Noun classes/genders

Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification
Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla no Jane Hill
Cupeño no Jane Hill
Luiseño no Jane Hill
Serrano no Jane Hill
Kitanemuk no Jane Hill
Kawaiisu yes Jane Hill
Timbisha no Jane Hill
Western Mono no Jane Hill
Chemehuevi yes Jane Hill
Southern Paiute yes Jane Hill
Southern Ute yes Jane Hill
Shoshone no Jane Hill
Comanche no Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone no Jane Hill
Northern Paiute no Jane Hill
Gabrielino no Jane Hill
Achagua yes There is a subclass of animates that receives the number and gender marking Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 22 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro no Allin's description of a noun phrase includes "concord" between a head noun and several dependents, however, the concord categories seem to be number, size, and classifiers, rather than gender or class. Allin 1976: 150-176, 223 Ana Paula Brandao
Bare yes The gender distinction occurs only in predicate constructions? Aikhenvald, 1995: 19 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Piapoco yes Galindo, 2002: 99-100 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna yes Subject noun class is marked with suffixes on the verb if the subject is an overt NP (otherwise, the subject is indicated with cross-referencing prefixes). Shauer & Shauer, 1978: 40 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero yes There is a sex-based gender distinction, found in pronouns, demonstratives, and personal-reference affixes. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 36 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana yes Sets include masculine/feminine, animacy, alienable/inalienable, shape, location, and others. Each is treated as a noun class. Santos, 2006:139 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu yes masculine/non-masculine, and plural. The non-masculine seems to be the 'unmarked' form, marking inanimates and even things like 'ancestors.' Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 796-797 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana yes Aikhenvald 2003: 87 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã yes masculine and feminine, cross-referenced on verb and demonstratives Facundes, 2000: 150 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali yes Payne 1981:13, 2234 Amanda Meeks
Maipure no no gender or class distinction on nouns. Only verbal Zamponi 2003:24 Daniel Smith
Yanesha' no Duff-Tripp 1997:23-51 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure yes Danielsen 2007: Table 4.15 Mitz Perez
Nanti yes Michael, 2008. p. 294 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Palikur yes Green and Green 1972:56-7 Daniel Valle
Yine no info Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun yes Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora yes Seifart - 2005:77-82 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare yes "..two major morphosyntactic classes marked by the suffixes -dü and -i and several minor classes" Hall 1988: 288 Daniel Smith
Makushi yes Carson 1982: 56 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa no no true noun classes Payne 2012:74 Daniel Smith
Pemon no de Armellada 1999:48 Shannon Dardis
Guna no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika yes The shape of the noun refered may have some morphosyntactic correlates as to the verb or normimal predicate it appears with Frank 1989:22 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar yes There exists 6 noun clases:humans, flat things, rounded things, elongated things, sets and trees. However, this noun classes are not completely consistent since, for instance, in the human class are also included some animals. Bertoglia 1983:5 Daniel Valle
Guaymí no Quesada 2008:49-97 Daniel Valle
Damana no Daniel Valle
Sikuani yes Queixalós 1998:31 Daniel Smith
Macaguan no doesn't seem likely Buenaventura 1993 Daniel Smith
Aguaruna yes Overall 2007:137 Daniel Valle There are 4 noun classes: proper names, kin terms, locational terms and others
Northern Emberá no Mortensen 1999:15-6 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá no Levinson 1974, 1976, 1976b Daniel Valle
Matses no Fleck:240 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no Zúñiga 2006, p. 87-9 Daniel Valle
Páez no info Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no Parker 1965:32-46 Daniel Valle
Tikuna yes Montes 2004b:61 Daniel Valle
Urarina no info Daniel Valle
Waunana no info Daniel Valle
Andoke yes Landaburu 1979: p.130-132 Kelsey Neely
Puinave yes Giron 2008: p185 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara yes Deza Galindo 1992: 78 and Huayhua Pari 2001: 199, 200 Shannon Dardis
Kakua no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no only for human nouns Minor and Minor 1982. p.31 Christopher Clack
Hup no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano yes Miller 1999, p.21 Amanda Novak
Cubeo yes animante/inanimate; masc/fem Chacón 2012:238-240 Daniel Smith
Kotiria yes gender only for human Stenzel 2004, p. 122 Amanda Novak
Makuna yes Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p. 33 Chris Clack
Koreguaje yes animate and inanimate Cook & Criswell 1993, p.15 Chris Clack human noun endings can not do without "emotional" gender and number.
Barasano yes Nouns in Barasano fill the roles of subject, object, benefactive, location, time, manner, and instrument. Jones & Jones 1991, p.19 Chris Clack
Tanimuca yes Relative clauses, dependent clauses, and nearly every noun is marked as a nominal with a number/gender suffix. Strom 1992, p.10 Chris Clack
Siona yes Animate/inanimate, spatial/temporal Wheeler 1987:102-105 Daniel Smith
Tukano yes 3: masc. animate, fem. Animate, inanimate West and Welch 2004: various pages (37 in particular) Kelsey Neely
Yanomami no noun clasifiers, but not classes Ramirez 1994: p.123-124 Kelsey Neely
Ninam no some classifiers but no classes; however, there's a pretty clear division along animacy lines (2 distinct 3rd person pronouns) Goodwin-Gomez, p.119, 120 Kelsey Neely
Sanumá no Borgman 1990: p.144-147 Kelsey Neely
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana no There are no noun classifiers in the language whatsoever Everett 2006:296 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no Zarratea 2002:121-41 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu yes done 1
Wambaya yes done 1
Bunuba no done 0
Walmajarri no Done-Claire 0
Nyulnyul no done? 0
Warrwa no done 0
Worrorra yes 22 done 1
Garrwa yes 4 done 1
Gooniyandi no done 0
Warlpiri no done 0
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no 55 done 0
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi n/a 46-47 done-Dan 0
Yidiny yes done-Catherine 1
Yanyuwa yes 4 Done-Austin 1
Yandruwandha no 88-105 Done-Dan 0
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga yes 14 Done-Dan 1
Woiwurrung no 67 done-Amalia 0
Wirangu No 47 done 0
Wemba-Wemba no H 27-28 done-Amalia 0
Warumungu No 17-18 done-Amalia 0
Wangkumara yes 1 done 1
Uradhi No 334 Y 0
Paakantyi no Y-Hannah 0
Pitta-Pitta No 192 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no done-Hannah 0
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta no Done-Hannah 0
Ngiyambaa no Done-Emily 0
Ngayawang Maybe 7 done-Amalia 1
Muruwari no Done-Dan 0
Mayi-Yapi No 34 done 0
Martuthunira no 63-99 done 0
Marrgany No 301 Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 149 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji no 123 Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara No 446 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna No 5 done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu yes 29 Done-Dan 1
Jaru yes 55-6 Done-Amalia 1
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 102 Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr yes 254, 264-5 done-Amalia 1
Gugu-Badhun no done-Jessica 0
Yuwaalaraay No 30 0
Dyirbal yes 44 done-Amalia 1
Duungidjawu yes 25 done 1
Djinang Yes 27 Done-Amalia 1
Djabugay done
Diyari yes 34; 38; 60 done-Hannah 1
Dharawal no 46 done-Hannah w Dhurga) 0
Darkinyung no 16 done 0
Bularnu no Done-Austin 0
Biri no info done-Jessica x
Bidjara-Gungabula no info done-Jessica x
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana no 61 Done-Dan 0
Alyawarr no done 0
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru no Y-Claire 0
Yulparija No 20 Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung no 71 done 0
Mathi-Mathi no 75 done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no 26 done-Amalia 0
Thanggati no 11 done 0
Katthang no 30 done-Amalia 0
Panyjima yes 136 done 1
Ngarinyeri No 18 done-Amalia 0
Kurrama no info done-Dan x
Yingkarta no Done-Claire 0
Githabul yes 8 Done-Amalia 1
Gunya No 301 Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen No 78 Done- 0
WesternTorres yes FO 122 done 1
Wakaya yes 145 done 1
Yindjilindji no 505 done 0
Bandjalang yes 43 Done-Amalia 1
Ngaatjatjara yes 35 done 1
Arrernte No 86 0
Kokatha Yes 52 1
Karajarri No 71 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara Yes Y 11 1
Ritharrngu Yes 34 Done-Amalia 1
Warrgamay No 28 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra yes 881 Done-Amalia 1
Warnman No 14 Done-Amalia 0
Djapu yes 32-3 1
Bilinarra no 1.1000000000000000888 done 0
Wiradjuri yes 23-4 done 1
Aghu-Tharnggala Yes 51 Y2 1
Narungga No 54 done 0
Tharrkari No 15 0
Wajarri Yes 38 1
Warungu yes 165 1
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua yes Payne and Payne 1990:404 Daniel Smith
Baniwa yes Aikhenvald 2001 Baniwa classifiers Patience Epps