Ninam

Family
Yanomaman
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
shb
Location
4.04°, -62.78°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
Gómez, Gale Goodwin 1990. The Shiriana dialect of Yanam (Northern Brazil). Ph.D. diss., Columbia University. Migliazza, E. C. 1972. Yanomama grammar and intelligibility. Ph.D. diss, Indiana University. Swain, Carol. 2007. Ninam (Shirishana). Intercontinental Dictionary Series, ed. Mary Ritchie Key. http://lingweb.eva.mpg.de/ids/.


Basic Vocabulary (192)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location heska (EM72) heska inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar kõ, kotha (EM72) kõ, kotʰa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
all todo todos other kõmiri (EM72) kõmiɾi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
and y e grammar šo (EM72) ʃo inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
ankle tobillo tornozelo body missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
armpit axila, sobaco axila body missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment tšɨpɨšik (EM72) tʃɨpɨʃik inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
at en, a em, a location missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
back espalda costas body tšaɨp (EM72) tʃaɨp inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
belly barriga barriga body pili simosi, pɨsi (EM72) pili simosi, pɨsi (EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
below abajo, debajo abaixo location missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
big grande grande quality pata; le, pata (animate, EM72), reo (big, EM72) pata; le, pata, ɾeo inheritance le, pata (animate, EM72), reo (big, EM72) See Language page Kelsey Neely
bite morder morder body wɨtɨ (EM72) wɨtɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
black negro preto colour ušI, ɨši (EM72) uʃi, ɨʃi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
blood sangre sangue body ĩep, ĩyə (EM72) ĩep, ĩjə inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
blow soplar soprar body hora (EM72) hoɾa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
bone hueso osso body pili thũ, ɨ̃ (EM72) pili tʰũ, ɨ̃ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
breast pecho, seno peito body thupək (ids), tI IpIk (gom), thɨɨp (EM72) tʰupək, tɯ ɯpɯk (gom), tʰɨɨp unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
breathe respirar respirar body hẽrekəmo (EM72) hẽɾekəmo inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
burn quemar queimar environment ĩšiama (EM72) ĩʃiama inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body watɨtha, wašika (EM72) watɨtʰa, waʃika inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
child niño, niña criança human ulu, ɨrɨ (EM72, "boy"), thɨwə tai (EM72 "girl"), moko (EM72 "girl") ulu, ɨɾɨ (EM72, "boy"), tʰɨwə tai, moko inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
climb subir subir motion tɨ (EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
cloud nube nuvem environment thəm wãri tʰəm wãri unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
cold frío frio quality wati; watutu, nsai (EM72), sãi (EM72) wati; watutu, nsai, sãi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
come venir vir motion hɨime (EM72) hɨime inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
cook cocinar cozinhar impact rɨpɨ (EM72) ɾɨpɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
count contar contar mental missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
cry llorar chorar mental ɨ̃kɨ (EM72) ɨ̃kɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
cut/hack cortar cortar impact pahatra, manɨ (EM72) pahatɾa, manɨ unknown; inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
day día dia time thəm, wakara (EM72 "light time") tʰəm, wakaɾa inheritance wakara "light time", Migliazza 72 See Language page Kelsey Neely
die/be dead morir morrer state hušmi huʃmi unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
dig cavar cavar impact tiə, paktha (EM72) tiə, paktʰa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
dingo/wolf fauna missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
dirty sucio sujo quality šami (EM72) ʃami inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
dream soñar sonhar mental mari (EM72) maɾi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
drink beber, tomar beber body koa koa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
dry seco seco quality wehe wehe inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality pɨsi (EM72) pɨsi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
dust polvo poeira environment ɨšik (EM72) ɨʃik loan, direction unknown Eñepa ano itʃik See Language page Kelsey Neely
ear oreja orelha body yũmuk, yɨmə (EM72) jũmuk, jɨmə inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
earth/soil tierra terra environment mašithak, mašit (EM72 "earth") maʃ̌itʰak, maʃit inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
eat comer comer body ia; wa, wɨtɨ (bite, EM72) ia; wa, wɨtɨ (bite, EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
egg huevo ovo fauna kalaka thethepək, thet (EM72) kalaka tʰetʰepək, tʰet inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
eye ojo olho body pili mamo, mamo (gom) pili mamo, mamo (gom) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
fall caer cair motion ke (EM72) ke inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
far lejos longe quality rahami, ritšə (EM72) ɾahami, ɾitʃə inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
fat/grease grasa gordura body ũta ũta unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
father padre, papá pai kinship papa, ~he (gom), papa- (EM72) papa, ~he (gom), papa- (EM72) loan; inheritance Portuguese See Language page Kelsey Neely
fear miedo medo mental kiri (EM72) kiɾi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
feather pluma pena fauna ãhuk; šĩoik; yõik ãhuk; ʃ̌ĩoik; jõik unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
fire fuego fogo environment wake wake inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
fish xx xx fauna tšarakə tʃarakə inheritance See Language page Epps Research Team
flow fluir fluir motion karə (EM72) kaɾə inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
flower flor flor environment nakših (EM72) nakʃih unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
fly volar voar motion lõ lõ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment mãa wakisi (EM72) mãa wakisi unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
foot pie body mãhuk, mãhe (EM72) mãhuk, mãhe (EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
fruit fruta fruta flora himo (EM72) himo inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
good bueno bom quality totihi totihi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
grow crecer crescer state tšawɨ (EM72) tʃawɨ loan (into proto-language?) Arawak tawi- See Language page Kelsey Neely
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body šinak, ~hii+thak (gom), ʃ̌inak, ~hi: + tʰak (gom) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
hand mano mão body ũtha-k (ids), ~Itak (gom) ũtha-k, ~ɯtak (gom) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
head cabeza cabeça body he (EM72 "head"); pelehe, məkə (EM72 "face") he (EM72 "head"); pelehe, məkə (EM72 "face") inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
hear oír ouvir mental hĩli hĩli inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
heavy pesado pesado quality hɨre (EM72) hɨɾe inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
hide esconder esconder motion šahopo, hoathapo (EM72) ʃahopo, hoatʰapo inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
hit golpear, pegar bater impact šə, šɨ (EM72) ʃə, ʃɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other hɨa (EM72) hɨa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
how? como como grammar haperinah (EM72) hapeɾinah unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
if si se grammar missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location kamiha (EM72) kamiha inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
intestines intestinos intestinos body šik (EM72) ʃik inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body herop, šɨte (EM72) heɾop, ʃɨte inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
kill matar matar impact šela ʃela inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
lake lago lago environment tšokoto (EM72) tʃokoto inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
laugh reír rir mental kahi ĩka, ka ĩkra (EM72) kahi ĩka, ka ĩkɾa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
leaf hoja folha environment hena hena inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body hait (EM72) hait inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion pɨrɨa (EM72) pɨɾɨa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
liver hígado figado body amok (gom) amok (gom) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
long largo comprido, longo quality rape (EM72) ɾape inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna ~noma (gom) ~noma (gom) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
lung pulmón pulmão body missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
meat/flesh carne carne fauna pili yãhi, tsaro yãi (EM72) pili jãhi, tsaɾo jãi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
moon luna lua environment wilipo, wiripo (EM72) wilipo, wiɾipo inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship nape, na a, ne (gom), nape- (EM72) nape, na a, ne (gom), nape- (EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
mouth boca boca body kahik kahik inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
name nombre nome human wãha wãha inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
near/close cerca de perto quality ahati (EM72) ahati inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
neck cuello pescoço body oramih (EM72) oɾamih inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
new nuevo novo quality tito tito inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
night noche noite time thəm tutu thehe, tɨte (EM72 "dark time") tʰəm tutu tʰehe, tɨte inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
no/not no não grammar pemi, nnaha (EM72) pemi, nnaha unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
nose nariz nariz body hũkak (IDS), ~hI$Imp (gom) hũkak, ~hɯʃɯmp inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
old viejo velho quality lepi, repɨ (EM72, old (inanimate)), hote (EM72, inanimate), pata (EM72, elderly, respected) lepi, ɾepɨ, hote, pata inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
one uno um number mõli, mõri (EM72) mõli, mõɾi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
open/uncover abrir abrir other karora (EM72) kaɾoɾa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
other otro outro grammar missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body rãakai, rãamon (EM72) ɾãakai, ɾãamon inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
person/human being persona pessoa human ninam ninam inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact pašə (EM72) paʃə inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
rain lluvia chuva environment maa (EM72) maa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
red rojo vermelho colour ĩe; wake ĩe; wake unique; inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
right/right hand derecha direita location/body temit (EM72) temit inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
road/path camino caminho manufacture pili-yo pili-jo inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
root raíz raiz flora nasilik, naskiri (EM72) nasilik, nasikiɾi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
rotten podrido podre quality tare (EM72) taɾe inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
sand arena areia environment lãkak, rãkak (EM72) lãkak, ɾãkak inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
say decir dizer mental inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
scratch rascar rasgar impact tikoka (EM72) tikoka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
see ver ver mental taa, mɨ (EM72), nta (EM72) ta:, mɨ (EM72), nta (EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality namo (EM72) namo inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact nia (EM72) nia inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
short corto curto quality hotote (EM72) hotote inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
shoulder hombro ombro body harərak (EM72) haɾəɾak unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
sit sentar(se) sentar state ro (EM72) ɾo inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
skin piel pele body pili si, si (EM72) pili si, si inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
sky cielo céu environment hɨtɨmosi, yãrɨ (EM72) hɨtɨmosi, jãɾɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
sleep dormir dormir body mališi; mi maliʃ̌i; mi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
small pequeño pequeno quality sĩilip; oše, siinip (EM72) sĩilip; oʃe, siinip unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
smoke humo fumaça environment wakiši wakiʃ̌i inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body rĩša, ɨkɨka (EM72) ɾĩʃa, ɨkɨka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
spit escupir cuspir body korošo (EM72) koɾoʃo inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact pahatra, pahto (EM72) pahatɾa, pahto inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact ahɨha, hɨteka (EM72) ahɨha, hɨteka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state ɨra (EM72) ɨɾa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
star estrella estrela environment põlemahuk, pəram ãhi (EM72) põlemahuk, pəɾam ãhi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
steal robar roubar other thõmɨmo (EM72) tʰõmɨmo inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
stone piedra pedra environment maama ma:ma inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
suck chupar chupar body ɨkɨka (EM72) ɨkɨka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
sweat sudar suor, suar body missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
swell hincharse inchar body šɨwə (EM72) ʃɨwə inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
swim nadar nadar motion hele, hərə (EM72) hele, həɾə inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
tail cola, rabo rabo body pili šina pili ʃ̌ina inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
that ese/esa esse grammar amih, ɨ̃hɨ (both EM72) amih, ɨ̃hɨ (both EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality thɨra (EM72) tʰɨɾa unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
thin delgado fino quality tetehe (EM72) tetehe inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
think pensar pensar mental pihi, pihkɨ (EM72) pihi, pihkɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
this este/esta este grammar hei (EM72) hei (EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
2sg xx xx grammar kahowa; wa, kaho (EM72) kahowa; wa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
three tres tres number pək, yãmi (EM72 "few") pək, jãmi inheritance yãmi (EM72 "few") See Language page Kelsey Neely
throat garganta garganta body missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact šitšɨ (EM72) ʃitʃɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
thunder truenos trovão environment yãrɨ (EM72) jãɾɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact õka, yãma (EM72) õka, jãma inheritance; unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
tongue lengua lingua body pili aka pili aka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
tooth diente dente body pili nak pili nak inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other šimore (EM72) ʃimoɾe inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
two dos dois number kup; yalukup, tšarakep (EM72) kup; jalukup, tʃaɾakep unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
vomit vomitar vomitar body thɨra (EM72) tʰɨɾa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
walk caminar, andar andar motion hu, hɨ (EM72) hu, hɨ (EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
water agua agua environment maup, maɨp (EM72) maup, maɨp (EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
wet mojado molhado quality hele hele inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
what? que, qué que grammar kale, karɨ thə (EM72) kale, kaɾɨ tʰə (EM72) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
when? cuando quando grammar haperi thəm (EM72) hapeɾi tʰəm unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
where? donde onde grammar haperi ha (EM72) hapeɾi ha unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
white blanco branco colour šĩe, rišiši (EM72) ʃ̌ĩe, ɾiʃiʃi unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
who? quien, quién quem grammar hati hati unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
wife esposa esposa kinship thIw@, tI Ipo, tI Ip (gom) tʰɯwə, tɯ ɯpo, tɯ ɯp (gom) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
wind viento vento environment watori (EM72) watoɾi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
wing ala asa body hakoi (EM72) hakoi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
woman/female mujer mulher human thuwe, thɨwə (EM72) tʰuwe inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
work trabajar trabalhar other kẽa, otamo (EM72) kẽa, otamo inheritance; inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
yawn bostezar bocejar body kahikre (EM72) kahikɾe inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
yellow amarillo amarelo colour walapasipi, hãraha (EM72) walapasipi, hãɾaha unknown; inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
bad mal mal quality wãlihiki, wãrihik wãlihiki, wãɾihik inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar kama (he/she), thə (it, inanimate EM72) kama (animate), tʰə (inanimate) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
1sg yo eu grammar kami-ye; ya, kamatša (EM72) kami-je; ja inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
leg/foot pierna perna body makosi (EM72) makosi unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
man/male hombre homem human wãlo, wãro (EM72) wãlo, wãɾo doubtful loan (into proto-language?) MAYBE Carib source; cf. warawok in Akawaio, warayoʔ in Macushi, warato in Pemon See Language page Kelsey Neely
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar pək, kama kɨpə (dual EM72), kama pɨkə (pl. anim. EM72), thəkə (pl. inanim. EM72) pək, kama kɨpə, kama pɨkə, tʰəkə inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental tapo tapo inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar kahowamak, wamak; kamatšamakə (EM72) kahowamak; wamak; kamatʃamakə (pl. incl) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar kamiyamak, yamak; kamatšehekə (dual excl. EM72) kamijamak; jamak, kamatʃehekə inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
2pl ustedes vocês grammar kahowamak; wamak, kaho wehekə (dual, Em72), kaho wamakə (pl. EM72) kahowamak; wamak, kaho wehekə, kaho wamakə inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
bark corteza casca environment pili si, tihisi (EM72) pili si, tihisi inheritance; inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
fingernail uña unha body namhesi, mãhəs (EM72, "nail, claw") namhesi, mãhəs unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
heart corazón coração body mašiap maʃ̌iap inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
sun sol sol time mothok, poremšĩi (EM72) motʰok, poɾemʃĩi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment olina, teremi (EM72), maamak (EM72) olina, teɾemi, ma:mak loan; unique; inheritance Spanish See Language page Kelsey Neely
green verde verde quality palahi palahi doubtful loan Arawak See Language page Kelsey Neely
hot caliente quente quality wathotho; hĩoši, watoto (EM72), tšori (EM72) watʰotho; hĩoʃ̌i, watoto, tʃoɾi unknown; inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (138)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana missing missing See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no shrub Kelsey Neely
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. krep+ ~Ik (gom) kɾep+ ~ɯk (gom) inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) no Kelsey Neely
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. ~$ihIna (gom), thõmɨ (EM72) ~ʃihɯna (gom), tʰõmɨ inheritance also ~ʃihɯna (gom) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. arasi, weri, aras wari (gom) aɾasi, weɾi, aɾas waɾi (gom) unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Throughout Amazonia no? Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Kelsey Neely
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis missing missing See Language page 1 0 0 0 0 Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls no Kelsey Neely
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes komkarak, ~okarimthok, $iwhirokamak (gom) komkaɾak, õkaɾimtʰok, ʃiwhiɾokamak (gom) unique uncoded See Language page 2 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia yes Kelsey Neely
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora ikoroamasi (gom) ikoɾoamasi (gom) unknown uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae šĩo (EM72), kotše (EM72) (both species unknown) ʃĩo (EM72), kotʃe (EM72) (both species unknown) inheritance missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) t@p@ (gom) təpə (gom) inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonian lowlands no Kelsey Neely
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri oposi (EM72) oposi (EM72) inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread in Amazonia no Kelsey Neely
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum $akaw@si (gom) ʃakawəsi (gom) inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 tropical regions, especially river banks no plant Kelsey Neely
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no tree Kelsey Neely
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. karatha (gom) kaɾatʰa (gom) loan (into protolanguage?) Carib, prob. original meaning 'bastard plantain (sororoca?)' Yukpa Carib kuratana underived N + CLF See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Kelsey Neely
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. hewesi, hewesi, doubtful loan into protolanguage, direction unknown Guahiban uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Kelsey Neely
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis himoto (EM72) himoto inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna tšaro yõn, yõlwət (EM72) tʃaɾo jõn, jõlwət inheritance also jõlwət compound second word unknown; tʃaɾo = "game" (Goodwin-Gomez 90) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forests, native to Brazil no tree Kelsey Neely
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba ~hokoromak (gom) ~hokoɾomak (gom) inheritance uncoded See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon no may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Kelsey Neely
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae hetIk, ~arearem@k (gom) hetɯk, ~arearemək (gom) inheritance also ~arearemək uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) mãlakaaš (ids; loan w/ metathesis?); horoto ('gourd' EM72; Gomez), hesi ('calabash' EM72) mãlakaaš (ids; loan w/ metathesis?); horoto ('gourd' EM72; Gomez), hesi ('calabash' EM72) inheritance also hesi; mãlakaaš uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 indigenous gardens no plant; tree Kelsey Neely
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. no tree Kelsey Neely
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata species not clarified ʃĩo, kotʃe missing both forms inherited uncoded See Language page 2 0 0 0 0 yes Kelsey Neely
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera arasi (gom) aɾasi (gom) unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris kaacI (gom), katšɨ (EM72) kaaʧɯ (gom) loan (into protolg?) North Arawak e.g. Wapishana kaʃu uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum tree: ~oro$ihi (gom) tree: ~oroʃihi (gom) loan - WW %eroi, Carib WaiWai orosɨ; see other Carib eroi forms WW %eroi uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Kelsey Neely
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium giganteum missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Brazil, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela, Guyana no
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea ~toromkona (gom) ~toɾomkona (gom) unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forest, floodplain no vine Kelsey Neely
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca missing missing See Language page 1 0 0 1 1 secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes no plant Kelsey Neely
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria kothapa (gom) kotʰapa (gom) unknown cf. Yavitero kumálala uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu po$ehi (gom) poʃehi (gom) inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) ma$itI Ik (gom), mašitɨšəh (EM72), mošok (EM72) maʃitɯ ɯk (gom), maʃitɨʃəh (EM72), moʃok (EM72) unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 1 secondary scrub vegetation no plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Kelsey Neely
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura oko (EM72) oko inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae ~pa$ierima (gom) ~paʃieɾima (gom) unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. paari (EM72) pa:ɾi inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Amazonia no Kelsey Neely
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus haat$a (gom) haatʃa (gom) inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris okoro (gom) okoɾo (gom) unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Not native; widespread no Kelsey Neely
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Kelsey Neely
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus ~morothotho (gom) ~moɾotʰotʰo (gom) unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 yes Kelsey Neely
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna tšarakə (EM72) tʃaɾakə inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
fish (large type) paiche, pirarucú o arapaima pirarucu flora-fauna Arapaima gigas missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 big rivers only no
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation yes [used to poison people] shrub/tree Kelsey Neely
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera ~hihop (gom), ɨ̃rɨ̃hɨnə (EM72) ~hihop (gom), ɨ̃ɾɨ̃hɨnə (EM72) inheritance also ~hihop (gom) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera rõo (EM72) rõo (EM72) inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana missing missing See Language page 1 0 0 0 0 widespread lowland SA no shrub Kelsey Neely
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis hIri / hIrI(gom) hɯɾi / hɯɾɯ(gom) unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões no Kelsey Neely
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread South America no Kelsey Neely
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Different types have different localized ranges no Kelsey Neely
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi missing missing See Language page 1 0 0 1 0 semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW no vine Kelsey Neely
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden no plant Kelsey Neely
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] iro (gom) iɾo (gom) inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae tẽšo (EM72) tẽʃo (EM72) inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread no Kelsey Neely
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Kelsey Neely
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca tIhI (gom) tɯhɯ (gom) inheritance uncoded See Language page 1 2 0 0 0 yes Kelsey Neely
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no large tree Kelsey Neely
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas no tree Kelsey Neely
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. fruit: ~maimak (gom), tree: ~maimasi (gom) fruit: ~maimak (gom), tree: ~maimasi (gom) inheritance but cf. North Arawak manáka fruit: ~maimak (gom),tree: ~maimasi (gom) uncoded See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia no Kelsey Neely
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings no plant Kelsey Neely
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Kelsey Neely
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. arasi (gom), kararawasi (EM72, blue), arasi (EM72, red) aɾasi (gom), kaɾaɾawasi (EM72, blue), aɾasi (EM72, red) loan into protolanguage - WW %arara Panare ara; also Arawak, e.g. Mandawaka adáːlu; see also Ninam kararawasi (EM72, blue), arasi (EM72, red) WW %ara uncoded See Language page 1 1 0 0 1 Widespread Amazonia no Kelsey Neely
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays lulumok, rIrimos (gom) lulumok, ɾɯrimos (gom) unique underived N-CLF ; mok = "seed" Goodwin-Gomez 90 See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 widespread, esp. in river floodplains no plant Kelsey Neely
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Kelsey Neely
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta naškok; hakalakok (ids) naʃ̌kok; hakalakok (ids) inheritance underived kok = "root, tuber" Goodwin-Gomez 90 See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. no Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Kelsey Neely
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta watim kok (EM72) watim kok inheritance underived kok = "root, tuber" Goodwin-Gomez 90 See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere no No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Kelsey Neely
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa missing missing See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps no trunks contain sago-like starch Kelsey Neely
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. kãyo (EM72) kãjo unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) missing missing See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Kelsey Neely
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread no Kelsey Neely
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests no palm Kelsey Neely
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica wilikok wilikok doubtful loan - WW %awaro maybe into protolg; Arawak variants waru; Macushi woroké underived kok = classifier for "root" (Goodwin-Gomez 90). note that this same morpheme in Yanomami is the classifier for a variety of rounded objects and beings and is associated with parrots. See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 Widespread no Kelsey Neely
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no palm Kelsey Neely
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes rasas (gom) ɾasas (gom) inheritance uncoded See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Kelsey Neely
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus ~painori, ~mainori (gom) ~painoɾi, ~mainoɾi (gom) loan - WW %mawino uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Kelsey Neely
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae arahaw (gom) aɾahaw (gom) unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no [not in this region] Kelsey Neely
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae hop@hi (gom) hopəhi (gom) inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation no compare entries for sweet potato Kelsey Neely
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no tree Kelsey Neely
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 yes Kelsey Neely
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua missing missing See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia no may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Kelsey Neely
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. mo$a+~ahi (gom), šɨmɨ (EM72) moʃa+~ahi (gom) unique also šɨmɨ (Migliazza) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Kelsey Neely
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda krawkraw (gom) kɾawkɾaw (gom) unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna rosik (gom), orɨk (EM72) rosik (gom), oɾɨk inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox orIk (gom) oɾɯk (gom) inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread South America yes Kelsey Neely
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Kelsey Neely
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. šelimuk ʃelimuk loan Tupi-Guarani uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Kelsey Neely
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. ~camaro (gom) ~tʃamaɾo (gom) loan (into protolanguage?), direction unknown North Arawak: Baniwa, Tariana Tariana, Baniwa ɲámaɻo uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas hikomik (ids), hokomok (gom) hikomik (ids), hokomok (gom) inheritance also hokomok (gom) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Kelsey Neely
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris $ama (gom) ʃama (gom) inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Kelsey Neely
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Kelsey Neely
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura coco (gom) tʃotʃo (gom) inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum pinahi, piinahi (EM72) pinahi, piinahi inheritance underived nahe = CLF "tobacco" in Yanomami. Has it been reanalyzed as one word in Ninam (which only has a handful of CLF) See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 no plant Kelsey Neely
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria missing missing See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Widespread no Kelsey Neely
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. matšop (EM72), ~herek$o (gom) matʃop, ~heɾekʃo inheritance also ~heɾekʃo (gom) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Kelsey Neely
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna wiitihi wi:tihi inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
cunuri (tree) cunuri cunuri flora-fauna Cunurea spruceana missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Amazonia no
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions no other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Kelsey Neely
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae watupa (IDS), ~kokocom (gom) watupa (IDS), ~kokoʧom (gom) doubtful loan (into protolg?) - WW Arawak, e.g. Wapishana watʰu Wapishana, Mandawaka wathu, wadu; see also Ninam ~kokocom (gom) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread South America no Kelsey Neely
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita missing missing See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons carimi (gom) ʧaɾimi (gom) doubtful loan Carib, cf. terms for spider monkey arimi Yucuna kalapitʃi, Kabiyari kánapit̪i uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus pa$o (gom) paʃo (gom) inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times no a tree; not a true grape Kelsey Neely
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Kelsey Neely
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. ~wa ahe ri$i$i (gom) ~wa ahe ɾiʃiʃi (gom) inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Kelsey Neely
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna okoro okoro unique See Language page Epps Research Team
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna haat$a haatʃa inheritance See Language page Epps Research Team


Cultural Vocabulary (106)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology yãn-paluk (heaven) yãn-paluk (heaven) missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool šikawe, šakao (EM72) ʃ̌ikawe, ʃakao inheritance Proto-Yanomamo Alternate: ʃakao Simplex hunting, warfare See Language page Kelsey Neely
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool missing especially for clearing fields See Language page Kelsey Neely
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool ia wei ia wei bait unknown Derived ia unclear (fish?), wei nominalizer can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Kelsey Neely
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material tarosi (EM72) (most common basket) taɾosi unique Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material šĩtha- (ids) [prob actually means 'string'] ʃ̌ĩtha- (ids) [prob actually means 'string'] unknown IDS gives ʃ̌ĩtha-, but looks suspiciously like the words for string in the other languages, maybe a mistranslation? See Language page Kelsey Neely
bed cama cama culture-material kama kama loan Span/Port also Arawak (e..g Yavitero kama); Eñepa kaama; Hup káma; Siona cama Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool missing currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Kelsey Neely
bottle botella garrafa acculturation missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
bow arco arco subsistence tool šaknahi, šakaonahi (EM72) ʃ̌aknahi, ʃakaonahi inheritance Proto-Yanomamo Simplex arco See Language page Kelsey Neely
broom escoba vassoura culture-material hašia wei (ids) haʃ̌ia wei (ids) unique Derived hãši, “sweep”; wei, nominalizer See Language page Kelsey Neely
canoe canoa canoa transport kanawe kanawe loan - WW %kanawa Could be loan into protolanguage. WW occurs in e.g. Wapishana, khanawa; various Carib (kanau, kanawa, kanowa, kanáw); Guayabero, kanáw; Candoshi, kánó; Jivaro, kán; Matses, cano; Napo Lowland Quichua, kanu; Siriano, cũma; Yanomam (kanaw, kanae). Ultimate WW %kanawa Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
cat gato gato acculturation kitikiti kitikiti loan English Probably via American missionaries? Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
chicken gallina galinha acculturation kalaka kalaka loan - WW %karaka Could be loan into protolanguage, but unlikely since chickens are apparently recent. Probably Arawak origin (see Nordenskiold 1922). Tukanoan, e.g. Wanano karaka; Arawak, e.g. Baniwa kaláka; Yanomamo, Nadeb; Macaguan takra, Sikuani wakara WW %karaka Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology pata pata inheritance Proto-Yanomamo? Shared Ninam, Yanomam; doubtful inheritance Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
coca narcotics Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
cook food food ɾɨpɨ Inheritance Proto-Yanomami Alternate: lupu ma Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology missing malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Kelsey Neely
dance (generic) culture-mythology heli Inheritance Proto-Yanomamo? Not attested in Sanuma. Alternate: raɨa, hakamo Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool missing hunting and warfare See Language page Kelsey Neely
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology teus teus god loan Portuguese Also in Warekena Diutsu; Puinave dio; Ashuar jus Simplex In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Kelsey Neely
digging stick subsistence tool tiə Unknown Alternate: paktʰa Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology mãli taa mãli taa inheritance Proto-Yanomamo Phrase mali also found in “sleep,” taa looks like some kind of light verb: “see,” “find,” “look at” and is an element in words for “accuse,” “weigh” “measure” See Language page Kelsey Neely
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology tambor tambor loan Portuguese/Spanish Also in Nheengatu tamburina; also Baniwa tamorína; Carib (e.g. Carijona taburu); Northern Emberá thãmbóra; Jivaro (e.g. Ashuar tampur) Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool šahema, tšahɨha (EM72) ʃ̌ahema, tʃahɨha inheritance Proto-Yanomamo Alternate: tʃahɨha Simplex esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Kelsey Neely
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology ãhuk; šĩoik; yõik (ids) ãhuk; ʃ̌ĩoik; yõik (ids) unknown Alternate: ʃ̌ĩoik; yõik Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
fireplace hogar lareira other missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
firewood leña lenha other thalukuk tʰalukuk inheritance Proto-Yanomami/Yanomam Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food rəka ɾəka inheritance Proto-Yanomamo Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool mãliaši thãthə mãliaši thãthə unknown Compound “mãliaši” also appears in the complex term for “chain,” seems to be some sort of compound. Not clear what “thãthə” means See Language page Kelsey Neely
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food našihi (EM72) naʃihi semantic shift? Proto Ninam/Yanomami/Yanomam from 'manioc' Alternate: paktʰa Simplex usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Kelsey Neely
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food naškohi (generic meal/flour) naʃkohi (generic meal/flour) generic meal/flour unique from naʃi 'manioc' Has undergone metathesis. Also Baniwa, matsóka; Warekena, matsuka; Mandawaka, matʃúka; Puinave, masuká; Nadeb ma WW %matsuka Simplex agriculture See Language page Kelsey Neely
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology thõlema tʰõlema unknown Simplex multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Kelsey Neely
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food tšaro (EM72) tʃaɾo inheritance Proto-Yanomamo Alternate: tʃaro Simplex Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Kelsey Neely
genipap culture-mythology Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool mãlakaaš (ids); horoto ('gourd' EM72; Gomez), hesi ('calabash' EM72) mãlakaaš (ids); horoto ('gourd' EM72; Gomez), hesi ('calabash' EM72) loan; doubtful loan (into protolg?) - WW; inheritance? *fesi Proto-Yanomamo Spanish (calabash); %koto/matoko Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool hɨrɨka (EM72) hɨɾɨka to grate (verb) inheritance Proto-Yanomamo Simplex esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Kelsey Neely
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool ala wei ala wei unknown Derived put on a rack +nominalizer See Language page Kelsey Neely
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool missing agriculture? See Language page Kelsey Neely
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation ẽspikata ẽspikata loan Spanish escopeta Has undergone metathesis. Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material nakamthok (EM72) nakamtʰok hammock (cotton or vine) inheritance Proto-Yanomamo Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
hat sombero chapéu dress yohopo wei johopo wei semantic shift? Proto Ninam/Yanomami/Yanomam Derived yohopo, “carry on head”; wei nominalizer See Language page Kelsey Neely
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology šapori (EM72) ʃapoɾi shaman inheritance Proto-Yanomamo Simplex In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Kelsey Neely
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
honey miel mel food oi oi doubtful loan Tupi-Guarani Simplex only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Kelsey Neely
hunt cazar caçar food hete; peli; šoa, ram hɨ (EM72) hete; peli; ʃoa, ɾam hɨ unique Alternate: peli; šoa Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
knife cuchillo faca culture-material thomu-na, thõmɨna (EM72) tʰomu-na, tʰõmɨna knife (tooth of agouti) inheritance Proto-Yanomamo Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
machete machete facão culture-material thomu-na, thõmɨna (EM72) tʰõmɨna semantic shift Proto-Yanomamo knife' Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool tokoli paka tokoli paka loan widespread; cf. Spanish taco Compound a kind of tree + hole See Language page Kelsey Neely
fence, palisade cerco cerca other šokia wei (ids) ʃ̌okia wei (ids) unknown Derived ʃ̌okia, unclear; wei nominalizer may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Kelsey Neely
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
paper papel papel acculturation liplo-si liplo-si loan Span/Port 'papel' Spanish/Portuguese > Nheengatu > others? Ninam liplo (metathesis); Arawak (e.g. Yucuna papera); Macaguan papéna; Tukanoan (Cubeo papela, Wanano papera pû, Tukano papéra); Nheengatu papera; Yanomam, papʰeo WW %papera Simplex liplo-si, “paper-classifier (skin)” See Language page Kelsey Neely
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool tiša wei tiʃa wei unknown Derived pound + nominalizer See Language page Kelsey Neely
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
plate plato prato culture-material plato plato plate loan Spanish/Portuguese Nheengatu parátu (from POR); see also Arawak (e..g Yucuna paɾatú); Carib (e.g. Makushi pɨratu); Jivaro (e.g. Aguaruna parátu); Hup padatu=b'ɔk Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
policeman polícia policía acculturation missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool hapoka hapoka inheritance Proto Ninam/Yanomami/Yanomam Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
salt sal sal food waihok waihok Doutbtful loan Pemon Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
school escuela escola acculturation liplu ua wei yãno liplu ua wei yãno unique Loan blend, from loan 'paper' Compound liplu, “paper”; yãno, “house”; wei nominalizer; ua unclear See Language page Kelsey Neely
shoes zapatos sapatos dress mãhuk pesi mãhuk pesi unique Same as “stocking” Derived mãhuk, “foot,” pesi looks like a general word for clothes, etc. See Language page Kelsey Neely
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material saia saja loan Port/Span saia Port > Nheengatu > others? Arawak (e.g. Baniwa tsʰaaja); Makushi u-saja-ri; Wanano saya si; Nheengatu saja; Ninam saja WW %saja Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
soldier soldado soldado acculturation sotatu sotatu loan Span/Port soldado Port via Nheengatu; also in Arawak, Carib, East Tukanoan, Yanomamo. Nheengatu surara; Makushi surara; Hup sudadu; East Tukanoan (e.g. Cubeo ʈʃulala); Ninam sotatu WW %surara Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology #NAME? #NAME? inheritance Proto Ninam/Yanomami/Yanomam Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
spear lanza lança subsistence tool šohemas, šokop (EM72) ʃohemas, ʃokop unknown; inheritance Proto Ninam/Yanomami/Yanomam Possibly loaned into Makiritari sukuhi; Alternate: ʃohemas Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation asuka asuka loan Spanish/Portuguese via Nheengatu or other? Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food missing agriculture See Language page Kelsey Neely
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material yaa-hena-k (ids) yaa-hena-k (ids) inheritance Proto Ninam/Yanomami/Yanomam Compound a kind of plant-leaf-plural See Language page Kelsey Neely
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food missing word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Kelsey Neely
tobacco (native) narcotics pinahi tobacco Inheritance Proto-Yanomamo Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool missing agriculture See Language page Kelsey Neely
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool noma (vb.; IDS) doubtful loan - WW? cf. Tukanoan nima, Boran namita, Nadahup nam, Yagua ramũ, Iquito ramúcuaa hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Kelsey Neely
wax cera cera other missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool missing agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Kelsey Neely
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology missing a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Kelsey Neely
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material thalosi tʰalosi unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture missing Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Kelsey Neely
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology inheritance Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Kelsey Neely
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology kamiša-k (ids) kamiʃ̌a-k (ids) loan Portuguese See Language page Kelsey Neely
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology hikalapək (ids) hikalapək (ids) unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
paddle/oar remo remo transport kanakoli kanakoli inheritance? See Language page Kelsey Neely
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture raithata, oramthata (EM72) ɾaitʰata, oɾamtʰata inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology pili yai pili yai See Language page Kelsey Neely
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture missing prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Kelsey Neely
bottom grinding stone manufacture missing if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Kelsey Neely
digging stick subsistence tool tiə, paktha (EM72) tiə, paktʰa missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture missing use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Kelsey Neely
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
spearthrower subsistence tool missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
house other yãno jãno inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely


Grammatical Data (226)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. no Migliazza 1972: p.38-39 Kelsey Neely
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] no Migliazza 1972: p.38-39 Kelsey Neely
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast no Migliazza 1972: p.38-39 Kelsey Neely
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? no Migliazza 1972: p.38-39 Kelsey Neely
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels no Migliazza 1972: p.38-39 Kelsey Neely
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme yes very rare, only attested sequences in Goodwin-Gomez are kr and pr Migliazza 1972: p.154; Goodwin-Gomez 1990: 26 Kelsey Neely
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] yes Migliazza 1972: p.154 Kelsey Neely
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? no Migliazza 1972: p.154 Kelsey Neely
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones no Migliazza 1972: p.38-39 Kelsey Neely
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? no Migliazza 1972: p.161 Kelsey Neely
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments yes Migliazza 1972: p.154 Kelsey Neely
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? no Nasality is a feature of the morpheme, but there's no clearly stated evidence that nasality spreads specifically from roots across morpheme boundaries Migliazza 1972: p.158 Kelsey Neely
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony no info Kelsey Neely
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] no Goodwin-Gomez, p.93-99 Kelsey Neely no fusional morphemes appear
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone no Goodwin-Gomez, p.93-99 Kelsey Neely no suppletive or stem-changed forms appear.
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word yes but, modal and aspectual morphemes don't cooccur Goodwin-Gomez, p.93-99 Kelsey Neely many examples with synthesis
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no Goodwin-Gomez : p.81 Kelsey Neely
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes yes Goodwin-Gomez : p.81 Kelsey Neely
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different no Goodwin-Gomez : p.81 Kelsey Neely
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated yes Goodwin-Gomez : p.35 Kelsey Neely
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated yes Goodwin-Gomez : p.35 Kelsey Neely
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced yes Goodwin-Gomez, p.111 Kelsey Neely
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection no one verb will be subordinated with -wei suffix Migliazza 1972, p.65, 73, 75 Kelsey Neely
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word yes can involve a verb root preceeded by a qualitative verb Goodwin-Gomez, p.115 Kelsey Neely
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' no info Kelsey Neely
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs yes Goodwin-Gomez, p.91, 99 Kelsey Neely
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment no info Kelsey Neely I disagree with the way Goodwin-Gomez analyzes some constructions that could actually involve incorporation
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns yes adverbs Goodwin-Gomez, p.82-83, 103 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP no some classifiers but no classes; however, there's a pretty clear division along animacy lines (2 distinct 3rd person pronouns) Goodwin-Gomez, p.119, 120 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders no Goodwin-Gomez, p.119-120 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. yes kok (root), sik (plant), kik (fruit), mok (seed), si (skin), ɪ (liquid) kok (root), sik (plant), kik (fruit), mok (seed), si (skin), ɪ (liquid) Goodwin-Gomez, p.119, 120 Kelsey Neely synchronically frozen, often unproductive
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter no Goodwin-Gomez, p.119-120 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates no Goodwin-Gomez, p.119-120 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human no Goodwin-Gomez, p.47, 49 Kelsey Neely 3rd person pronouns distinguish animacy, but there aren't noun classes
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only no Goodwin-Gomez, p.47, 49 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates no Goodwin-Gomez, p.120 Kelsey Neely but function (seed, tree, plant, liquid, skin) are
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates no Goodwin-Gomez, p.120 Kelsey Neely but function (seed, tree, plant, liquid, skin) are
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" no Goodwin-Gomez p.119-121 Kelsey Neely classifiers limited and synchronically frozen, no mention of numeral classifiers
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals no Goodwin-Gomez, p.121-123 Kelsey Neely no mention of any
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' yes Goodwin-Gomez, p.120 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups no Goodwin-Gomez Kelsey Neely no evidence of this
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun no Goodwin-Gomez, p.79-80 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no Goodwin-Gomez, p.79-80 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun no Goodwin-Gomez, p.79-80 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic yes pɪk (3rd pl animate) pɪk (3rd pl animate) Goodwin-Gomez, p.79-80 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only yes pɪk (3rd pl) pɪk (3rd pl) inanimates marked for plural with partitive/collective suffix Goodwin-Gomez, p.79-80 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns no Goodwin-Gomez, p.50-51 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' no info Goodwin-Gomez Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only no info Goodwin-Gomez Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness no info Goodwin-Gomez Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker no info Goodwin-Gomez Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you no Goodwin-Gomez, p.50-51 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) no Goodwin-Gomez, p.50-51 Kelsey Neely based on data for "short form PNs"; it's debatable whether these are bound or not
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system yes, 3 hei (close), ei (far), ai (other) hei (close), ei (far), ai (other) Goodwin-Gomez, p.56-57 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) no Goodwin-Gomez, p.56-57 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns no Goodwin-Gomez, p.50-51 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns no Goodwin-Gomez, p.50-51 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no Goodwin-Gomez, p.50-51 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no Goodwin-Gomez, p.50-51 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix no Goodwin-Gomez, p.47 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients yes esi esi benefactive Goodwin-Gomez, p.78 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun 3 agentive: /-n/, oblique: /-ha/, commitative /-ʃo/ agentive: /-n/, oblique: /-ha/, commitative /-$o/ agentive, oblique, commitative Goodwin-Gomez, p.76-79 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are no ergative is marked Goodwin-Gomez, p.76-78 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) yes Goodwin-Gomez, p.76-80 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates no Goodwin-Gomez, p.76-80 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic yes Goodwin-Gomez, p.76-78 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic no Goodwin-Gomez, p.76-78 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic no Goodwin-Gomez, p.76-78 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change no Goodwin-Gomez, p.76-78 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone no Goodwin-Gomez, p.76-78 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' no Goodwin-Gomez, p. 78 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 no Migliazza 1972, IDS list Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 no Migliazza 1972, IDS list Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 no Migliazza 1972, IDS list Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. no Migliazza 1972, IDS list Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' no Migliazza 1972, IDS list Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no no numerals above 2 Migliazza 1972, IDS list Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no no numerals above 2 Migliazza 1972, IDS list Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no Goodwin-Gomez Kelsey Neely no evidence for this
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no Goodwin-Gomez Kelsey Neely no evidence for this
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? no 1st and 2nd personal possessive pronouns (not affixes) come before possessed noun Goodwin-Gomez, p. 52 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? yes =e =e 3rd person possessive clitic =e comes after possessed noun Goodwin-Gomez, p. 52 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' no clitic =e usually follows head, but can sometimes precede it, coming inbetween dependent and head, but it is always bound to the head, even when it is also bound to the dependent Goodwin-Gomez, p. 52 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' yes Goodwin-Gomez, p. 52 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities no goodwin-Gomez, p. 52-53 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) yes different markers used for inalienable Goodwin-Gomez, p.52-56 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) yes different markers used for alienable Goodwin-Gomez, p.52-56 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form yes piɾi (analyzed as separate word, comes before head) piri (analyzed as separate word, comes before head) Goodwin-Gomez, p.55-56 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father yes Goodwin-Gomez, p.55 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg yes Goodwin-Gomez, p.55 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) no Goodwin-Gomez, p.52-56 Kelsey Neely no mention of this
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes no info Goodwin-Gomez Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco no Goodwin-Gomez Kelsey Neely no evidence for this.
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb no Goodwin-Gomez, p.116-117 Kelsey Neely "nominalization" but none of these kinds
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb no Goodwin-Gomez, p.116-117 Kelsey Neely "nominalization" but none of these kinds
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb no Goodwin-Gomez, p.116-117 Kelsey Neely "nominalization" but none of these kinds
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective yes suffixes =po and =mo/=ma suffixes =po and =mo/=ma Goodwin-Gomez, p.117-118 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' yes Goodwin-Gomez, p.78 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere no Goodwin-Gomez, p.93 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past n/a Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future n/a Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) n/a Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no Goodwin-Gomez, p.93-98 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes prospective: /-p/, perfective: /-m, -ma/, imperfective: (high vowel agreeing in backness to the stem-final vowel) or /ɪ/ (allophones: /ŋ/ when suffixed to a nasal morpheme, /ɣ/ elsewhere), resultative: /-ɾa/, ingressive: /-ɾe, -ke, -co/, causative: /=mo, prospective: /-p/, perfective: /-m, -ma/, imperfective: (high vowel agreeing in backness to the stem-final vowel) or /ɪ/ (allophones: /ŋ/ when suffixed to a nasal morpheme, /ɣ/ elsewhere), resultative: /-ra/, ingressive: /-re, -ke, -co/, causative: /=mo, Goodwin-Gomez, p.93-98 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no Goodwin-Gomez, p.93-98 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no Goodwin-Gomez, p.93-98 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood no suffixes: /-ɾii/, /-kii/, /-kei/ suffixes: /-rii/, /-kii/, /-kei/ multiple 2nd person singular forms Goodwin-Gomez, p.106 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) no Goodwin-Gomez, p.106 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses yes negative imperative (prohibative) postposition: /~mahaɾai/ with verbal suffix /-n/ negative imperative (prohibative) postposition: /~maharai/ with verbal suffix /-n/ Goodwin-Gomez, p.107 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' yes commitative /-ʃo/, hortatory particle /~hamɪɪ/ commitative /-$o/, hortatory particle /~hamɪɪ/ first person only Goodwin-Gomez, p.106 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something no Goodwin-Gomez, p.98 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction no Goodwin-Gomez, p.98 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking no Goodwin-Gomez, p.98 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis no Goodwin-Gomez, p.98 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction no Goodwin-Gomez, p.98 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking yes postposition: /itʰe/ postposition: /ithe/ postposition Goodwin-Gomez, p.98 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected no info Goodwin-Gomez Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") no info Goodwin-Gomez Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality no info Goodwin-Gomez Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' no info Goodwin-Gomez Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' no info Goodwin-Gomez Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative no info Goodwin-Gomez Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. no info Goodwin-Gomez Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker yes postposition: /ʃin/ preceded by verbal suffix /-n/ postposition: /$in/ preceded by verbal suffix /-n/ Goodwin-Gomez, p.97 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) no Goodwin-Gomez, p.97 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. no Goodwin-Gomez, p.97 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' no Goodwin-Gomez, p.97 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse no Goodwin-Gomez, p.97 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above yes postposition: /ʃiɾe/ , preceded by verbal suffix /-n/ postposition: /$ire/ , preceded by verbal suffix /-n/ general non-witnessed/non-visual Goodwin-Gomez, p.97 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic yes Goodwin-Gomez, p.97 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs no Goodwin-Gomez, p.97 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle yes Goodwin-Gomez, p.97 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme yes Goodwin-Gomez, p.97 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion no Goodwin-Gomez Kelsey Neely no mention of this
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction no Goodwin-Gomez Kelsey Neely no mention of this
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order no Goodwin-Gomez: 125 Kelsey Neely
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject no Goodwin-Gomez: 125 Kelsey Neely
Word Order VS in transitive clauses no Goodwin-Gomez: 125 Kelsey Neely
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object no Goodwin-Gomez: 125 Kelsey Neely
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject no Goodwin-Gomez: 125 Kelsey Neely
Word Order Preposition-Noun no Goodwin-Gomez: 81 Kelsey Neely evidenced by examples
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes Goodwin-Gomez: 81 Kelsey Neely
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) no info Goodwin-Gomez Kelsey Neely no examples with full NPs, pronoun order varies
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') no info Goodwin-Gomez Kelsey Neely no examples with full NPs, pronoun order varies
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun yes only with the adjective 'pata' big Goodwin-Gomez: 75 Kelsey Neely
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun yes only with the adjective 'wai' small Goodwin-Gomez: 81 Kelsey Neely
Word Order Dem-Noun yes Goodwin-Gomez: 56-58 Kelsey Neely
Word Order Noun-Dem no Goodwin-Gomez: 56-58 Kelsey Neely
Word Order Num-Noun no Goodwin-Gomez: 72 Kelsey Neely
Word Order Noun-Num yes Goodwin-Gomez: 72 Kelsey Neely
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies no info Goodwin-Gomez Kelsey Neely
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies no info Goodwin-Gomez Kelsey Neely
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') no info Goodwin-Gomez Kelsey Neely
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' no info Goodwin-Gomez Kelsey Neely
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause yes Goodwin-Gomez: 60 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects no Goodwin-Gomez: 77-78 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked no Goodwin-Gomez: 77-78 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker yes Goodwin-Gomez: 77-78 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no Goodwin-Gomez: 77-78 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no Goodwin-Gomez: 77-78 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative no Goodwin-Gomez: 48 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative no Goodwin-Gomez: 48 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other yes Goodwin-Gomez: 48 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no Goodwin-Gomez: 48 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no Goodwin-Gomez: 48 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs no info Goodwin-Gomez Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no info Goodwin-Gomez Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive no info Goodwin-Gomez Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) no info Goodwin-Gomez Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. no info Goodwin-gomez Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects yes 1sg: /kamatʃa/, 1dl: /kama tʃehek/, 1pl: /kama tʃamak/, 2sg:/~kaho/, 2dl: /~kaho wehek/, 2pl: /~kaho wamak/, 3sg animate: /kama/, 3dl animate: /kama kɪp/, 3pl animate: /kama pɪk/, 3sg inanimate: /tʰə/, 3pl inanimate: /tʰə-k/ 1sg: /kamaca/, 1dl: /kama cehek/, 1pl: /kama camak/, 2sg:/~kaho/, 2dl: /~kaho wehek/, 2pl: /~kaho wamak/, 3sg animate: /kama/, 3dl animate: /kama kIp/, 3pl animate: /kama pIk/, 3sg inanimate: /th@/, 3pl inanimate: /th@-k/ not obligatory Goodwin-Gomez, p.47-51 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) yes 1sg: subj /tʃa/ obj /tʃee/, 1dl: /tʃehek/ /tʃehe/, 1pl: /tʃamak/ /tʃampɪk/, 2sg: subj /wa/ obj / wee/, 2dl: /wehek/, 2pl: /wamak/, 3sg animate: /pa/, 3dl animate: /kɪp/, 3pl animate: /pɪk/, 3sg inanimate: /tʰə/, 3pl inanimate: /tʰə-k/ 1sg: subj /ca/ obj cee, 1dl: /cehek/ /cehe/, 1pl: /camak/ /campIk/, 2sg: subj /wa/ obj / wee/, 2dl: /wehek/, 2pl: /wamak/, 3sg animate: /pa/, 3dl animate: /kIp/, 3pl animate: /pIk/, 3sg inanimate: /th@/, 3pl inanimate: /th@-k/ Goodwin-Gomez analyzes these as separate words, but they always precede the verb Goodwin-Gomez, p.47-51 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Goodwin-Gomez, p.47-51 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no Goodwin-Gomez, p.47-51 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no Goodwin-Gomez, p.47-51 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes yes Goodwin-Gomez, p.47-51 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers yes Goodwin-Gomez, p.47-51 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers yes 1st and 2nd person have special object forms Goodwin-Gomez: 47 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system yes these can be marked, but don't need to be Goodwin-Gomez: 47 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no info Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately yes 3rd person reduced forms are sometimes used as number Goodwin-Gomez: 48-51 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes no Non-kinship possession: 1: /ipa/, 2: /aho/, 3: /kama=e/ (noun); kinship possession: 1: null or /ipa/ both with suffix /-tʃV/, 2: null with suffix /-ho/, 3: pe with or without suffix /-p/ and with poss. Clitic /e/ Non-kinship possession: 1: /ipa/, 2: /aho/, 3: /kama=e/ (noun); kinship possession: 1: null or /ipa/ both with suffix /-cV/, 2: null with suffix /-ho/, 3: pe with or without suffix /-p/ and with poss. Clitic /e/ but they are very similar Goodwin-Gomez: 47 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent no see lists of pronouns above animate/inanimate distinction made in 3rd person forms Goodwin-Gomez: 47 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently no info Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives no info Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently no info Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. no no special form for reciprocal Goodwin-Gomez: 47 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. no no special form for reflexive Goodwin-Gomez: 47 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb n/a no special form for reciprocal or reflexive Goodwin-Gomez: 47 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted n/a ergative-absolutive Goodwin-Gomez Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no info Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency no info Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb no info Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb no info Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb no Goodwin-Gomez: 101 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb yes /mo/, /ma/ /mo/, /ma/ Goodwin-Gomez: 101 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix no Goodwin-Gomez: 101 Kelsey Neely no evidence for this
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization no Goodwin-Gomez: 101 Kelsey Neely no evidence for this
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' no Goodwin-Gomez: 101 Kelsey Neely no evidence for this
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event no Goodwin-Gomez: 101 Kelsey Neely no evidence for this
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency no info Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element no Goodwin-Gomez, p.102 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element yes /pemi/ /pemi/ Goodwin-Gomez, p.102 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix no Goodwin-Gomez, p.102 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle yes postposed /pemi/ postposed /pemi/ Goodwin-Gomez, p.102 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb no Goodwin-Gomez, p.102 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' no Goodwin-Gomez, p.102 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' no uses same form Goodwin-Gomez, p.102 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase no uses pemi negation Goodwin-Gomez, p.102 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle yes word final /o/ word final /o/ Goodwin-Gomez, p.62 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology no Goodwin-Gomez, p.62 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no Goodwin-Gomez, p.62 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only no Goodwin-Gomez, p.62 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) no Goodwin-Gomez, p.60-61 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position yes Goodwin-Gomez Kelsey Neely evidenced by examples
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position no Goodwin-Gomez Kelsey Neely evidenced by examples
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) yes Goodwin-Gomez Kelsey Neely from examples throughout the grammar
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) yes Goodwin-Gomez, p. 131-132 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. no Goodwin-Gomez, p. 131-132 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause no info Goodwin-Gomez, p. 131-132 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix no /piha/ /piha/ particle occurring after the verb Goodwin-Gomez, p. 131-132 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) no Goodwin-Gomez, p. 131-132 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) no inflected verb used instead Goodwin-Gomez: 98 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. no info Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined no info Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence yes pre-dating: /ha. . .-n/, until: /iha/. Post-dating: /waiha/, simultaneous: /tʰətʰə/ pre-dating: /ha. . .-n/, until: /iha/. Post-dating: /waiha/, simultaneous: /th@th@/ Goodwin-Gomez, p. 132-134 Kelsey Neely


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
600 medium HG medium seasonal Interfluvial