3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects

Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking
3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla yes Jane Hill
Cupeño no Jane Hill
Luiseño yes Jane Hill
Serrano yes Jane Hill
Kitanemuk no Jane Hill
Kawaiisu no Jane Hill
Timbisha yes Jane Hill
Western Mono yes Jane Hill
Chemehuevi yes Jane Hill
Southern Paiute yes Jane Hill
Southern Ute yes Jane Hill
Shoshone yes Jane Hill
Comanche yes Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone yes Jane Hill
Northern Paiute yes Jane Hill
Gabrielino yes Jane Hill
Achagua no Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 28 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro no No person marking, only pronominal clitics. Allin, 1976: 105, 124, 204, 212 Aimee Lawrence
Bare no Aikhenvald, 1995: 27 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco no Galindo, 2002: 158-159 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna no Shauer & Shauer 2000: 297, Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 42 Aimee Lawrence, Ana Paula Brandao
Yavitero yes Masculine third-person, but not feminine. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 41, 60 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu no Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 798 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana no Aikhenvald, 2003: 122 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã no 3rd person masculine is phonemcally /i-/, but sometimes surfaces phonetically as ø. Facundes, 2000: 141-145 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali yes Zero when the subject is not specified; not an obligatory rule. Payne 1983:2025 Amanda Meeks
Maipure yes only the non-referential 3rd person Zamponi 2003:21-26 Daniel Smith
Yanesha' yes Third person singular is zero case-marked; third person plural is marked by a verbal suffix Duff-Tripp 1997:72 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure no Danielsen 2007:95 Daniel Valle
Nanti no Michael, 2008. p. 267 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi yes This is true for 3s but it seems that 3pl has a marking. However, this marking of 3pl seems to be just a plural marker. Brandão 2010:18 Daniel Valle
Palikur no Launey 2003 Daniel Smith
Yine no Wise 1986:586 Daniel Smith
Añun no 3rd person subject sg. Masc., sg. Non-masc, pl. respectively Patte 1989:46 Daniel Smith
Bora yes Seifart - 2005:52 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no Escoriaza 1959:15 Amanda Meeks
Makushi no Abbott 1991: 101 Melody Ann Ross See chart
Eñepa no Payne 2012 :234-239 Daniel Smith
Pemon no First person singular in intransitive sentences can be zero-marked de Armellada 1999:16-7 Daniel Valle
Guna no Smith texts Daniel Smith no person marking
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika yes Except for third person plural which are optionally marked on the verb Frank 1989:20 Daniel Valle
Kogi yes Stendal 1976:5 Daniel Valle
Cabecar yes But notice that subject or objects are not cross marked on the verb Margery 1985:103 Daniel Valle
Guaymí yes But this is because there are no person markers on the verb whatsoever Quesada 2008:99 Daniel Valle
Damana no Daniel Valle
Sikuani yes Queixalós 2000: 575-576 Daniel Smith
Macaguan yes Must be marked in object is ø. Buenaventura - 1993:43-46 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna no Overall 2007:328-31, 361-5 Daniel Valle However, 3rd person can be zero-marked in some instacnes depending on TAM while 1st and 2nd are always marked
Northern Emberá yes But notice that any person in subject or object position is marked on the verb Mortensen 1999:16, 59 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá yes Levinson 1974:9 Daniel Valle
Matses yes But only in the non-past tense. In the past tense, there is a 3 person subject agreement marker in the verb Fleck:445 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no Core participant verbal suffixes are fusional. So, they may convey other maenings as well. Zúñiga 2006, p. 104-7 Daniel Valle
Páez no Jung:74-7 Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano yes Parker 1965:23 Daniel Valle
Tikuna no 3rd person subjects are cross-referenced in the verb Montes 2004b:122-123 Daniel Valle
Urarina no Olawsky:489 Daniel Valle
Waunana no Verbal person markers distinguish between first person and non-first person Mejía 2000:90 Daniel Valle
Andoke no Landaburu 1979: 212-215 Kelsey Neely
Puinave no Giron 2008: p206 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no Huayhua Pari 2001: 126 Shannon Dardis
Kakua no subjects must be marked on verb construction, even if 3rd person Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no no person inflection Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no Minor and Minor 1982. p.78-80 Christopher Clack there may be some exceptions for negatives, check p.73
Nadëb/Roçado dialect yes Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano no Miller 1999, p. 125 Amanda Novak
Cubeo no they can be marked or not marked, usually marked Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 40 Amanda Novak
Kotiria no Stenzel 2007 Daniel Smith
Makuna no Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.45-47 Chris Clack no info/not expected
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.91 Chris Clack
Barasano no Jones & Jones 1991, p.108 Chris Clack
Tanimuca no Strom 1992, p.116 Chris Clack
Siona yes Subjects are not marked verbally overall. Wheeler - 1987:124-133 Amanda Meeks
Tukano no marked as part of tense/evidential/person marking system West and Welch 2004: 10-11; Ramirez 1997: 120 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami no ergative 3rd person will be marked, an inversion morpheme is required between a 1st or 2nd person absolutive (which must always be marked 1st on the verb) and a 3rd person ergative Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely
Ninam yes these can be marked, but don't need to be Goodwin-Gomez: 47 Kelsey Neely
Sanumá yes can be included or omitted, but are often omitted Borgman 1990: 39 Kelsey Neely
Surui no Van der Meer (?):9 Daniel Smith
Karitiana yes Based on examples Everett 2006:343-57 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no Ayala 1996:28-9, 46-7 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu no done 0
Wambaya no done 0
Bunuba yes done 1
Walmajarri yes Done-Claire 1
Nyulnyul no done? 0
Warrwa no done 0
Worrorra no 28-30 done 0
Garrwa n/a done 0
Gooniyandi yes done 1
Warlpiri yes done 1
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no 83 done 0
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi n/a done-Dan 0
Yidiny N/A done-Catherine 0
Yanyuwa no 106 Done-Austin 0
Yandruwandha n/a Done-Dan 0
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga n/a 36-50 Done-Dan 0
Woiwurrung no 74 done-Amalia 0
Wirangu N/A done 0
Wemba-Wemba yes H 41 done-Amalia 1
Warumungu No 28-29 done-Amalia 0
Wangkumara no info done X
Uradhi N/A 352 Y 0
Paakantyi no 128, 149 Y-Hannah 0
Pitta-Pitta N/A Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi yes 15; 114-115 done-Hannah 1
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta yes 122 Done-Hannah 1
Ngiyambaa no Done-Emily 0
Ngayawang N/A done-Amalia 0
Muruwari no Done-Dan 0
Mayi-Yapi N/A 55-60 done 0
Martuthunira yes 136-152 done 1
Marrgany N/A Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 215 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji n/a Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara yes 399 done-Amalia 1
Kaurna N/A 16 done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu yes 32 Done-Dan 1
Jaru yes Done-Amalia 1
Guugu-Yimidhirr N/A Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr n/a done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun n/a done-Jessica 0
Yuwaalaraay No 51 0
Dyirbal N/A done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu n/a done 0
Djinang Yes 139 Done-Amalia 1
Djabugay done
Diyari no done-Hannah 0
Dharawal yes 51 done-Hannah w Dhurga) 1
Darkinyung maybe 36 done 1
Bularnu n/a Done-Austin 0
Biri n/a done-Jessica 0
Bidjara-Gungabula n/a done-Jessica 0
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana n/a Done-Dan 0
Alyawarr yes done 1
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija Yes 30 Done-Amalia 1
Wathawurrung no 78 done 0
Mathi-Mathi no done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no 45 done-Amalia 0
Thanggati n/a done 0
Katthang n/a done-Amalia 0
Panyjima n/a 169 done 0
Ngarinyeri No 43 done-Amalia 0
Kurrama n/a done-Dan 0
Yingkarta no Done-Claire 0
Githabul N/A 15 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya No 304 Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen N/A 92 Done- 0
WesternTorres yes K85c 82 done 1
Wakaya no done 0
Yindjilindji n/a done 0
Bandjalang N/A Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara yes 52 done 1
Arrernte N/A 186 0
Kokatha N/A 3 0
Karajarri Yes 227 Done-Amalia 1
Pitjantjatjara Yes Y 22 1
Ritharrngu No 45 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay N/A 45 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no Done-Amalia 0
Warnman Yes 33 Done-Amalia 1
Djapu n/a 0
Bilinarra n/a done 0
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 67 Y2 0
Narungga No 74 done 0
Tharrkari N/A 16 0
Wajarri Yes 77 1
Warungu yes 253-61 1
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no Payne and Payne 1990:361 Daniel Smith
Baniwa no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps