Páez

Family
Isolate (SAM)
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
pbb
Location
2.62°, -76.31°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Data Sources
Del Castillo i Orozco. 1877. Vocabulario páez-castellano: Catecismo, nociones gramaticales i dos pláticas. Paris, Maisonneuve. Gerdel, Florence L. Paéz. 2007. Intercontinental Dictionary Series, ed. Mary Ritchie Key. http://lingweb.eva.mpg.de/ids/ Jung, Ingrid. 2000. El Páez: Breve Descripción. In Lenguas indígenas de Colombia: una visión descriptiva, edited by González de Pérez, María Stella and Rodríguez de Montes, María Luisa, pp.139-154. Instituto Caro y Cuervo. Jung, Ingrid. 2008 (1st. Ed. 1989). Gramática del paéz o nasa yuwe. Muenchen: Lincom Europa. Rojas Curieux, Tulio. 1998. La lengua Páez. Ministerio de Cultura, Colombia. Slocum, Marianna and Florence Gerdel. 1983. Diccionario páez-español. Editorial Townsend, Lomalinda.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location cácuete kakuete See Language page Daniel Valle
and y e grammar sa´, atsa´ saʔ, atsaʔ See Language page Daniel Valle
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment acoz akoz See Language page Daniel Valle
at en, a em, a location te te See Language page Daniel Valle
back espalda costas body tsinz tsinz See Language page Daniel Valle
bad mal mal quality ewmée See Language page Daniel Valle
belly barriga barriga body tuty See Language page Daniel Valle
below abajo, debajo abaixo location söo söo See Language page Daniel Valle
big grande grande quality gula gula See Language page Daniel Valle
black negro preto colour conchi kontʃi See Language page Daniel Valle
blood sangre sangue body é e See Language page Daniel Valle
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body chinda ca´ca tʃinda kaʔka See Language page Daniel Valle
bone hueso osso body dyi´tj See Language page Daniel Valle
breast pecho, seno peito body mequis mekis See Language page Daniel Valle
child niño, niña criança human aloch alotʃ See Language page Daniel Valle
cloud nube nuvem environment tãapj tãapx See Language page Daniel Valle
cold frío frio quality finze finze See Language page Daniel Valle
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality paz paz See Language page Daniel Valle
day día dia time pete pete See Language page Daniel Valle
dirty sucio sujo quality cjŭch kxjŭtʃ See Language page Daniel Valle
dingo/wolf fauna alum alum See Language page Daniel Valle
dry seco seco quality ujndy See Language page Daniel Valle
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality much (Spanish loan) mutʃ See Language page Daniel Valle
dust polvo poeira environment cytã´tujnd kytãʔtuknd See Language page Daniel Valle
ear oreja orelha body tógnue towẽ See Language page Daniel Valle
earth/soil tierra terra environment quiwe See Language page Daniel Valle
egg huevo ovo fauna zits See Language page Daniel Valle
eye ojo olho body yafi yafi See Language page Daniel Valle
far lejos longe quality ka ka quinan (ka=up there) ka ka kinan See Language page Daniel Valle
fat/grease grasa gordura body [mdee'ɣa] (Sp. mantega) See Language page Daniel Valle
father padre, papá pai kinship eye eye See Language page Daniel Valle
feather pluma pena fauna yacue yakue See Language page Daniel Valle
fire fuego fogo environment ipy See Language page Daniel Valle
flower flor flor environment quite kite See Language page Daniel Valle
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment tãapj tãapx See Language page Daniel Valle
fruit fruta fruta flora non non See Language page Daniel Valle
good bueno bom quality eu eu See Language page Daniel Valle
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body dicas dikas See Language page Daniel Valle
hand mano mão body cose kose See Language page Daniel Valle
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar quiná kina See Language page Daniel Valle
head cabeza cabeça body dicté dikte See Language page Daniel Valle
heavy pesado pesado quality duj dux See Language page Daniel Valle
how? como como grammar máuño mauɲo See Language page Daniel Valle
1sg yo eu grammar andy, ũ´cue See Language page Daniel Valle
if si se grammar See Language page Daniel Valle
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location ocasthe, dii okastje, dii See Language page Daniel Valle
intestines intestinos intestinos body imetó imeto See Language page Daniel Valle
lake lago lago environment hic hik See Language page Daniel Valle
leaf hoja folha environment ez ez See Language page Daniel Valle
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body jemb- xemb- See Language page Daniel Valle
leg/foot pierna perna body čida ('leg, foot') čida ('leg, foot') See Language page Daniel Valle
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment cuene kuene See Language page Daniel Valle
liver hígado figado body meequi meeki See Language page Daniel Valle
long largo comprido, longo quality tel tel See Language page Daniel Valle
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna ens ens See Language page Daniel Valle
man/male hombre homem human piz piz See Language page Daniel Valle
meat/flesh carne carne fauna chich tʃitʃ See Language page Daniel Valle
moon luna lua environment ate ate See Language page Daniel Valle
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship epe epe See Language page Daniel Valle
mouth boca boca body yugue yuge See Language page Daniel Valle
name nombre nome human yace yake See Language page Daniel Valle
near/close cerca de perto quality cafind kafind See Language page Daniel Valle
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body tinc tink See Language page Daniel Valle
neck cuello pescoço body tyjicj tyxikx See Language page Daniel Valle
new nuevo novo quality ose ose See Language page Daniel Valle
night noche noite time cus See Language page Daniel Valle
no/not no não grammar me, meth me, metj See Language page Daniel Valle
nose nariz nariz body inz inz See Language page Daniel Valle
old viejo velho quality inxs inʃ See Language page Daniel Valle
one uno um number yas yas See Language page Daniel Valle
other otro outro grammar vite vite See Language page Daniel Valle
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body ãtsã´ ãtsãʔ See Language page Daniel Valle
person/human being persona pessoa human nasa See Language page Daniel Valle
rain lluvia chuva environment nos nos See Language page Daniel Valle
red rojo vermelho colour be be See Language page Daniel Valle
right/right hand derecha direita location/body quiña, suith kiɲa, suitj See Language page Daniel Valle
road/path camino caminho manufacture di di See Language page Daniel Valle
root raíz raiz flora taxs taʃ See Language page Daniel Valle
rotten podrido podre quality camp kamp See Language page Daniel Valle
sand arena areia environment cuetmuse, muse See Language page Daniel Valle
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality chŭjwa tʃŭxwa See Language page Daniel Valle
short corto curto quality tou tou See Language page Daniel Valle
shoulder hombro ombro body ambamb ambamb See Language page Daniel Valle
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental paaŭucjsa paaŭukxsa See Language page Daniel Valle
skin piel pele body cati kati See Language page Daniel Valle
sky cielo céu environment ë ë See Language page Daniel Valle
small pequeño pequeno quality uchú utʃu See Language page Daniel Valle
smoke humo fumaça environment a a See Language page Daniel Valle
star estrella estrela environment a a See Language page Daniel Valle
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora vitó vito See Language page Daniel Valle
stone piedra pedra environment cueth kuetj See Language page Daniel Valle
tail cola, rabo rabo body yucnenga See Language page Daniel Valle
that ese/esa esse grammar quiá kia See Language page Daniel Valle
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar tyãawe´sh See Language page Daniel Valle
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality fize fize See Language page Daniel Valle
thin delgado fino quality pézcue pézkue See Language page Daniel Valle
this este/esta este grammar aná ana See Language page Daniel Valle
2sg xx xx grammar icha (female addressee), ingui (male addressee) itʃa , ingi See Language page Daniel Valle
throat garganta garganta body péty péty See Language page Daniel Valle
three tres tres number tec (loan?) tek See Language page Daniel Valle
thunder truenos trovão environment capixs kapiʃ See Language page Daniel Valle
bite morder morder body aguaqui aguaki See Language page Daniel Valle
blow soplar soprar body pot pot See Language page Daniel Valle
breathe respirar respirar body ŭusée- ŭusée- See Language page Daniel Valle
burn quemar queimar environment apaz apaz See Language page Daniel Valle
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body pequi peki See Language page Daniel Valle
climb subir subir motion tejca-, cãj- texkaa-, kãx- See Language page Daniel Valle
come venir vir motion pésath pesatj See Language page Daniel Valle
cook cocinar cozinhar impact coya koya See Language page Daniel Valle
count contar contar mental issa issa See Language page Daniel Valle
cry llorar chorar mental une une See Language page Daniel Valle
cut/hack cortar cortar impact gueca, pasha, tuguec geka, pasha, tugek See Language page Daniel Valle
die/be dead morir morrer state o o See Language page Daniel Valle
dig cavar cavar impact kaΦ-iʔh- (kaΦ 'hole') kaΦ-iʔh- (kaΦ 'hole') See Language page Daniel Valle
dream soñar sonhar mental xsau, iquixsau ʃau, ikiʃau See Language page Daniel Valle
drink beber, tomar beber body itongui itongi See Language page Daniel Valle
eat comer comer body o o See Language page Daniel Valle
fall caer cair motion guete gete See Language page Daniel Valle
fear miedo medo mental agnú agnú See Language page Daniel Valle
flow fluir fluir motion yuʔ kaseh- (lit. 'water-leave') yuʔ kaseh- (lit. 'water-leave') See Language page Daniel Valle
fly volar voar motion yos yos See Language page Daniel Valle
grow crecer crescer state exs See Language page Daniel Valle
hear oír ouvir mental gnuense wẽnse See Language page Daniel Valle
hide esconder esconder motion pendá penda See Language page Daniel Valle
hit golpear, pegar bater impact pecue pekue See Language page Daniel Valle
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other uwe- uwe- See Language page Daniel Valle
kill matar matar impact hick hick See Language page Daniel Valle
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental ciquiás kikiás See Language page Daniel Valle
laugh reír rir mental shijca- shixka- See Language page Daniel Valle
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion itacueth itakuetj See Language page Daniel Valle
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body fi´nze- fiʔnze- See Language page Daniel Valle
open/uncover abrir abrir other pjandeni pxandeni See Language page Daniel Valle
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact pequins pekins See Language page Daniel Valle
say decir dizer mental cyã´jĩ- kyãxĩ- See Language page Daniel Valle
scratch rascar rasgar impact yose yose See Language page Daniel Valle
see ver ver mental teng teng See Language page Daniel Valle
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact ĩjpa- ĩxpa- See Language page Daniel Valle
sit sentar(se) sentar state cach, acachi katʃ, akatʃi See Language page Daniel Valle
sleep dormir dormir body deshe deshe See Language page Daniel Valle
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body putáa putáa See Language page Daniel Valle
spit escupir cuspir body avi avi See Language page Daniel Valle
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact pe´lande- peʔlande- See Language page Daniel Valle
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact cönze könze See Language page Daniel Valle
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact yãaja- jãaxa- See Language page Daniel Valle
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state yosho yosho See Language page Daniel Valle
steal robar roubar other peswée- peswée- See Language page Daniel Valle
suck chupar chupar body chanchaá, pechanch, yoi tʃantʃaá, petʃantʃ, yoi See Language page Daniel Valle
swell hincharse inchar body cialó (swelled) kialó See Language page Daniel Valle
swim nadar nadar motion pehd- pehd- See Language page Daniel Valle
think pensar pensar mental yajcy- jaxky- See Language page Daniel Valle
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact gnuetá gnuetá See Language page Daniel Valle
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact tond tond See Language page Daniel Valle
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other spondó, tignuend spondó, tignuend See Language page Daniel Valle
vomit vomitar vomitar body pungá punga See Language page Daniel Valle
walk caminar, andar andar motion u´ju- See Language page Daniel Valle
work trabajar trabalhar other nashï nashï See Language page Daniel Valle
yawn bostezar bocejar body deeway- deewaj- See Language page Daniel Valle
tongue lengua lingua body tone tone See Language page Daniel Valle
tooth diente dente body quith kitj See Language page Daniel Valle
two dos dois number e´nz See Language page Daniel Valle
water agua agua environment yo yo See Language page Daniel Valle
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar cucuexs, cuecu kukueʃ, kueku See Language page Daniel Valle
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar See Language page Daniel Valle
wet mojado molhado quality le´le See Language page Daniel Valle
what? que, qué que grammar quiananqui kiananki See Language page Daniel Valle
when? cuando quando grammar manch mantʃ See Language page Daniel Valle
where? donde onde grammar matée, manca matée, manca See Language page Daniel Valle
white blanco branco colour chime tʃime See Language page Daniel Valle
who? quien, quién quem grammar quim kim See Language page Daniel Valle
wife esposa esposa kinship neyó neyo See Language page Daniel Valle
wind viento vento environment pneuma pneuma See Language page Daniel Valle
wing ala asa body yocoth yocotj See Language page Daniel Valle
woman/female mujer mulher human petam petam See Language page Daniel Valle
yellow amarillo amarelo colour lem See Language page Daniel Valle
2pl ustedes vocês grammar incuexs inkueʃ See Language page Daniel Valle
foot pie body chinda tʃinda See Language page Daniel Valle
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar cuj us (several times) kux us See Language page Daniel Valle
all todo todos other pai pai See Language page Daniel Valle
ankle tobillo tornozelo body chinda caca tʃinda kaka See Language page Daniel Valle
armpit axila, sobaco axila body punza cafi punza kafi See Language page Daniel Valle
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body ime ime See Language page Daniel Valle
lung pulmón pulmão body me´cy shŭ meʔky shŭ See Language page Daniel Valle
sweat sudar suor, suar body See Language page Daniel Valle
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body ŭ´we- ŭʔwe- See Language page Daniel Valle
bark corteza casca environment cati kati See Language page Daniel Valle
fingernail uña unha body vyllill See Language page Daniel Valle
heart corazón coração body agnus agnus See Language page Daniel Valle
sun sol sol time itaqui itaki See Language page Daniel Valle
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment achi atʃi See Language page Daniel Valle
green verde verde quality ampa chacha ampa tʃatʃa See Language page Daniel Valle
hot caliente quente quality achach atʃatʃ See Language page Daniel Valle


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. quize kize; khĩtse(H&R) See Language page Daniel Valle
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna víchacue vitʃacue See Language page Daniel Valle
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. See Language page Amazonia Daniel Valle
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões Daniel Valle
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. ɸiʒ (H&R) See Language page Different types have different localized ranges Daniel Valle
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae e´ts, e´tscuẽ eʔts (H&R) See Language page Widespread Daniel Valle
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes úntol, buca untol, buka; kupe, tʲiʔɸ ('owl', H&R) See Language page Widespread Daniel Valle
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. pe pe, welj wala ('large parrot', H&R) See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica welʸ welj (H&R) See Language page Widespread Daniel Valle
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae tub tub See Language page Daniel Valle
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae optond, yugué optond, yuge See Language page Daniel Valle
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae imegnuéi imewẽi; mẽẽwẽxʲ (H&R) See Language page Widespread South America Daniel Valle
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family yauto (loan?) yauto See Language page Daniel Valle
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba tate tate See Language page Widespread South America Daniel Valle
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae anza See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris alco (Quechua loan) alko; alku(QU loan, H&R) See Language page Not native; widespread Daniel Valle
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis ñunda alcu (ñunda=sabana; alcu=dog) See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands Daniel Valle
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri xsita ʃita See Language page Widespread in Amazonia Daniel Valle
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. chipa tʃipa See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Daniel Valle
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus locau lokau See Language page Daniel Valle
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna wedʲ (H&R) See Language page Daniel Valle
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. See Language page Daniel Valle
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura buchi, zunz zunz; sap (SP loan, H&R) See Language page Daniel Valle
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Daniel Valle
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata alahuech alawetʃ See Language page Daniel Valle
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. yoguaz yoguaz See Language page Daniel Valle
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura wãca See Language page Daniel Valle
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae See Language page Daniel Valle
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna ol ol, ul (H&R) See Language page Daniel Valle
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox ul weeswée (ul=snake) See Language page Widespread South America Daniel Valle
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria pai pai See Language page Widespread Daniel Valle
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls Daniel Valle
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) ujne See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Daniel Valle
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Daniel Valle
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia Daniel Valle
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch Daniel Valle
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm Daniel Valle
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm Daniel Valle
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes tʃuda (SP loan, ‘chonta palm’, H&R) See Language page Daniel Valle
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Daniel Valle
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca exs eʃ; ẽʃ(H&R) See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant Daniel Valle
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) guegue gege; wawa (H&R) See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Daniel Valle
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree Daniel Valle
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens agnue awẽ; ãwã(‘chili pepper’, H&R) See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant Daniel Valle
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea quĩtj See Language page plant Daniel Valle
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus chajŭ See Language page plant Daniel Valle
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum quii kii; khĩh, khĩʃa (‘cane’, H&R) See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant Daniel Valle
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. toló tolo; plad (SP loan), tlu(H&R) See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Daniel Valle
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. os os See Language page plant Daniel Valle
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) xʲuth, xʲũth (H&R) See Language page Daniel Valle
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays cocavi kokavi; kutʲh(H&R) See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Daniel Valle
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum wãjy, wẽjy wãxʲ, wẽxʲ(H&R) See Language page plant Daniel Valle
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna fytũ ɸtũ, ɸtũũ taʃ (‘plant’, H&R) See Language page Daniel Valle
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana co ko See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub Daniel Valle
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) Daniel Valle
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana oze oze See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree Daniel Valle
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree Daniel Valle
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree Daniel Valle
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Daniel Valle
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub Daniel Valle
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree Daniel Valle
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree Daniel Valle
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Daniel Valle
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia candó kandó See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape Daniel Valle
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta ña, yá (not specified as sweet or bitter) ɲa (‘general’, H&R) See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Daniel Valle
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Daniel Valle
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum caca, unt kaka, unt See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato Daniel Valle
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas ŭtj (sweet potato), caca, unt ŭtx (sweet potato), kaka, unt See Language page plant Daniel Valle
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant Daniel Valle
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. See Language page Daniel Valle
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) apete, to (small one) apete, to; tuka('gourd', H&R) See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree Daniel Valle
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. apeté apete See Language page plant Daniel Valle
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine Daniel Valle
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. see see See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree Daniel Valle
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine Daniel Valle
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Daniel Valle
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page Daniel Valle
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae khãʔkhã, khãʔg, iz (H&R) See Language page Daniel Valle
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata gnueñandi wẽɲandi See Language page Daniel Valle
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. eijcácue eijkakue See Language page Daniel Valle
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis capixsá kapiʃa; ʃiʔdʲ, tʃiʔdʲ (H&R) See Language page Daniel Valle
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria sate sate See Language page Daniel Valle
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae echtsẽy See Language page Daniel Valle
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera smejme See Language page Daniel Valle
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera zupy See Language page Daniel Valle
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora xsagnue ʃawẽ See Language page Daniel Valle
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda túpil, ultŭpy See Language page Daniel Valle
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones usmity usmity See Language page Daniel Valle
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea chawee, seccuet tʃawee, sekkuet See Language page Daniel Valle
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera pampa See Language page Daniel Valle
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera ap, finei ap, finei; ɸĩʃ, ɸneh (H&R) See Language page Daniel Valle
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae cjã´sh See Language page Daniel Valle
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. See Language page Daniel Valle
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae See Language page Daniel Valle
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. apj apx See Language page Daniel Valle
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera viu viu; ɸtũũ tʃika (+ɸtũũ wes, ɸtũũ ũʔsa, ɸtũũ = ‘wood’, H&R) See Language page Daniel Valle
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea guacó guako See Language page Daniel Valle
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita menzucue, shita See Language page Daniel Valle
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda xsape, xsita ʃape, ʃita See Language page Daniel Valle
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae tupa tupa (H&R) See Language page Daniel Valle
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca punai punai; tjklji (SP loan, H&R) See Language page Daniel Valle
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. See Language page Daniel Valle
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha See Language page Daniel Valle
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] pẽty shiwa See Language page Daniel Valle
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella chaya tʃaya See Language page Daniel Valle
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons See Language page Daniel Valle
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus See Language page Daniel Valle
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae chucha See Language page Daniel Valle
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis juʔ-alku(‘water otter’, H&R) See Language page Daniel Valle
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis yoxsi yoʃi See Language page Daniel Valle
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu yu´cj cuchi (cuchi=pig) juʔkh kutʃi ('wild pig' SP loan, H&R) See Language page Daniel Valle
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari See Language page Daniel Valle
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae tou tou See Language page Daniel Valle
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua cãtsa See Language page Daniel Valle
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. ñu´py le´chcŭe (le´chcŭe=small) ɲuʔpi leʔtʃkwe (‘small paca’, H&R) See Language page Daniel Valle
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris See Language page Daniel Valle
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti fiz fiz See Language page Daniel Valle
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) ñu´py wala (wala=big) ɲuʔpjwala (H&R) See Language page Daniel Valle
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus onza onza, uhza (+uza, leʔtʃ, uluʔh; H&R) See Language page Daniel Valle
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae xsuma ʃuma See Language page Daniel Valle
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris jimba cjŭch hiba khũtʃ(=‘dark horse’, H&R) See Language page Daniel Valle
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus chavi tʃavi; tʃaβj(H&R) See Language page Daniel Valle
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus hiba hiba See Language page Daniel Valle


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material [kanasta], kaš [kanasta], kaš See Language page Daniel Valle
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material See Language page Daniel Valle
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material wãʔča wãʔča See Language page Daniel Valle
bed cama cama culture-material dee-ni atũ (dee- 'sleep') dee-ni atũ (dee- 'sleep') See Language page Daniel Valle
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material weh (H&R) weh See Language page Daniel Valle
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material cachguata catʃguata See Language page Daniel Valle
canoe canoa canoa transport [kanu'e] [kanu'e] See Language page Daniel Valle
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Daniel Valle
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology quimb kimb See Language page Daniel Valle
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology dʸih; dʸixʸ dʸih; dʸixʸ In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Daniel Valle
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology yu´tsesa, pilwe´sh Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Daniel Valle
broom escoba vassoura culture-material pad-nii-sa (pad- 'sweep') pad-nii-sa (pad- 'sweep') See Language page Daniel Valle
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology ati ati See Language page Daniel Valle
fence, palisade cerco cerca other cafind kafind may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Daniel Valle
firewood leña lenha other equí ekí See Language page Daniel Valle
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Daniel Valle
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology taaΦiy; eč taaΦiy; eč See Language page Daniel Valle
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology itáqui (Sun) itaki In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Daniel Valle
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology cobi kobi multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Daniel Valle
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology sende cuvy sende kuvy See Language page Daniel Valle
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page Daniel Valle
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle
knife cuchillo faca culture-material [kčilʸ] [kčilʸ] See Language page Daniel Valle
machete machete facão culture-material cchill wala (cchill=knife; wala=intensifier) See Language page Daniel Valle
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool am am especially for clearing fields See Language page Daniel Valle
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool hunting, warfare See Language page Daniel Valle
spear lanza lança subsistence tool gueth guetj See Language page Daniel Valle
bow arco arco subsistence tool taty arco See Language page Daniel Valle
paddle/oar remo remo transport See Language page Daniel Valle
plate plato prato culture-material bich bitʃ See Language page Daniel Valle
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool miti miti See Language page Daniel Valle
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material bič 'dish, plate' bič 'dish, plate' See Language page Daniel Valle
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool chila tʃila agriculture? See Language page Daniel Valle
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology snʸunʸu, snakha snʸunʸu, snakha See Language page Daniel Valle
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool spiina´sa See Language page Daniel Valle
wax cera cera other čhiʔdʸ [sela] čhiʔdʸ [sela] See Language page Daniel Valle
honey miel mel food misqui (Quechua loan?) miski only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Daniel Valle
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material ipi ipi See Language page Daniel Valle
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture wes wes See Language page Daniel Valle
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material See Language page Daniel Valle
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Daniel Valle
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology atap atap See Language page Daniel Valle
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle
school escuela escola acculturation [skwela] [skwela] See Language page Daniel Valle
bottle botella garrafa acculturation See Language page Daniel Valle
paper papel papel acculturation ets 'paper, leaf' ets 'paper, leaf' See Language page Daniel Valle
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology kšaʔw- (vb.) kšaʔw- (vb.) See Language page Daniel Valle
chicken gallina galinha acculturation [atalʸ] (Quechua loan) [atalʸ] (Quechua loan) See Language page Daniel Valle
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology peda-ni kaΦ ('bury-hole') peda-ni kaΦ ('bury-hole') See Language page Daniel Valle
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other See Language page Daniel Valle
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation nʸuša nʸuša See Language page Daniel Valle
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material atʸh atʸh See Language page Daniel Valle
shoes zapatos sapatos dress [spaatu] [spaatu] See Language page Daniel Valle
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page Daniel Valle
soldier soldado soldado acculturation [soldau] [soldau] See Language page Daniel Valle
cat gato gato acculturation [miš] [miš] See Language page Daniel Valle
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation [skupeta] [skupeta] See Language page Daniel Valle
hat sombero chapéu dress čuaʔ čuaʔ See Language page Daniel Valle
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology n-piic̷-thẽʔh (Lit.'prefix (personal relationship)-man-mature'); saʔt 'Indian chieftain'. n-piic̷-thẽʔh (Lit.'prefix (personal relationship)-man-mature'); saʔt 'Indian chieftain'. See Language page Daniel Valle
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool pekwe-ni-sa (pekwe 'hit with a stick') pekwe-ni-sa (pekwe 'hit with a stick') See Language page Daniel Valle
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress See Language page Daniel Valle
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page Daniel Valle
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool wedʸ uwe-ni wes ('fish catch-suffix cord') wedʸ uwe-ni wes ('fish catch-suffix cord') See Language page Daniel Valle
salt sal sal food nega [loan Muisca?] nega [loan Muisca?] See Language page Daniel Valle
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology mem- (vb.) mem- (vb.) See Language page Daniel Valle
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool fytŭupatj currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Daniel Valle
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool hunting and warfare See Language page Daniel Valle
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool cweejya´jni esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Daniel Valle
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food enz enz See Language page Daniel Valle
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food See Language page Daniel Valle
hunt cazar caçar food viqui viki See Language page Daniel Valle
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food yu´cj ech (wild animal) juʔkx etʃ Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Daniel Valle
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool ejhua, apete, to (small one) ehwa, apete, to (small one) See Language page Daniel Valle
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Daniel Valle
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool atóo atoo See Language page Daniel Valle
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool masu (Spanish loan) See Language page Daniel Valle
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture beca, veca beka, veka prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Daniel Valle
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food ũʔwe ũʔwe agriculture See Language page Daniel Valle
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Daniel Valle
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food See Language page Daniel Valle
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food agriculture See Language page Daniel Valle
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Daniel Valle
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page Daniel Valle
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Daniel Valle
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool aza aza agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Daniel Valle
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool [sepu] can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Daniel Valle
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool yajcy, acj See Language page Daniel Valle
bottom grinding stone manufacture cuet kuet if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Daniel Valle
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture hune cueth hune kuetj use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Daniel Valle
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle
house other la (new house) la See Language page Daniel Valle


Grammatical Data (226)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. yes Jung 2000:140-3 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] no Jung 2000:140-3 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast yes Jung 2000:140-3 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? yes Jung:37 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels yes Jung 2000:140-3 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme yes Jung 2000:140-3 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] no Jung 2000:140-3 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? no Jung 2000:140-3 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones no info Daniel Valle
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? yes Jung 2000:140-3 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments no Jung 2000:140-3 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? no info Daniel Valle
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony no info Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] yes person, number and mood are marked by a single portmanteau verbal morpheme Rojas:168 Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone no Rojas:116 Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word yes Rojas: 59 Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no Rojas: 59 Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes yes Rojas: 59 Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different no Rojas: 59 Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated no info Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated no info Daniel Valle
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced no info Daniel Valle
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection no info Daniel Valle
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word no info Daniel Valle
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' no info Daniel Valle
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs no info Daniel Valle
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment no info Daniel Valle
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders no Rojas:173-80, Jung:133-4 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. no Rojas:173-80, Jung:133-4 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter no Rojas:173-80, Jung:133-4 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates no Rojas:173-80, Jung:133-4 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only no Jung:133-4 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups yes The plural number is only marked in dative nouns. What is more, number in nouns is marked with a portmanteau morpheme which also marks case. Jung:131 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun yes Jung:131-3 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no Jung:131-3 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun no Jung:131-3 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic no Jung:131-3 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only no However, when the colectivizer morpheme is used to mark plurality, it can only refer to human nouns Jung:131-3 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns no Jung:136 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you no Jung:136 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) no Jung:81-7 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system 2 Rojas:197-8 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) no info Rojas:197-8 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns no Jung:136 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns no Jung:136 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns yes Jung:136 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients yes Jung:114-28 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun 4 Jung:114-28 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are no Jung:114-28 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic yes Jung:114-28 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic no Jung:114-28 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic no Jung:114-28 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change no Jung:114-28 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone no Jung:114-28 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' no Jung:114-28 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 no Jung:133 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 yes Jung:133 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 no Jung:133 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. no Jung:133 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used yes Jung:133 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used yes Jung:133 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no Rojas:253-7 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no Rojas:172-80 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? no However, the unmarked construction for possesive is simple yuxtaposition of nouns with the with the possessors preceding the possesed Jung:121-2 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? yes Jung:121-2 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' yes Jung:121-2 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' no Jung:121-2 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes yes Rojas:179 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' yes Comitative is marked with a suffix whereas NP coordination is marked by yuxtaposition Jung:122, 180 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere no However, Paez has "relative tense" which is not obligatory. The "relative tense" morphemes also encode if the subject is similar or not. For this reason, I think that "relative tense" markers are like switch reference morphemes in Paez Jung:93-4 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past yes Jung:93-4 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future no Jung:93-4 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) no Jung:93-4 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no Jung:62 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes Jung:62 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no Jung:62 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no Jung:62 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood yes Jung:87 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) yes Jung:89 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses yes Jung: 88, 193-6 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' yes Jung:88 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality yes Jung:68 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' no Jung:87-92 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. no Jung:59-61 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker yes Jung:75-6 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) no Jung:75-87 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. no Jung:75-87 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' yes Jung:83 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse yes Jung:83 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above yes Factivo: the speaker states something but he does not guarantee the authencity of the statement; speculation: related to the likeliness of a future event Jung:77-84 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic yes Jung:75-87 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs no Jung:75-87 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle no Jung:75-87 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme no Jung:75-87 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion no Person verbal agreement is marked along with mood by a portmanteau suffix Jung:75-87 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction no info Daniel Valle
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order no info Daniel Valle
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject no info Daniel Valle
Word Order VS in transitive clauses no Rojas:463 Daniel Valle
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object no Rojas:463 Daniel Valle
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject no Rojas:463 Daniel Valle
Word Order Preposition-Noun no Jung:120-34 Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes Jung:120-34 Daniel Valle
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) yes Jung:122 Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') no Jung:122 Daniel Valle
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun no info Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun no info Daniel Valle
Word Order Dem-Noun yes Jung:139 Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Dem no Jung:139 Daniel Valle
Word Order Num-Noun yes Jung:131 Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Num no Jung:131 Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies no info Daniel Valle
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies no info Daniel Valle
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') no info Daniel Valle
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' no info Daniel Valle
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause no Jung:186 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects yes Jung:114-5 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked no However, the object is only marked when it is definite Jung:114-5 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker no Jung:114-5 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no Jung:114-5 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no Jung:114-5 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative yes Jung:136 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative no Jung:136 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Jung:136 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no Jung:136 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no Jung:136 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs yes Jung:74-5 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Jung:74-5 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive no Jung:74-5 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) no Jung:74-5 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects yes Jung:136-8 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Jung:136-8 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Jung:136-8 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no Jung:136-8 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no Jung:136-8 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes yes Jung:74-7 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers yes Jung:74-7 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers no Jung:74-91 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no Jung:74-7 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system yes just like all objects Jung:74-91 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately no Jung:74-7 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes no The possessive is marked with the benefactive suffix plus the appropiate person/mood portmanteau suffix Jung:74, 122 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent no Jung:74-91 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently yes it gets dative case Jung:118 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives yes the direct object can get dative case, too Jung:118 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently no Jung:118 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted yes Jung:71-3 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb yes Jung:108 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb yes There are two other applicatives: one which adds a malefactive and other which adds an instrument Jung:108 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb yes The causative prefix obligatorily appears with the transitivizer suffix. Jung:103 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb no Jung:103 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix no Jung:103 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization yes Jung:102 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' no Jung:102-5 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event no Jung:102-5 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element no Jung:193-6 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element yes Jung:193 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix yes Jung:193 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle no Jung:193 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb no Jung:193 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' no Jung:193-5 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle no Only the mood changes Jung:183-4 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology yes Jung:183-4 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no Jung:183-4 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only yes Jung:183-4 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) no Jung:186-7 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position yes Jung:120 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position yes Jung:120 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) yes However, they take verbal morphology (mood) Jung:120 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) yes Rojas:416-7 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined yes Jung:165 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence no info Daniel Valle