
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used not yet
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival not yet
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival not yet
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? not yet
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? not yet
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' not yet
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' not yet
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities not yet
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) not yet
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) not yet
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form not yet
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father not yet
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg not yet
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) not yet
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes not yet
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco not yet
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb not yet
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb not yet
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb not yet
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective not yet
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' not yet
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere not yet
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past not yet
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future not yet
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) not yet
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix not yet
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix not yet
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut not yet
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion not yet
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood not yet
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) not yet
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses not yet
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' not yet
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something not yet
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction not yet
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking not yet
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis not yet
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction not yet
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking not yet
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected not yet
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") not yet
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality not yet
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' not yet
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' not yet
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative not yet
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. not yet
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker not yet
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) not yet
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. not yet
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' not yet
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse not yet
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above not yet
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic not yet
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs not yet
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle not yet
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme not yet
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion not yet
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction not yet
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order not yet
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject not yet
Word Order VS in transitive clauses not yet
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object not yet
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject not yet
Word Order Preposition-Noun not yet
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix not yet
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) not yet
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') not yet
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun not yet
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun not yet
Word Order Dem-Noun not yet
Word Order Noun-Dem not yet
Word Order Num-Noun not yet
Word Order Noun-Num not yet
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies not yet
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies not yet
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') not yet
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' not yet
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause not yet
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects not yet
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked not yet
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker not yet
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers not yet
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) not yet
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative not yet
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative not yet
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other not yet
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite not yet
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive not yet
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs not yet
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other not yet
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive not yet
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) not yet
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. not yet
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects not yet
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) not yet
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) not yet
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. not yet
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects not yet
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes not yet
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers not yet
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers not yet
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system not yet
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system not yet
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately not yet
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes not yet
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent not yet
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently not yet
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives not yet
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently not yet
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. not yet
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. not yet
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb not yet
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted not yet
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages not yet
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency not yet
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb not yet
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb not yet
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb not yet
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb not yet
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix not yet
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization not yet
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' not yet
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event not yet
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency not yet
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element not yet
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element not yet
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix not yet
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle not yet
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb not yet
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' not yet
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' not yet
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase not yet
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle not yet
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology not yet
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) not yet
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only not yet
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) not yet
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position not yet
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position not yet
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) not yet
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) not yet
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. not yet
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause not yet
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix not yet
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) not yet
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) not yet
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. not yet
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined not yet
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence not yet
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have an iterative function? not yet
Morphology - General Does noun root reduplication have a plural/pluractional function? not yet
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘real’ X? not yet
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have a distributive function? not yet
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have a pluractional function? not yet
Morphology - General Does noun root reduplication have an iterative function? not yet
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘fake’ X? not yet
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘very’ X? not yet
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does the language have ergative and instrumental syncretism? not yet
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does the language have a distinct genitive case? not yet
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is the locative related to the ergative with vowel change? not yet
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is case marked on just one word in an NP? not yet
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is case marked on all (non-pronominal) words in an NP? not yet
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Are any subordinate verbs (or whole clauses) marked with case to indicate their function? not yet
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does ergative mark discourse functions of focus/unexpectedness? not yet
Nominal Categories - Derivation Is there a evidence for derivational morphology being distinct from inflectional on nouns? yes to any of HG 95-97 entails yes to this; yep; this is more general but not just about derivation (would also include proprietive, for example, not necessarily derivation that changes word class) not yet
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have a minimal/augment system? not yet
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have a unit augment system? not yet
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language mark dual on nouns? not yet
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language mark plural on nouns? not yet
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have group/collective nominal suffixes? not yet
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have suppletive plural verbs? not yet
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have suppletive plural adjectives? not yet
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language have bound pronouns? yes to any of HG 173-175 entails yes to this; not necessarily? - CB not yet
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are the bound pronouns distinct from the free pronouns? not yet
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language mark moiety distinctions in pronouns? not yet
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language mark generational distinctions in pronouns? not yet
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are 'who' and 'what' distinct words? not yet
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there an inclusive/exclusive distinction in the dual? not yet
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there an inclusive/exclusive distinction in the plural? not yet
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there a gender distinction in third person dual pronouns? not yet
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there clitic pronouns? not yet
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there object clitic pronouns? not yet
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there distinct possessive and IO pronouns? not yet
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories When there are both object and subject clitic pronouns, does the object pronoun follow the subject one? not yet
Simple Clauses - Discourse Is there a focus position? include the position in the ‘form’ notes not yet
Simple Clauses - Discourse Is there a topic position? include the position in the ‘form’ notes not yet
Simple Clauses - Negation Is verbal negation a separate word? related to, and maybe equivalent to, HG 206-207 (not equivalent if verbal negation is being treated separately from clausal negation) not yet
Simple Clauses - Negation Does the negative marker precede the verb? related to, and maybe equivalent to, HG 203 (not equivalent if verbal negation is being treated separately from clausal negation) not yet
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Are there second position clausal clitics? not yet
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Is tense marked on pronouns? no not yet 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Are there predicative clitics (e.g. Darkinyung grammar p35) not yet
Simple Clauses - Tense Does the language have tense/mood/etc particles (free words)? not yet
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is reflexive/reciprocal marked on the verb? =yes to any of HG 188-190; not necessarily; e.g. YN has a reflexive marker but it doesn’t go on the verb. not yet
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Does reflexive/reciprocal change the conjugation class? not yet
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is there a reflexive/reciprocal particle? not yet
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is the passive typically used only with adversative semantics? not yet
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there an inchoative suffix? not yet
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a distinct present tense verbal suffix? not yet
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a continuous aspect suffix? not yet
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a punctual aspect suffix? not yet
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Can tense and aspect cooccur? not yet
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is tense marked on nouns? not yet
Verbal Categories - Mood Do positive commands take the same morphology as negative commands? not yet
Verbal Categories - Mood Is a negative command formed from a nominalised verb (eg. "no talking!")? not yet
Verbal Categories - Other Is the verb ‘say’ the same as the verb ‘do’? not yet
Verbal Categories - Other Does the language have body part compound verbs? not yet
Verbal Categories - Other Are there verbal agreement clitics? not yet
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a verb 'be'? not yet
Verbal Categories - Other Are there verb conjugation classes? not yet
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a conjugation for uninflecting verbs? not yet
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a grammatical category of associated motion? not yet
Verbal Categories - Other Does the language have kinship verbs? That is, are the words which designate kinship relations such as ‘mother’ and ‘father’ verbs in the language? not yet
Verbal Categories - VerbalNumber Does the language have suppletive plural nouns? not yet
Word Order Are there discontinuous NP constituents? not yet
Word Order Is word order fixed in noun phrases? not yet
Word Order Is word order fixed in verb phrases? not yet
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: second position clitics Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. not yet
Phonology - Segmental Prestopped segments list which segments in the ‘form’ column no not yet 0


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
small HG dense mobile yes