Ditransitive constructions: indirect object

Simple Clauses - Valence and voice
In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla Jane Hill
Cupeño Jane Hill
Luiseño Jane Hill
Serrano Jane Hill
Kitanemuk Jane Hill
Kawaiisu Jane Hill
Timbisha Jane Hill
Western Mono Jane Hill
Chemehuevi Jane Hill
Southern Paiute Jane Hill
Southern Ute Jane Hill
Shoshone Jane Hill
Comanche Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute Jane Hill
Gabrielino Jane Hill
Achagua no info Wilson & Levinsohn 1992 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro yes The recipient of a ditransitive is marked with the dative case marker. Allin, 1976: 294 Aimee Lawrence
Bare yes Aikhenvald, 1995: 26 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Piapoco yes Dative case marking destinations. Galindo, 2002: 209-210 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna yes Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 524 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero yes There is a preposition to introduce a recipient, but not a theme. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 53 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana yes Usually marked or coupled with a prepostion or directional. Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu yes The 'indirect object' (recipient) gets a case marker. Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 800 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana no Aikhenvald, 2003: 236 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã yes The theme is marked with object marking on verb, is required and does not take case marking. However, the goal is not marked on verb, is optional, and is marked with an oblique case marker. Facundes, 2000: 287 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali yes Payne 1981:3436 Amanda Meeks
Maipure yes dative preposition Zamponi 2003:33-35 Daniel Smith
Yanesha' no info Duff-Tripp Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure no info Danielsen 2007:331-6 Daniel Valle
Nanti no Michael, 2008. p. 267 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Palikur yes Green and Green 1972:5 Daniel Valle
Yine yes indirective' morpheme on noun Matteson 1965:44 Daniel Smith
Añun no info Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora no Seifart - 2005:65 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare yes Hall 1988:81 Daniel Smith
Makushi no Carson 1982:166-169 Amanda Meeks Can't find any examples of or writing about ditransitive clauses
Eñepa yes Based on examples. Direct objects are not case-marked whereas indirect objects receive the suffix [-uja] Gildea 1989:69 Daniel Valle
Pemon no info Daniel Valle
Guna yes dative marker Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso yes recipient/beneficiary marked with a dative postpositional Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika yes Frank 1989:20 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí yes Quesada 2008:49-96, 155-66 Daniel Valle
Damana no info Daniel Valle
Sikuani no either the agent or recipient are assumed to be 3s, so only two verbal markings end up being used de Kondo (Vol.1) - 1985:50; Queixalós - 2000:136-137 Amanda Meeks
Macaguan no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna no Overall 2007:456-7 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá yes The indirect object takes a suffix while direct object does not (zero asolutive) Mortensen 1999:17 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá no Levinson 1974:16 Daniel Valle
Matses no Fleck:866 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no info Daniel Valle
Páez yes it gets dative case Jung:118 Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano yes Parker 1965:26-7 Daniel Valle
Tikuna yes Indirect objects take a "benefactive" marker in contrast to direct objects which take accusative marker and indirect objects are not cross-referenced on the verb as verbs do. Montes 2004b:105 Daniel Valle
Urarina no There are no ditransitive verbs. However, valence can be increased to have a ditransitive verb which has an oblique arguement which varies from verb to verb Olawsky:386 Daniel Valle
Waunana yes The direct object takes the dative marker while the direct object goes in absolutive case Mejía 2000:89 Daniel Valle
Andoke no info Kelsey Neely
Puinave no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara yes Huayhua Pari 2001: 263 Shannon Dardis The benefactive would receive the suffix taki
Kakua no info Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto yes Minor and Minor 1982. p.39 Christopher Clack
Hup no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect yes indirect object is expressed as a modifier of a postpositional phrase following the dative marker hã Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano no Miller 1999, p. 125 Amanda Novak
Cubeo no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 110 Amanda Novak
Kotiria no Stenzel 2004, p. 226 Amanda Novak
Makuna no Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.45 Chris Clack
Koreguaje yes Cook & Criswell 1993, p.92-93, 48 Chris Clack
Barasano yes Either the recipient or the patient object may occur depending on which is more in focus. Jones & Jones 1991, p.109 Chris Clack
Tanimuca no Strom 1992, p.118 Chris Clack
Siona yes Wheeler - 1970:49 Amanda Meeks
Tukano yes recipient/beneficiary marked with "referential" -de Ramirez 1997: 108 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami yes Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely evidenced by examples
Ninam no info Kelsey Neely
Sanumá yes Borgman 1990: 32 Kelsey Neely
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana yes Everett 2006:304-8 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu yes dative particle following beneficiary Cruz 2011:421 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní yes Krivoshein and Acosta 2001:130-1 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama yes recipient is marked by a dative enclitic Vallejos 2010:524 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu yes done 1
Wambaya no done 0
Bunuba no info done x
Walmajarri no Done-Claire 0
Nyulnyul no done? 0
Warrwa no done 0
Worrorra no 97 done 0
Garrwa yes 97 done 1
Gooniyandi no done 0
Warlpiri yes s339 done 1
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta yes 79 done 1
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi no info done-Dan x
Yidiny not done yet done-Catherine X
Yanyuwa yes 17 Done-Austin 1
Yandruwandha no 195-6 Done-Dan 0
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no 19: cf ex3-7 Done-Dan 0
Woiwurrung no 76 done-Amalia 0
Wirangu yes 50 done 1
Wemba-Wemba no info done-Amalia x
Warumungu yes 20 done-Amalia 1
Wangkumara no 42 done 0
Uradhi Yes 346 Y 1
Paakantyi yes 64 Y-Hannah 1
Pitta-Pitta yes 193 Done-Amalia 1
Pintupi yes 54-55; 123-125 done-Hannah 1
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta yes 57, 123 Done-Hannah 1
Ngiyambaa yes 131, 134 Done-Emily 1
Ngayawang yes 6 done-Amalia 1
Muruwari yes 64 Done-Dan 1
Mayi-Yapi yes 44 done 1
Martuthunira no 230-231 done 0
Marrgany No 315 Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre Yes 177 Done-Amalia 1
Kuku Yalanji yes 134 Done-Jessica 1
Kugu-Nganhcara yes 405 done-Amalia 1
Kaurna yes 5 done-Amalia 1
Kalkatungu no 27, 41 Done-Dan 0
Jaru yes 144-5 Done-Amalia 1
Guugu-Yimidhirr yes 51 Done-Amalia 1
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr yes 259 done-Amalia 1
Gugu-Badhun no info done-Jessica x
Yuwaalaraay Yes 59 1
Dyirbal yes 300 done-Amalia 1
Duungidjawu yes 29-30 done 1
Djinang Yes 55 Done-Amalia 1
Djabugay done
Diyari yes 136 done-Hannah 1
Dharawal no info done-Hannah w Dhurga) x
Darkinyung maybe 25 done 1
Bularnu no 94 Done-Austin 0
Biri yes 49 done-Jessica 1
Bidjara-Gungabula no info done-Jessica x
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana no info Done-Dan x
Alyawarr yes 73, 80, 125-6 done 1
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija Yes 21 Done-Amalia 1
Wathawurrung yes PN 82, full NP 72 done 1
Mathi-Mathi no 79 done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie yes 33 done-Amalia 1
Thanggati yes 14 done 1
Katthang yes 38, 75 done-Amalia 1
Panyjima no 137-138 done 0
Ngarinyeri yes 11 done-Amalia 1
Kurrama no 190, 6.40 done-Dan 0
Yingkarta no Done-Claire 0
Githabul yes 13 Done-Amalia 1
Gunya No 324 Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen yes 32 Done- 1
WesternTorres yes? FO 133, second example (also cf 134, last example and 7.5.1?) done 1
Wakaya yes done 1
Yindjilindji no info done x
Bandjalang yes 60 Done-Amalia 1
Ngaatjatjara yes 42 done 1
Arrernte Yes 125 1
Kokatha Yes 55 1
Karajarri Yes 118 Done-Amalia 1
Pitjantjatjara No G 61 0
Ritharrngu Yes 37 Done-Amalia 1
Warrgamay No 76 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no info 867 Done-Amalia x
Warnman Yes 18 Done-Amalia 1
Djapu yes 98 1
Bilinarra yes 7.1 (7-4) done 1
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala Yes 57 Y2 1
Narungga No info done x
Tharrkari Yes 27 1
Wajarri No 45 0
Warungu yes 328, 333 1
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua yes dative marker for recipient/beneficiary Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Baniwa yes marked by relational construction; but not clear if this has to do with animacy of DO vs. IO. Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps