Tanimuca

Family
Tukanoan
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
tnc
Location
-0.59°, -70.39°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
Gaviria, Sofia Victoria and Luis José Azcárate. 1979. Fonología y lexicología de la lengua tanimuka. Bogotá: Universidad de los Andes, Facultad de Artes y Ciencias, Departamento de Antropología. Huber, R.; Reed, R. 1992. Comparative vocabulary: selected words in indigenous languages of Colombia. Instituto Linguistico de Verano. Mountain, Kathy. 1978. Lista de Palabras Swadesh y Rowe. Linguística y Campos Apines. Anderson, Martha y Bonnie Brobston, eds. Rodriguez, José Vicente, compiler, and others. 1995. Mamíferos colombianos: sus nombres comunes e indígenas. Bogotá: Conservation International, Fundación Mario Santo Domingo. Strom, Clay. 1992. Retuarã Syntax. (Summer Institute of Linguistics: Publications in Linguistics, 112.) The Summer Institute of Linguistics and the University of Texas at Arlington. (Studies in the Indigenous Languages of Colombia 3).


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location pẽ'bã rõ'õ 'pi pẽ'bã rõ'õ 'pi unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
and y e grammar See Language page Kelsey Neely
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment ũã ũã inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
at en, a em, a location See Language page Kelsey Neely
back espalda costas body pẽ'tea pẽ'tea unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
bad mal mal quality ba'i 'ka ba'i 'ka unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
belly barriga barriga body jẽʔbẽ-ã jẽʔbẽ-ã missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
below abajo, debajo abaixo location missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
big grande grande quality hoʔba 'ka hoʔba 'ka unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
black negro preto colour dẽ'ĩã dẽ'ĩã inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
blood sangre sangue body ri'bea ri'bea inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
bone hueso osso body ũʔ'ã ũʔ'ã inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
breast pecho, seno peito body kã'rĩbã 'kia (chest); ũ'pea (breast) kã'rĩbã 'kia (chest); ũ'pea (breast) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
child niño, niña criança human bẽʔ'rõ (girl); bẽʔ'rĩ (boy); 'bãkĩ 're (boy); bẽʔ'rã 'ka (children) bẽʔ'rõ (girl); bẽʔ'rĩ (boy); 'bãkĩ 're (boy); bẽʔ'rã 'ka (children) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
cloud nube nuvem environment oko u'bãkaka oko u'bãkaka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
cold frío frio quality hi'hia (fem.) hi'hia (fem.) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality ri'ta ri'ta unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
day día dia time ĩ'bĩã ĩ'bĩã inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
dirty sucio sujo quality ka'i-ka kaʔi-ka unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page Kelsey Neely
dry seco seco quality we'i i'taka we'i i'taka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality ro'dyea ro'ʎea See Language page Kelsey Neely
dust polvo poeira environment kaʔ'i u'dyua kaʔ'i u'ʎua See Language page Kelsey Neely
ear oreja orelha body ãʔ'bũã ãʔ'bũã inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
earth/soil tierra terra environment kaʔ'ia kaʔ'ia unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
egg huevo ovo fauna sa ri'a sa ri'a inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
eye ojo olho body dyãʔ'kõã ʎãʔ'kõã inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
far lejos longe quality dyo'e 'rã ʎo'e 'rã inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
fat/grease grasa gordura body ijeba-ka ijeba-ka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
father padre, papá pai kinship aʔ'bi; 'paki 're aʔ'bi; 'paki 're unique; inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
feather pluma pena fauna po'dya po'ʎa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
fire fuego fogo environment pe'ka pe'ka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
flower flor flor environment õ'õ ri'ka õ'õ ri'ka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment rã'bãsi-ka rã'bãsi-ka See Language page Kelsey Neely
fruit fruta fruta flora õ'te ri'kia õ'te ri'kia inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
good bueno bom quality hi'a hi'a unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body po'dya po'ʎa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
hand mano mão body pi'ta 'ka pi'ta 'ka inheritance shared W. Tuk See Language page Kelsey Neely
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar i'ki (he); i'ko (she) i'ki (he); i'ko (she) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
head cabeza cabeça body ru'pu ko'a ru'pu ko'a inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
heavy pesado pesado quality rĩʔ'kĩã; riʔ'ki i'taka rĩʔ'kĩã; riʔ'ki i'taka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
how? como como grammar bãrãkãʔ'ã bãrãkãʔ'ã unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
1sg yo eu grammar dyiʔ'i ʎiʔ'i inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
if si se grammar See Language page Kelsey Neely
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location tõ'si rõ'õ 'rã tõ'si rõ'õ 'rã unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
intestines intestinos intestinos body ita-'pisi-a ita-'pisi-a inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
lake lago lago environment pa'wa pa'wa unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
leaf hoja folha environment pũ'dyũã pũ'ʎũã inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body kã'ko pẽrõ'tõ 'pi kã'ko pẽrõ'tõ 'pi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
leg/foot pierna perna body dyĩkã ʎĩkã inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment bɨ'pó ja'bé-rí-he bɨ'pó ja'bé-rí-he inheritance cf. thunder See Language page Kelsey Neely
liver hígado figado body kaʔ'sia kaʔ'sia unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
long largo comprido, longo quality dyõ'ã 'ka; dyõ'ã I'taka ʎõ'ã 'ka; ʎõ'ã i'taka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna ĩʔ'ĩã ĩʔ'ĩã inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
man/male hombre homem human ĩ'bĩ rĩ'hĩ ĩ'bĩ rĩ'hĩ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
meat/flesh carne carne fauna riʔ'ia riʔ'ia inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
moon luna lua environment aidya'ka aiʎa'ka unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship bãʔ'ĩ; pa'kore; 'pako 're bãʔ'ĩ; pa'kore; 'pako 're inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
mouth boca boca body ri'ho ko'pea ri'ho ko'pea inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
name nombre nome human wã'bẽã wã'bẽã loan into protolanguage, direction unknown Boran, Witotoan, Tukanoan See Language page Kelsey Neely
near/close cerca de perto quality wãʔ'tãrã wãʔ'tãrã unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body See Language page Kelsey Neely
neck cuello pescoço body wã'bũ ro'ka wã'bũ ro'ka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
new nuevo novo quality bã'bã I'taka bã'bã I'taka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
night noche noite time dyã'bĩã ʎã'bĩã inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
no/not no não grammar he dõʔ'õ he dõʔ'õ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
nose nariz nariz body õ'bẽã õ'bẽã unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
old viejo velho quality pakia 'ko (fem); 'pakia 'ki (masc); biki'haka (inan.) pakia 'ko (fem); 'pakia 'ki (masc); biki'haka (inan.) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
one uno um number ĩʔ'rõ ĩʔ'rõ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
other otro outro grammar aʔ'pea aʔ'pea inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body hĩ'dyũ 'ki hĩ'ʎũ 'ki inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
person/human being persona pessoa human põʔĩbã-hã 'people' põʔĩbã-hã 'people' inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
rain lluvia chuva environment o'koa ha'dyua o'koa ha'ʎua inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
red rojo vermelho colour hũ'ã 'ka; hũ'ã i'taka hũ'ã 'ka; hũ'ã i'taka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
right/right hand derecha direita location/body ri'ta pẽrõ'tõ 'pi ri'ta pẽrõ'tõ 'pi unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
road/path camino caminho manufacture bãʔ'ã bãʔ'ã inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
root raíz raiz flora riʔkoa riʔkoa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
rotten podrido podre quality ra 'ba ri'ka ra 'ba ri'ka unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
sand arena areia environment põ'sia põ'sia unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality o'pi 'ki i'taka o'pi 'ki i'taka unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
short corto curto quality dyeʔ'ea; dyeʔ'ea I'taka ʎeʔ'ea; ʎeʔ'ea i'taka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
shoulder hombro ombro body hĩ'hõã hĩ'hõã unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
skin piel pele body a'hea a'hea unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
sky cielo céu environment wehe-'pebã wehe-'pebã unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
small pequeño pequeno quality kũ'pa hĩ'ka kũ'pa hĩ'ka unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
smoke humo fumaça environment ũ'bã ka'ka ũ'bã ka'ka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
star estrella estrela environment tãʔ'pia tãʔ'pia unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora ja'pu-a ja'pu-a unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
stone piedra pedra environment ã'ta ã'ta inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
tail cola, rabo rabo body sa pĩ'koa sa pĩ'koa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
that ese/esa esse grammar iʔsi-a iʔsi-a inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar ĩ'rã ĩ'rã inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality rĩʔ'kĩã rĩʔ'kĩã unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
thin delgado fino quality pi'rua pi'rua unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
this este/esta este grammar i'ko (fem); ĩʔ'rĩ (masc) i'ko (fem); ĩʔ'rĩ (masc) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
2sg xx xx grammar bĩ'ĩ bĩ'ĩ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
throat garganta garganta body wã'bũ tã'sia wã'bũ tã'sia inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
three tres tres number bã'ẽ 'kãrã ka'o bã'ẽ 'kãrã ka'o unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
thunder truenos trovão environment wĩ'põã wĩ'põã inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
bite morder morder body ku'ku ri'ka ku'ku ri'ka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
blow soplar soprar body pu'pu ri'ka (tobacco) pu'pu ri'ka (tobacco) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
breathe respirar respirar body dyia'ta ri'ka ʎia'ta ri'ka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
burn quemar queimar environment ho'e ri'ka ho'e ri'ka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body dyãʔ'kĩ ri'ka ʎãʔ'kĩ ri'ka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
climb subir subir motion bĩ'ã ri'ka bĩ'ã ri'ka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
come venir vir motion iʔ'ta ri'ka iʔ'ta ri'ka unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
cook cocinar cozinhar impact ho'e ri'ka (to grill/ asar); dyo'a ri'ka ho'e ri'ka (to grill/ asar); ʎo'a ri'ka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
count contar contar mental bo'ha ri'ka bo'ha ri'ka unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
cry llorar chorar mental o'ri ri'ka o'ri ri'ka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
cut/hack cortar cortar impact taʔ'te ri'ka; to'a ri'ka taʔ'te ri'ka; to'a ri'ka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
die/be dead morir morrer state re'dya ri'ka (human); 'hĩ'rĩ ri'ka (animal) re'ʎa ri'ka (human); 'hĩ'rĩ ri'ka (animal) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
dig cavar cavar impact he'a-ri-ka he'a-ri-ka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
dream soñar sonhar mental kãrũ'rũ 'rĩ ri'ka kãrũ'rũ 'rĩ ri'ka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
drink beber, tomar beber body u'ku ri'ka u'ku ri'ka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
eat comer comer body baʔ'a ri'ka baʔ'a ri'ka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
fall caer cair motion dyãʔ'ãrĩ ri'ka ʎãʔ'ãrĩ ri'ka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
fear miedo medo mental kĩ'ki ri'ka kĩ'ki ri'ka unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
flow fluir fluir motion hu'ru-ri-ka hu'ru-ri-ka unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
fly volar voar motion ruʔ'ri ri'ka ruʔ'ri ri'ka unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
grow crecer crescer state bi'ki ri'ka bi'ki ri'ka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
hear oír ouvir mental ã'bĩ ti'ri ri'ka ã'bĩ ti'ri ri'ka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
hide esconder esconder motion dyaʔ'e bari ri'ka ʎaʔ'e bari ri'ka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
hit golpear, pegar bater impact pahe ri'ka pahe ri'ka unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other ri'ka-ri-ka ri'ka-ri-ka unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
kill matar matar impact hã'ã ri'ka hã'ã ri'ka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental õrĩ ri'ka õrĩ ri'ka unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
laugh reír rir mental missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion pãdyã ri'ka pãʎã ri'ka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
open/uncover abrir abrir other dyaʔ'a ri'ka ʎaʔ'a ri'ka unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
say decir dizer mental ãrĩ-ri-ka ãrĩ-ri-ka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
scratch rascar rasgar impact missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
see ver ver mental ĩã- ĩã- inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact wadya 'ta ri'ka waʎa 'ta ri'ka unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
sit sentar(se) sentar state ru'pa ri'ka ru'pa ri'ka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
sleep dormir dormir body kã'rĩ ri'ka kã'rĩ ri'ka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body wĩʔ'ĩ ri'ka; hĩ'ã ri'ka wĩʔ'ĩ ri'ka; hĩ'ã ri'ka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
spit escupir cuspir body missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact waʔa-ri-ka waʔa-ri-ka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact tu'i ri'ka; bíʔ ke'be tu'i ri'ka; bíʔ ke'be inheritance; inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact sãke-ri-ka sãke-ri-ka unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state rĩkabã'ri-ri-ka rĩkabã'ri-ri-ka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
steal robar roubar other dyaʔ'e ri'ka ʎaʔ'e ri'ka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
suck chupar chupar body biʔ'bi ri'ka; u'ku ri'ka biʔ'bi ri'ka; u'ku ri'ka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
swell hincharse inchar body pi'pi ri'ka pi'pi ri'ka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
swim nadar nadar motion barí ri'ka barí ri'ka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
think pensar pensar mental pu'pa ho'a ri'ka pu'pa ho'a ri'ka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact waja-'ta-ri-ka, 'ta-ri-ka waja-'ta-ri-ka, 'ta-ri-ka unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact piʔ'pe ri'ka piʔ'pe ri'ka unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other õ'te ri'ka (trans); õ'si bi'I ri'ka (intrans, reflex) õ'te ri'ka (trans); õ'si bi'I ri'ka (intrans, reflex) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
vomit vomitar vomitar body 'po'po-ri-ka 'po'po-ri-ka unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
walk caminar, andar andar motion bẽʔpe bẽʔpe unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
work trabajar trabalhar other ba'irabo ri'ka ba'irabo ri'ka inheritance? See Language page Kelsey Neely
yawn bostezar bocejar body dyaʔ'ta ri'ka ʎaʔ'ta ri'ka unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
tongue lengua lingua body rẽ'rõ ka'ka rẽ'rõ ka'ka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
tooth diente dente body o'pia o'pia inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
two dos dois number ĩʔpõ'õ ĩʔpõ'õ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
water agua agua environment o'koa o'koa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar bãrã bãrã inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar jiha jiha inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
wet mojado molhado quality wiʔi- wiʔi- inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
what? que, qué que grammar daʔko'a daʔko'a inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
when? cuando quando grammar bãrã pa'ti bãrã pa'ti inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
where? donde onde grammar dõʔ'õrã dõʔ'õrã inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
white blanco branco colour bo'ia; bo'ia i'taka bo'ia; bo'ia i'taka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
who? quien, quién quem grammar bã 'ki bã 'ki inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
wife esposa esposa kinship ki 'rũbũ ki 'rũbũ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
wind viento vento environment wĩ'rõã wĩ'rõã inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
wing ala asa body sa kã'hẽã sa kã'hẽã inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
woman/female mujer mulher human rõ'bõ rõ'bõ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
yellow amarillo amarelo colour a're bo'sia; hũ'si po'a a're bo'sia; hũ'si po'a inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
2pl ustedes vocês grammar bĩhã bĩhã inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
foot pie body ũʔ'pua ũʔ'pua inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
all todo todos other ri'taha ri'taha inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
ankle tobillo tornozelo body missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
armpit axila, sobaco axila body missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body iʔ'ta iʔ'ta inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
lung pulmón pulmão body wi'a wi'a unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
sweat sudar suor, suar body missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body See Language page Kelsey Neely
bark corteza casca environment dya'pu a'hea ʎa'pu a'hea unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
fingernail uña unha body bãbã'rãhẽã bãbã'rãhẽã inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
heart corazón coração body õ'dyĩbã 'kia õ'ʎĩbã 'kia unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
sun sol sol time aidya'ka aiʎa'ka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment pu'sia pu'sia doubtful loan, direction unknown Yagua See Language page Kelsey Neely
green verde verde quality hĩʔ'bĩã hĩʔ'bĩã inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
hot caliente quente quality I'hi I'taka; I'hi 'a i'hi i'taka; i'hi 'a inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. odyóa oʎóa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna wĩʔ'dyã 'ka; wĩʔ'dyã 'ka wĩʔ'ʎã 'ka; wĩʔ'ʎã 'ka inheritance but cf. Tupi-Guarani See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. wẽ'jĩri-ka wẽ'jĩri-ka inheritance See Language page Amazonia Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. dã'hẽã dã'hẽã doubtful loan into protolanguage North Arawak See Language page Widespread Amazonia Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans missing See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. ku'dyuwika ku'ʎuwika loan - WW %kujuwi / %kurutsi See Language page Different types have different localized ranges Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae ã'kaka ã'kaka inheritance See Language page Widespread Amazonia Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae bĩrĩ pi'ka bĩrĩ pi'ka inheritance See Language page Widespread Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes pu'pe ti'ka pu'pe ti'ka doubtful loan into protolg - WW? onomatopoeic? %pupu See Language page Widespread Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. maa maa inheritance See Language page Widespread Amazonia Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica pa'koro 'ka pa'koro 'ka loan - WW %kuli, via Yucuna See Language page Widespread Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae o'koi pa'koa o'koi pa'koa doubtful loan - WW Yucuna, %motkuku See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae a'waka a'waka unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae wa'juri-ka wa'juri-ka loan - WW Arawak See Language page Widespread South America Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba buʔ'dya bo'ia buʔ'ʎa bo'ia unique See Language page Widespread South America Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris wi'o pa'ki, dya'i 'we ko'a (dya'i 'tigre') wi'o pa'ki semantic shift/calque/loan w/in ET? from jaguar + ? See Language page Not native; widespread Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis See Language page Widespread Amazonia Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) wẽ'ã 'ka wẽ'ã 'ka inheritance See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri pa'bũ-ã pa'bũ-ã inheritance See Language page Widespread in Amazonia Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. kahu dya'ia ['caiman-jaguar'], kahu (Strom92) kahu ʎa'ia ('caiman-jaguar'). kahu (Strom92) loan Yucuna kahju See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna waʔ'ia waʔ'ia inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. ua ua See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae bũ'dyũã bũ'ʎũã inheritance See Language page Widespread Amazonia Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura ũ'bã 'ka (frog); uru'uru riká (venemous toad) ũ'bã 'ka (frog); uru'uru riká (venemous toad) See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. ju'adã-'ka ju'adã-'ka inheritance See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata rupu dya'ia rupu ʎa'ia loan Yucuna lupu See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura ã'bĩã ã'bĩã inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes ã'jã-pakia-'ka ã'jã-pakia-'ka See Language page Widespread Amazonia Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae ã'jã-pakia-'ka ã'jã-pakia-'ka doubtful loan Ashuar pangkí See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna ã'dyã 'ka ã'ʎã 'ka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox ri'a dyu'ia ri'a ʎu'ia See Language page Widespread South America Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria o'ia (river); 'pare ki'ka (land) o'ia (river); 'pare ki'ka (land) doubtful loan, direction unknown Andoke pádə See Language page Widespread Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis missing See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) eʔ'toa; riho'o ri'ka (edible mushroom) eʔ'toa; riho'o ri'ka (edible mushroom) unknown See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. pi'pi ri'ta hũ'kia pi'pi ri'ta hũ'kia inheritance See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa dẽ'ẽã ri'ka dẽ'ẽã ri'ka inheritance See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana missing See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes ĩ'rẽã ĩ'rẽã inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua dyõ'bĩ bã'kãra'ka ʎõ'bĩ bã'kãra'ka See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca tã'ã pi'ka tã'ã pi'ka inheritance See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) jũʔ'ta-ka jũʔ'ta-ka semantic shift original meaning kapok See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens bi'a bi'a inheritance See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea See Language page plant Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus bã'ẽru'ka bãẽru'ka loan - WW %mawino (from Yukuna) See Language page plant Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum kãrã kãrã See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. pa'ru-a pa'ru-a loan Carib, via Yucuna See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. missing See Language page plant Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) ta'dya ta'ʎa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays o'aka o'aka semantic shift (in protolg?) from banana; cf. Hup, Bora See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum bĩʔ'rõã bĩʔ'rõã inheritance See Language page plant Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna ĩ'bĩrã ĩ'bĩrã unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana bũ'ha bũ'ha inheritance See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. missing See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana ũ'dyũã ũ'ʎũã See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana missing See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. wã'hõã wã'hõã See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui pu'pa 'ka pu'pa 'ka See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia missing See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta kia kia inheritance See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta missing See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas jãʔ'pi-a jãʔ'pi-a inheritance See Language page plant Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. dyãʔ'bũã dyãʔ'bũã See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. dyãʔ'bũã dyãʔ'bũã See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) koʔ'a ('gourd', H&R) koʔ'a ('gourd', H&R) See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. missing See Language page plant Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. e'dyo bĩ'hĩã e'ʎo bĩ'hĩã inheritance See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi ka'pi-a ka'pi-a loan - WW %kaapi See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata pã'ta 'ka; 'kãka pã'ta 'ka; 'kãka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. bẽ'kã 'ka bẽ'kã 'ka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis bã'pã 'ka bã'pã 'ka loan Arawak mapa See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria a'rowa'ka a'rowa'ka loan - WW %arawe See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera tĩrã 'ka tĩrã 'ka unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera bu'bu ti'ka bu'bu ti'ka See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora wã'hũã wã'hũã inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones kũãparãka kũãparãka unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera kõ'rẽ ri'ka kõ'rẽ ri'ka unique metathesis? See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera be'koa be'koa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae dyĩ'bĩã ʎĩ'bĩã unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. bĩ'rĩã bĩ'rĩã inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera bu'tua bu'tua inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea o'dya 'ka o'ʎa 'ka unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita ũ'si wiʔ'ia ũ'si wiʔ'ia inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda koʔ'be ro'ka koʔ'be ro'ka doubtful loan Arawak? see Cayapa; shared Cubeo See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae pi'pia pi'pia inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca dya'ia (tigre) ʎa'ia (tigre) doubtful loan into protolanguage, direction unknown Arawak (Chacon reconstructs); cf. TG *jawar See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha se'ra 'ka, tseraca (R95) se'ra 'ka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] i'hi-a i'hi-a loan Arawak, cf. Piapoco ìisi; s > h regular in Tanimuca See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella tankiya (R95) tankija (R95) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons tanque boya (R95) tanque boja (R95) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus cuhuatacá (R95) kuwatacá (R95) loan - WW %kowata See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis ria-'jaʔ'u-a ria-'jaʔ'u-a See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis eʔ'sua eʔ'sua unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu hẽ'ka'pera-ka hẽ'ka'pera-ka unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari hẽ'hẽ-ã hẽ'hẽ-ã inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. bu'i-a bu'i-a inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris ke'hu-a ke'hu-a inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) hẽ'bẽ-ã hẽ'bẽ-ã inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus beʔ'ia (rat) beʔ'ia (rat) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae bẽ'rẽri'ka bẽ'rẽri'ka loan Carib? via Yucuna See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris wa'I wi'ki rã'kã wa'I wi'ki rã'kã inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus dyã'bã 'ka (similar to tripod) ʎã'bã 'ka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material piʔ'ia piʔ'ia inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material See Language page Kelsey Neely
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
bed cama cama culture-material kãrã-rũ'ki-a kãrã-rũ'ki-a missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material pãũã pãũã inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material ru'pari kũ'bũã ru'pari kũ'bũã inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
canoe canoa canoa transport kũ'bũã kũ'bũã loan - WW %kumu See Language page Kelsey Neely
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture missing Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Kelsey Neely
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology japu-'taʔsi-a japu-'taʔsi-a unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology dye'e wi'ki ʎe'e wi'ki semantic shift? from 'jaguar'? In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Kelsey Neely
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Kelsey Neely
broom escoba vassoura culture-material missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology ha'riro a'ka ha'riro a'ka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
fence, palisade cerco cerca other missing may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Kelsey Neely
firewood leña lenha other pe'ka pe'ka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Kelsey Neely
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology missing In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Kelsey Neely
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology missing multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Kelsey Neely
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology See Language page Kelsey Neely
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page Kelsey Neely
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page Kelsey Neely
knife cuchillo faca culture-material wiʔ'ru pã'ĩã wiʔ'ru pã'ĩã inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
machete machete facão culture-material saa'ra saa'ra loan - WW %sipara/sapere See Language page Kelsey Neely
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool ãta kõ'bẽã ãta kõ'bẽã inheritance especially for clearing fields See Language page Kelsey Neely
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool pu'a ka'ka pu'a ka'ka inheritance? hunting, warfare See Language page Kelsey Neely
spear lanza lança subsistence tool be'ho-a be'ho-a inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
bow arco arco subsistence tool tẽbũ pã'ĩã tẽbũ pã'ĩã inheritance arco See Language page Kelsey Neely
paddle/oar remo remo transport weʔ'ru pã'ĩã weʔ'ru pã'ĩã inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
plate plato prato culture-material se'roa se'roa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool ho'toa ho'toa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool hõ'tia hõ'tia inheritance agriculture? See Language page Kelsey Neely
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology hãhã hãhã inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
wax cera cera other missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
honey miel mel food bũ'bĩã bũ'bĩã inheritance only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Kelsey Neely
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page Kelsey Neely
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture dyũ'tã kã'rõã ʎũ'tã kã'rõã inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page Kelsey Neely
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Kelsey Neely
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page Kelsey Neely
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology See Language page Kelsey Neely
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page Kelsey Neely
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology See Language page Kelsey Neely
school escuela escola acculturation See Language page Kelsey Neely
bottle botella garrafa acculturation pa'dyeru ho'toa pa'djeru ho'toa See Language page Kelsey Neely
paper papel papel acculturation pa'pera pa'pera loan Span/Port 'papel' See Language page Kelsey Neely
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology o'o bã'kã o'o bã'kã See Language page Kelsey Neely
chicken gallina galinha acculturation kãrã kãrã loan - WW %kara See Language page Kelsey Neely
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology See Language page Kelsey Neely
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other See Language page Kelsey Neely
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation See Language page Kelsey Neely
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
shoes zapatos sapatos dress ũʔpu ko'a ũʔpu ko'a See Language page Kelsey Neely
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page Kelsey Neely
soldier soldado soldado acculturation missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
cat gato gato acculturation missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation pe'ka pe'ka calque from 'fire' See Language page Kelsey Neely
hat sombero chapéu dress sa'pewa sa'pewa loan Port chapeu See Language page Kelsey Neely
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology ĩ'pi ĩ'pi inheritance? cf. %apu See Language page Kelsey Neely
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool See Language page Kelsey Neely
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress See Language page Kelsey Neely
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page Kelsey Neely
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool See Language page Kelsey Neely
salt sal sal food dyu'kira dju'kira loan - WW %jukira See Language page Kelsey Neely
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology ba'dya ba'dja inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool pu'pu o'ka pu'pu o'ka inheritance currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Kelsey Neely
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool pua ka'ka pua ka'ka hunting and warfare See Language page Kelsey Neely
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool missing esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Kelsey Neely
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food wa'i ba'a ri'ka wa'i ba'a ri'ka See Language page Kelsey Neely
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food waʔ'ia pu'a ri'ka waʔ'ia pu'a ri'ka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
hunt cazar caçar food hã'ã ri'ka hã'ã ri'ka See Language page Kelsey Neely
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food missing Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Kelsey Neely
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool koʔ'a ('gourd', H&R) koʔ'a ('gourd', H&R) inheritance? See Language page Kelsey Neely
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool missing esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Kelsey Neely
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool See Language page Kelsey Neely
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture kãrã o'koa; ĩ'rẽ o'koa kãrã o'koa; ĩ'rẽ o'koa unique cane/peach-palm water' prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Kelsey Neely
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food ã'ũ bu'rua ã'ũ bu'rua doubtful loan - WW %porowa agriculture See Language page Kelsey Neely
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food ã'ũã ã'ũã inheritance usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Kelsey Neely
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food we'ta we'ta inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food pa'ru kã'bũã pa'ru kã'bũã loan, direction unknown Arawak (Baniwa) agriculture See Language page Kelsey Neely
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food missing word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Kelsey Neely
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool dyã'bã 'ka ʎã'bã 'ka agriculture See Language page Kelsey Neely
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool rã'bĩ 'taka rã'bĩ 'taka loan - WW? %namo hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Kelsey Neely
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool pe'pea; 'biʔkeri pe'pea pe'pea; 'biʔkeri pe'pea inheritance agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Kelsey Neely
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Kelsey Neely
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool See Language page Kelsey Neely
bottom grinding stone manufacture if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Kelsey Neely
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page Kelsey Neely
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Kelsey Neely
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page Kelsey Neely
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page Kelsey Neely
house other wiʔ'i-a wiʔ'i-a inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely


Grammatical Data (226)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. yes Gaviria p.51 Chris Clack
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] no Strom 1992, p.12 Chris Clack Neither consonant clusters nor closed syllables are permitted except that a glottal stop may occur following any vowel.
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast no Strom 1992, p.12 Chris Clack
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? yes I checked Gaviria and found NO evidence (although it is not as clear a source; p.75-85 in Gav.) Strom; 1992; p.12 Chris Clack
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels no Strom 1992, p.11-22 Chris Clack
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme no Neither consonant clusters nor closed syllables are permitted except that a glottal stop may follow a vowel Strom 1992, p.21 Chris Clack
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] yes The Retuarã syllable conforms to the pattern: (C)V(V)(V). Strom 1992, p.21 Chris Clack
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? no (C)V(V)(V) Strom 1992, p.21 Chris Clack
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones yes Stressed syllables often occur with raised pitch.(high/low level) Strom 1992, p.13 Chris Clack
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? yes Stress is phonemic Strom 1992, p.13 Chris Clack
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments no Strom 1992, p.19-20 Chris Clack
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? yes Nasalization spreads both progressively and regressively. Nasal spreading is blocked by obstruents (except /dy/) Strom 1992, p.20 Chris Clack
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony no Strom 1992, p.22 Chris Clack
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] no Strom 1992, p.67-70 Chris Clack
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone no Strom 1992, p.21 Chris Clack There are very few morphophonemic changes in the language. The person prefixes display most of these changes.
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word yes Strom 1992, p.5 Chris Clack
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no The only prefixes in the language are cliticized subject pronouns and one nonhuman object pronoun. Strom 1992, p.5 Chris Clack
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes yes Affixation is done overwhelmingly by suffix. Strom 1992, p.5 Chris Clack The person marker prefixes are the only prefixes of the language.
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different no Strom 1992, p.5 Chris Clack
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated no Strom 1992, p.62 Chris Clack
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated yes Strom 1992, p.55 Chris Clack
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced yes Strom 1992, p.24 Chris Clack
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection no Strom 1992, p.32 Chris Clack
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word yes Strom 1992, p.32 Chris Clack
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' no In addition to the main verb, subject markers (prefix and suffix), object marker (prefix), negative and causative affixes, the verb phrase also includes the adjuncts; Auxiliary verb, tense, aspect, mood, intensifiers, evidentials, and subordinating suffix Strom 1992, p.38 Chris Clack epps-may be obligatory (like do in english whereas 27 would be more like can, should, may, etc.
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs yes baa The auxiliary verb baa 'do, make' is used to create a construction that indicates imminence. Strom 1992, p.38 Chris Clack The auxiliary takes the tense suffic while the content verb takes the subject prefix.
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment yes Sometimes objects and instruments are incorporated into the verb. The incorporated constituent directly precedes the verb root. Strom 1992, p.100 Chris Clack The incorporation of the object may can reduce the valence of the verb to make it grammatically instransitive.
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns no Strom 1992, p.100 Chris Clack
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP yes Relative clauses, dependent clauses, and nearly every noun is marked as a nominal with a number/gender suffix. Strom 1992, p.10 Chris Clack
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders 3 Nouns are categorized according to animacy, number, and gender. Strom 1992, p.10 Chris Clack
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. yes Whereas noun class and predicate adjective categorization have relevance outside the NP, classifiers categorize nouns within the NP according to gender, number, animacy, and shape function. Strom 1992, p.11. Chris Clack The six classes include: masculine and animate singular, feminine singular, masculine and animate dual, masculine and animate plural, feminine plural, and inanimate.
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter yes Strom 1992, p.10 Chris Clack
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates no Strom 1992, p.10 Chris Clack
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human yes Strom 1992, p.45-47 Chris Clack 1. Neuter (nonhuman or inanimate) 2. Human masculine singular 3. Human feminine singular 4. Human plural
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only yes Strom 1992, p.34 Chris Clack
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates no Strom 1992, p.54 Chris Clack
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates yes Strom 1992, p.11 Chris Clack
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" yes In some cases, the head of the noun phrase appears to be copied onto the modifier to create the classifier (but drops the nominalizer.) Strom 1992, p.55 Chris Clack
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals no Classifiers occur obligatory bound to numerals and optionally to adjectives and demonstratives. Strom 1992, p.54 Chris Clack
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' yes The affix -ri occurs after a verb root and has the function of deverbalization Strom 1992, p.41-42 Chris Clack
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups no Strom 1992, p.46-47 Chris Clack
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun yes Strom 1992, p.46-47 Chris Clack
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no Strom 1992, p.46-47 Chris Clack
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun no Strom 1992, p.46-47 Chris Clack
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic no Strom 1992, p.46-47 Chris Clack
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only yes -rã, -bãki, -korã There are 3 animate plural markers for numbers; -rã '2', -bãki '2+masc.', -korã 'fem' Strom 1992, p.54-56 Chris Clack Attached to the classifier which procedes the head of the NP.
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns no Strom 1992, p.60 Chris Clack
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' no Strom 1992, p.50-57 Chris Clack
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only no There are demonstratives but no definite or indefinite articles. Strom 1992, p.51 Chris Clack
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness no Strom 1992, p.51 Chris Clack
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker no Retuarã has no definite or indefinite article. Strom 1992, p.127 Chris Clack
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you yes yiha, bãrã This free form of the pronoun generally occurs as an abbreviated answer to a question, or when it is the subject of certain types of clauses.(yiha-1p pl excl. bãrã-1p pl inclusive) Strom 1992, p.34 Chris Clack The personal pronouns are not frequently used, perhaps because the person marker prefixes are preferred.
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) yes yiha-, bãrã- The forms occur prefixed to the verb root that begins with a consonant. Before a vowel, the last vowel of the prefix may be deleted or assimilated. Strom 1992, p.36 Chris Clack The rules differ somewhat for each morpheme.
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system 2 Strom 1992, p.52 Chris Clack The locative pronouns 'here' and 'there'
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) no Strom 1992, p.51 Chris Clack
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns yes Strom 1992, p.34 Chris Clack
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns no Strom 1992, p.34 Chris Clack
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no Strom 1992, p.34 Chris Clack
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no Strom 1992, p.34 Chris Clack
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix no The only overt method to express a reflexive is to use poʔia 'body' as the object. Strom 1992, p.133 Chris Clack Overtyly marked reflexives are rare in Retuarã. Instead, when the subject receives he action of a verb that could be transitive, the absence of an object noun phrase makes the reflexive implicit.
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients yes The case markers are postposition clitics on the last word in the noun phrase. Strom 1992, p.59 Chris Clack Case markers indicate the relationship of a noun phrase to the verb of a clause (also marks the relationship between two noun phrases in the same clause in the case of accompaniment.)
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun 8 Retuarã uses postpositions to mark case using the eight markers; -re/-te 'Term', -rã 'Loc', -reka 'Loc.Spec', -ka-gener/number 'Abl', -pe 'Instr', -ka 'Com', -rʔsi 'Ben', -ri-gender/number 'Poss' Strom 1992, p.37 Chris Clack
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are no Strom 1992, p.37 Chris Clack
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) no Strom 1992, p.59-61 Chris Clack
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates yes animates Strom 1992, p.59-61 Chris Clack The suffix -re marks subjects or objects which are human or referred to by a proper name.
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic no The case markers are postposition clitics on the last word in the noun phrase. Strom 1992, p.59 Chris Clack
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic no Strom 1992, p.59 Chris Clack
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic no Strom 1992, p.59 Chris Clack
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change no Strom 1992, p.59-67 Chris Clack
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone no Strom 1992, p.59-67 Chris Clack
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' no -pi, -ka The case marker -pi indicates instrument and -ka is used to indicate both coparticipant and conjunction. Strom 1992, p.63-64 Chris Clack
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 no Strom 1992, p.50 Chris Clack -rã (dual)
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 yes The number system is base five until the number twenty. Strom 1992, p.50 Chris Clack
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 no Strom 1992, p.50 Chris Clack The Retuarã numbers one through ten are still widely used.
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. yes After twenty, counting is by increments of twenty. Strom 1992, p.50 Chris Clack
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' no Strom 1992, p.50 Chris Clack
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no The Retuarã numbers one through ten are still widely used. Strom 1992, p.50 Chris Clack
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no Strom 1992, p.50 Chris Clack The number constructions are long and cumbersome, even for native speakers so that young men may consult older men about accurate pronunciation of numbers between eleven and twenty.
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival yes Strom 1992, p.41-42 Chris Clack
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival yes Strom 1992, p.41-42 Chris Clack
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? no Strom 1992, p.66 Chris Clack
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? yes -rika The case marker -rika 'possessive' comes from the verb rika 'to have' and marks a normally human noun phrase as a possessor or owner. Strom 1992, p.66 Chris Clack
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' yes Strom 1992, p.66 Chris Clack
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' no Strom 1992, p.66 Chris Clack
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities yes The case marker -rika 'possessive' comes from the verb rika 'to have' and marks a normally human noun phrase as a possessor or owner. Strom 1992, p.66-67 Chris Clack The possessive case marker agrees in gender and number with the possessed object.
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no Strom 1992, p.66-67 Chris Clack
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no Strom 1992, p.66-67 Chris Clack
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form no Strom 1992, p.66-67 Chris Clack
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father no Strom 1992, p.66-67 Chris Clack
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg no Strom 1992, p.66-67 Chris Clack
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) no Strom 1992, p.66-67 Chris Clack
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes yes Strom 1992, p.24 Chris Clack
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco no The great majority of both adjectives and nouns end with the neuter noun class suffixes -a or -ka Strom 1992, p.23-27 Chris Clack
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb no Strom 1992, p.72-83 Chris Clack Participles marked with -eʔka involve tense and imply an event.(p.87)
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb no Strom 1992, p.158 Chris Clack
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb yes Retuarã allows a variety of object complements, that is, clauses embedded as the object of the verb. Strom 1992, p.158 Chris Clack
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective no Strom 1992, p.28-33 Chris Clack
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' yes The case-marker -ka 'comitative', indicates both coparticipant and conjunction. Strom 1992, p.64-65 Chris Clack
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere yes Strom 1992, p.73 Chris Clack
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past yes Immediate/Recent/Remote and General Past Strom 1992, p.73-74 Chris Clack
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future no Unlike the past tenses, there are no distinctions that depend on the proximity of the projected event to the moment of speaking. Strom 1992, p.75 Chris Clack Future tense is indicated by the suffix -rãyu.
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) yes Future tense is indicated by the suffix -rãyu. Strom 1992, p.75 Chris Clack The future tense has a nominalized form that is used for future descriptions or conditions; the form is composed of -rã (future) plus a number/gender suffix.
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no Strom 1992, p.38 Chris Clack
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes Strom 1992, p.70 Chris Clack
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no Strom 1992, p.38 Chris Clack
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no Strom 1992, p.70 Chris Clack
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood yes Retuarã has second-person imperatives, indirect & negative imperatives, horatory forms, and third-person imperatives. Strom 1992, p.135 Chris Clack
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) no Strom 1992, p.135-139 Chris Clack The indirect imperative is also used for courtesy; it seems to soften a command.
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses yes Strom 1992, p.40 Chris Clack In declarative or interrogative sentences, the suffix -be negates the clause and follows the verb root (scopes the whole sent.) Negation of imperatives is accomplished by suffixing -aʔsi to the verb root, and constituents are negated by the neg. verb bã
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' no Strom 1992, p.137 Chris Clack
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something no Strom 1992, p.81 Chris Clack
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction no Strom 1992, p.81-82 Chris Clack
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking no Strom 1992, p.81-82 Chris Clack
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis yes -hi˜ Strom 1992, p.82 Chris Clack
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction no Strom 1992, p.82 Chris Clack
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking no Strom 1992, p.82 Chris Clack
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected no Strom 1992, p.82-83 Chris Clack
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") yes -kope The modal -kope(contra-expectation) indicates a situation where the expected result of some proposition is frustrated and does not occur. Strom 1992, p.82-83 Chris Clack
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality yes -wai The habitual aspect suffix -wai does not indicate an event as occurring at a specific time but rather as charactericitc of all time. Strom 1992, p.77 Chris Clack
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' yes -aʔsi The negative imperative can also be used with first- and third-person subjects, in which case it means 'lest'. Strom 1992, p.137 Chris Clack
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' yes Strom 1992, p.80 Chris Clack There are four modal suffixes which indicate non-actual (irrealis) events.
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative no Strom 1992, p.80-83 Chris Clack
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. yes -raʔa, -waʔ, -ta There are three directionals that suffix directly to the verb root. Strom 1992, p.88 Chris Clack -raʔa 'toward', -waʔ'away', -ta 'vertical'
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker no Strom 1992, p.90-91 Chris Clack Unlike many Tucanoan languages, the evidential system in Retuarã is small and not frequently used.
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) yes -ko The affix -ko(auditory) follows the verb stem and indicates that the source of information for the statement is auditory. Strom 1992, p.90 Chris Clack
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. yes -rihi The evidential affix -rihi (assumed) indicates that the basis for the speaker's statement is assumption. Strom 1992, p.90 Chris Clack
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' yes -re This evidential indicates that the source of the information is not first hand; he or she is just passing on what was reported to him or her. Strom 1992, p.91 Chris Clack
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse no Strom 1992, p.90-91 Chris Clack
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above no Strom 1992, p.90-91 Chris Clack Whereas in other Tucanoan languages, evidentials are a mandatory feature of the independent verb, in Retuarã the evidentials are optional.
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic yes Strom 1992, p.90-91 Chris Clack
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs no Strom 1992, p.90-91 Chris Clack
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle no Strom 1992, p.90-91 Chris Clack
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme no Strom 1992, p.90-91 Chris Clack
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion no Strom 1992, p.69-71 Chris Clack
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction no Strom 1992, p.90-91 Chris Clack
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order no SOV Strom 1992, p.3 Chris Clack Word order is rigid only for the subject, which, apart from negative decalaritives, occurs before other major constituents.
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject no The basic constituents of an intransitive sentence are an intransitive verb preceded by a free subject or a subject prefix. Strom 1992, p.112 Chris Clack
Word Order VS in transitive clauses no Strom 1992, p.114 Chris Clack The basic order of a transitive clause is SOV.
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object no In a transitive clause, the object often precedes the verb. Strom 1992, p.111 Chris Clack
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject no A subject noun phrase precedes the object so that in potentially ambiguous sentences where the subject and object cannot be distinguished by case marking nor semantic clues, they are distinguished by word order. Strom 1992, p.114 Chris Clack
Word Order Preposition-Noun no Strom 1992, p.126 Chris Clack
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes Noun phrases may be case-marked by postposition suffixes attached to the last word in the phrase. Strom 1992, p.53 Chris Clack
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) yes Strom 1992, p.131 Chris Clack
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') no Strom 1992, p.131 Chris Clack
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun yes The adjective generally precedes the head in Retuarã. Strom 1992, p.51 Chris Clack
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun no Strom 1992, p.51 Chris Clack Adjectives may follow the noun, however, and such phrases in isolation may be interpreted as a noun phrase or as a descriptive clause with a predicate adj and an implicit copula.
Word Order Dem-Noun yes As modifiers they precede the head in a noun phrase but like adjectives, they follow the head noun when used as a predicate. Strom 1992, p.52 Chris Clack
Word Order Noun-Dem no Strom 1992, p.52 Chris Clack when used as a predicate
Word Order Num-Noun yes Numerals preced the head and have an obligatory classifier follwing the numeral. Strom 1992, p.50 Chris Clack
Word Order Noun-Num no Strom 1992, p.50 Chris Clack
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies no Strom 1992, p.151 Chris Clack Relative clauses are not common.
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies no Internally-headed construction. Strom 1992, p.151 Chris Clack
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') yes Clauses may be subordinated as internally headed relative clauses, object complements, or adverbial clauses. Strom 1992, p.151 Chris Clack
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' no Strom 1992, p.151 Chris Clack
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause yes Strom 1992, p.141 Chris Clack
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects yes Strom 1992, p.112-114 Chris Clack
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked no Strom 1992, p.114 Chris Clack
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker no Strom 1992, p.112-116 Chris Clack
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no Strom 1992, p.112-116 Chris Clack
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no Strom 1992, p.112-113 Chris Clack
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative yes When the subject and object are both pronouns (animate), the pronoun marked with -re is the object or recipient. Strom 1992, p.114 Chris Clack
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative no Strom 1992, p.114 Chris Clack Subject pronouns are usually cliticized and prefixed to the verb (and thus are not case-marked.
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Strom 1992, p.114 Chris Clack
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no Strom 1992, p.114 Chris Clack
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no Strom 1992, p.114 Chris Clack
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs yes Strom 1992, p.112-117 Chris Clack
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Strom 1992, p.112-117 Chris Clack
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive no Strom 1992, p.112-117 Chris Clack
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) no Chris Clack
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. no Chris Clack
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects no Subject pronouns are usually cliticized and prefixed to the verb. Strom 1992, p.115 Chris Clack Free subject pronouns are always postverbal in negative declaritive sentences.
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) yes Subject pronouns are usually cliticized and prefixed to the verb (and thus are not case-marked.) Strom 1992, p.114 Chris Clack
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Strom 1992, p.114 Chris Clack
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no Strom 1992, p.114 Chris Clack
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no Strom 1992, p.115 Chris Clack
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes no Strom 1992, p.112 Chris Clack
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers yes Subject pronouns are usually cliticized and prefixed to the verb. Strom 1992, p.114 Chris Clack
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers yes It is also common to have just the object pronoun prefixed to the verb when the subject is a full noun phrase. Strom 1992, p.116 Chris Clack It appears you can have both subj and object marked on verb (just not at the same time)
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no Strom 1992, p.116 Chris Clack
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no Strom 1992, p.116 Chris Clack
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately no Strom 1992,p.114-117 Chris Clack
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes yes Strom 1992, p.129-131 Chris Clack
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent no 3rd person only Strom 1992,p.36 Chris Clack
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently no Strom 1992, p.118 Chris Clack
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives yes Ditransitive verbs take two objects. Strom 1992, p.118 Chris Clack The roles of the object noun phrases are semantically interpreted, not grammatically marked.
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently no Strom 1992, p.118 Chris Clack
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. yes -bua Reciprocality may be overtly marked by -bua (reciprcal) following the verb root. Strom 1992, p.99 Chris Clack As with reflexives, some verbs are inherently reciprocal.
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. yes poʔia Overtly marked reflexives are rare in Retuarã. Strom 1992, p.133 Chris Clack Instead, when the subject receives the action of a verb that could be transitive, the absence of an object noun phrase makes the reflexive implicit.
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb no Strom 1992, p.133 Chris Clack
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted yes -reʔka Strom 1992, p.31 Chris Clack The subject can be both agent and patient.
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no Strom 1992, p.28 Chris Clack
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency no Some intransitive verbs are the product of object incorporation which reduces the valence of transitive verbs. Strom 1992, p.31 Chris Clack
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb no Strom 1992, p.65 Chris Clack
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb no Strom 1992, p.65 Chris Clack
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb no Strom 1992, p.92 Chris Clack
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb yes -rõhe and -ta The morphological causitive is formed by adding a causative suffix immediately after the verb root. Strom 1992, p.92 Chris Clack The causee is the object or recipient of the verb.
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix no There are evidences of a variety of past processes of causative formation that are no longer productive. Strom 1992, p.92 Chris Clack
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization no Strom 1992, p.100 Chris Clack
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' no Strom 1992, p.96 Chris Clack
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event no Strom 1992,p.92-100 Chris Clack
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency no Strom 1992,p.92-100 Chris Clack
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element no Strom 1992, p.145 Chris Clack
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element yes Strom 1992, p.145 Chris Clack
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix yes -be Sentence negation is expressed by the verbal suffix -be which immegiately follows the verb root Strom 1992, p.145 Chris Clack
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle no Strom 1992, p.145 Chris Clack
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb yes Strom 1992, p.147 Chris Clack
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' no Strom 1992, p.145 Chris Clack
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' no Strom 1992, p.145 Chris Clack
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase no Strom 1992, p.146 Chris Clack
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle yes yahe, bai Questions are formed by adding a question marker to an indicative clause. The question marker is usually clause initial. Strom 1992, p.141 Chris Clack Yahe does not occur in negative questions. Bai extends only to constituents of the sentence and can occur in positive or negative
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology no Strom 1992, p.141 Chris Clack
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no Strom 1992, p.141 Chris Clack
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only no Strom 1992, p.141 Chris Clack Typically the intonation of a question rises slightly at the end.
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) no Strom 1992, p.141 Chris Clack
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position no Strom 1992, p.51 Chris Clack
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position yes In isolation may be interpreted as a noun phrase or as a descriptive clause with a predicate adjective and an implicit copula. Strom 1992, p.51 Chris Clack
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) yes Predicate nominals can also be formed using a deictic pronoun or a personal pronoun when the copula is omitted. Strom 1992, p.129 Chris Clack The copula in Retuarã is the verb ibã.
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) yes When relativizing into the subject, object, or recipient and the head of the relative clause is pronominal, rather than full NP, the pronoun is omitted and the head is referred to only by the number/gender suffix Strom 1992, p.151-154 Chris Clack Relative clauses in Retuarã are not common. headless relative with number/gender inflection
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. no Strom 1992, p.151 Chris Clack
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause no Strom 1992, p.151 Chris Clack
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix yes Strom 1992, p.152 Chris Clack
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) yes Strom 1992, p.152 Chris Clack
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) no Strom 1992, p.159-170 Chris Clack
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. no Strom 1992,p.151-158 Chris Clack
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined no Strom 1992,p.159-161 Chris Clack
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence yes -baraka, -tirã The suffix -baraka indicates that the event of the subordinate clause is simultaneous with the event of the matrix clause. The suffix -tirã indicates that the event of the subordinate clause immediately precedes the event of the matrix clause. Strom 1992, p.169 Chris Clack


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Linguistic exogamy